Sunday, August 31, 2008

Chaperones , Unpacking and Asthma

Chaperones , Unpacking and Asthma
Andre Willers
31 Aug 2008

Essential reading :
“New jobs for ancient chaperones” by P K Srivastava ,
Scientific American July 2008 p32 “Unpacking” , “Orders of Randomness” , “Orders of Randomness 2”

In “Unpacking” , no mechanism was proposed for the unpacking-packing .

No formal proof was given that Higher Orders of Randomness are more likely than lower ones . A quick intuitive proof is that a stab at a numberline will most likely give an irrational number . (There are more aleph(1) irrational numbers than aleph(0) rational ones)

Unpacking is biased along probability lines (ie along orders of randomness) .
This is the basis of quantum and string theory .

Strings of amino acids are initially folded at Beth(0) random .
Higher orders of randomness are strings that guide other strings . Chaperones . Agents, Lobbyists ,Teachers . The DNA coding for these molecules survive at a higher rate because they take a percentage . They partake in the process in a partial way . If they evolve further they become catalysts or hormones .

This does not violate Second Law of Thermodynamics because the complexity is open-ended .
You can always find a Beth(n+1) for any Beth(n) . (True , because A+(~A)
Heat Shock Proteins (HSP)
A well-known class of these molecules are Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) . Initially identified by their role in heat-stress , but now identified as key players in the folding of proteins and the immune system .

The amino-acid chains are delivered by the ribosome factories in tangled , random folded shapes . They are unfolded (unpacked) by the chaperones and nudged (packed) to desired shapes by other chaperones .

The ribosome factories can be likened to steel furnaces , using high-energy ATP to deliver plate steel that must be rolled and punched into shape by the artisans of the chaperones .

Life is thus a co-operative endeavour between a number of agents/teachers (See “Artificial Intelligence” The external database is DNA . The AI(0) is the Chaperone system .)

The ATP manufactory of the mitochondria is essential . Not just because of their energy , but because they use chemicals like oxygen and alcohol used as poisens by other cells . They soak up and use the pathogens .

(Nitrogen will be next . Engineer mitochondria to use N2->oxides of nitrogen . There is a release of energy used by bioprocesses . This is already done by microbes in some plant root-nodules . )

As can be expected , each HSP carries a history : it carries peptides identifying it’s origin . These peptides form the Major Histocompatibility Complex One (MHC I) . They are presented to the immune system via the antigen presenting cells to the T-cells . Can you see how it all fits together ?

Thus , HSP’s are used by the body for zapping haywire self-systems like cancers .

“Every unhappy family is unhappy in it’s own unique way.” Tolstoy

Every body has a narrow sheaf of probabilities of functioning in a happy way , but a number of unhappy ways dependant on it’s Randomness . Can you see the co-ordination between Beth(n) and reality ?

By manipulating Beth , realities are constrained by boundaries of an order of Beth higher .

In any case , immune system activation using HSP therapies are new , but workable therapies . Each body has to be treated as unique . There is no general , specific therapy except a few .

General , non-specific therapy .
Heat is a Beth(0) randomness :
It is , after all , called Heat Shock Proteins . But why heat ?

It is the fluctuation of heat between certain boundaries that matter .
The single most important driver in the evolutionary process is the temperature fluctuation . Note the PCR reaction .

ATP can be seen as a Beth(1) phenomenon .
Zero-point energy can be seen as Beth(2).
Both would have chaperone molecules associated with them .
Mitochondria can accommodate this ,since the synthesis of ATP only involves energy plus recyclable materials . The energy normally comes from glucose+oxygen , but the cell could handle N2->N20 , or zero-point energy .

It would be amusing to see if new Olympic records obey conservation of measurable energy .

Cold-fusion anybody ?
From this viewpoint , Michael Phelps is a cold-fusion machine . And unlocking greater potential is inside everybody .

As everybody think they know , this is over-activation of an immune response . But it is actually just a normal immune response that is not shut off . And the shut-off mechanism is a learned response that is temperature-fluctuation sensitive .

HSP molecules present antigens to the AntigenPresentingCell , which in turn presents it to the T-Cell , simultaneously signaling a inflammatory reaction . HSP ‘s are the middle men , intermediaries ,agents , lobbyists , chaperones .

It is the beat of the heat .

If the heat does not change , there is no beat .

There is nobody to tell the immune system to cool it .

The Major Culprit :
The Asthma Pump .
Not the chemicals .
The temperature .
It is a gas under pressure which is very cold when injected into the mouth-lung system, because of the venturi principle .

It is this cold temperature that does the long-lasting damage .
Heat Shock Proteins are not formed and the system cannot learn that it is wrong , since not enough “wrong” antigens are presented , because not enough HSP’s are formed .

The system then has to unlearn the wrong habits , then learn new ones .
Ho-hum .
Most humans prefer to die , depending on their level of boredom .

Inhaling from a cigarette has temperature differentials from 500 Fahrenheit to 90 in the mouth and lung cavities . This triggers Heat Shock Protein Formation .

The positive effects of smoking goes a long way to explain why this habit has survived so long . It has very little to do with nicotine .

Just Hot Air

Dispense with the chemicals . Just have temperature differentials .

Asthma sufferers should have significant relief be retraining their immune system by having a heater at the throat of their pump .

It is not the dirt , it is the temperature .


Is the Atkins diet evolutionary compatible?

Is the Atkins diet evolutionary compatible?
Andre Willers
26 Aug 2008


Yes .

The major sticking point of the Atkins regimen has been his statement that humans had a long evolutionary history of being primarily meat-eaters . Most people felt that , since we evolved from fruit-eating apes , this needed more proof than an assertion and mountains of evidence . We needed A Theory .

We try to follow the chronological sequence .

We find that there was indeed a very long period when it was easier to get all the food necessary by hunting or scavenging .

We try to put some numbers to the discussion .

Some understanding of Epigenetics is essential .

1. The Proto-human ape .
The bonobo’s are descendents of this eden . Fruit come into season all year round
The living is easy .

1.1Fear of heights .

This is situated on a single gene (refer to Mohawk tribe , who does not have it) . It is most likely a genetic switch (ie you can develop a fear of heights after a certain age , thus more likely transmitted through epigenetic factors)

Apes with this disability started to populate the ground . Paradoxically , the more successful ones also had a complementary genetical deformity : the inability to manufacture certain amino acids they could obtain only from meat . These would have died before , but now could survive and increase by turning into obligate hunters(ie they had to eat meat about once a month) .
A chicken-and-egg feedback process .
We can assign exact values to this process using Order of Randomness maths .

1.2. Hand-size
An optimal hand-mouth-digestive system evolved . You can’t eat more than a hand-size ,since your mouth is not big enough . A bigger size activates disgust , based on ape fairness protocols , which are very deeply hardwired . It is even species independent . Greedy , sloppy eaters like sharks excites revulsion . This revulsion is hardwired .

Default-humans (ie females) still have the small hands . Males evolved big hands during the breeding episode circa 10 000 BC . It still turns females off . In true Freudean fashion many have become hysterical in a anorexic or bulimic mode .
They perceive their hands as being too big .(Transference)

An interesting treatment would be to make their hands smaller : a-la-chinese feet . Tape the middle three fingers to the palm , give them a spoon or chopsticks and let them get on with it . A significant percentage would benefit .

Note that some men have enormous hands (ie Michael Phelps) , but their mouths are normal size . Their mothers or grandmothers had very high levels of testosterone in the womb . If this is an advantage , it slowly gets incorporated into the genome .

2.1 Hunter Gatherers .

As can be imagined , hard data is uncertain . The events occurred tens of thousands of years ago and all that is left are bones , teeth , some artifacts and cultural artifacts.

The jargon is Harris-lines (bone lines formed after a stress event) and apoplasia(dental lines formed during the stress event) .

Epigenetic events (not recognised when my major source was written ) : decrease in skeletal heights since the hunter-gatherer stage .

Remember that the language is the interface and the external database
(See “AI” )

The major hard-science evidence is from bone and dental growth lines , which is open to different interpretations .

But the general consensus is that hunter-gatherers were , and surprisingly , still are better nourished than the general populace today . Even present day hunter-gatherers are better nourished than the average agricultural populations .

My data is from “Hunger in history” , a study by Brown University
This prehistoric data is from chapter 3 “ Prehistoric patterns of hunger” by M.N Cohen .
The data is surprisingly hard to come by from using the internet . The data is usually only available to accredited persons . I presume that it is not PC to admit that people today are worse off than 50 000 years ago . A corollary of “The greatest good for the greatest number” .

Let us get some numbers on the subject:

Paleolithic food
Source of hard data:"Hunger in History" ISBN 1 55786 044 0 Brown University USA
Chapter 3 : "Prehistoric patterns of hunger" by MN Cohen
Calory and carbohydrate values from standard commercial counters .

Benchmarks for one standard human
kCal needs per day= 2000
Std 30g handful g= 30 Small human or ape handful
kCal per 30g beef= 86
kCal per 30g veg= 30 Onion as benchmark
NetCarbs per 30g veg= 5.5 Onion

Table to get needed kCal per day Nbr of handfuls(30g)
g meat g veg G nettcarb Meat veg
698 0 0 23 0
660 108 20 22 4
232 1334 245 8 44
116 1667 306 4 56
58 1834 336 2 61
30 1914 351 1 64
0 2000 367 0 67

Note that the ape has to work about three times as hard on a veg diet to get the same calories . (ie the number of handfuls)

We know that the largest functional group of homonins is about 150 (Microsoft et al)
We know from “Infinite Probes” in previous discussions that critical points are at a third and two thirds of this (ie 50-100).

How much meat does a reasonably successful homonin group of 100 require ?

For 700 g a day per person this translates to 70 kg per day for a group of a hundred . This is easily achievable . One big buck dresses out as 300-400 kg . Plus innumerable hares , birds , fowl etc . The country was teeming with wildlife until the 1800’s .

Transport .
The big governor of the Hunter-Gatherer way of life .
Everything had to be carried .
They could not exactly load it on daddy’s hovercraft , you know .

The food had to be cooked . While meat could be roasted or smoked on the spot , vegetables had to be cooked or prepared at some central point , as all natural edible plants had evolved poison defenses of some kind (eg cassava , potatoes , yams ,etc) .

Look at the extreme vegetarian case from the table above . Two kg per person for 100 people works out at 200 kg per day . About twenty women are supposed to cart this at ever increasing distances every day , plus collecting and carting firewood .

The male-only hunting model:
The men have to hunt , as all need the amino acids from meat .
This model leads to a revolt from the women . Remember , the living is easy . The women don’t see any reason to bust a gut doing unneccesary carting . They also gather the herbs and veggies , most of which are poisonous .
You can see the result : moving along is much easier and healthier for all concerned .

The result : everybody hunts . Women use nets and snares and men go for bigger game . Juveniles collect eggs and vegetables , but in small quantities .

The easier route is eating a lot of meat .

But there is a problem with fats .

The one thing that was scarce was fat . This was the governor on human reproduction.
Wildlife under predation change their behaviour . They run hither and thither , burning up energy instead of turning it into reserves that can be used by predators .

Women need reserves of fat , especially emega3 and omega6 for normal conception and prevention of spontaneous abortions .
Children were literally timed to coincide with maximal fat of the mothers .

Hence the evolution of big ,fatty bums in a lot of female human populations . See Hottentot , !San , Babushkas . Tellingly , these are seen as sexually attractive to men in Northern Europe and Africa . (Rubens) A promise of fertility .

Proto-Pottery :
Carrying was first done in baskets . Weaving . Very early , concomitant with unpicking and ropes . Watertight weaving (still used) .
Cooking was first done by dropping hot stones in watertight woven baskets with some sand at the bottom to prevent burn-through . It was noticed that some types of clay baked hard and gave a longer-lasting basket . These clays were smeared over the inside of the baskets . Proto-pottery was birthed . Because of its brittle and perishable nature , no recognizable traces lasted . But it formed the bridging to pottery which did last , seeming to come into existence from nothing .

Food Preservation .
The major problem for any hunter-gatherer with a uncertain food-supply .
Meats preserve easily and well .
Jerky (biltong) , salted meat , smoked meat .

Alcohol and vinegar as a preservative :
Fermentation followed directly from proto-pottery (about a week) . Alcohol and vinegar then was used extensively in pickled veggies and meats . Real pottery exploded as there was huge market for preservatives .
Market for vinegar .
Market for beer .

Transport needed:
Domestication of heavy carriers (oxen) . Done before , but now large numbers needed in nuclei points . To feed the oxen and fuel the fermentation pots , large sources of high-carb seeds were needed . Small-scale agriculture expanded .

Then agriculture happened .
Humans did not at first eat grains on large scale .
They fed it to their animals during the process of domestication .

But , it was the Cow that did it , your honor .
Also , the horse , the goats and the sheep .

Fat was supplied by milk-fermentation products . The single greatest spur to human population growth .
Milk + fermentation + containers bypassed the mammalian lactose intolerance .
Cheese , kumiss ,yoghurt , etc.

Cheese ,mainly .

Hard Cheeses to be exact .
This was one of the main trading items during the Bronze Age .
An item under strict import control in states like Pharaonic Egypt and Cretan Minos . They were well aware of the effect of cheese on the birthrate .They had been keeping detailed records for thousands of years .
Since they were in small , eco-sensitive states , cheese was reserved for the elite . The development of local hard cheeses were discouraged . Indeed , Africa never developed an indigenous hard-cheese suitable for trading . It is one of the major reasons why it never had explosive population growths resulting in empires .

The Elba-Etruscan-Marseille-Gaul trade .
Before Alexander the Great channeled Greek expansion to the East , they had founded colonies in Sicily , Italy , Southern France and Spain . Elba had rich Greek iron mines.
Worked tools and weapons were traded for wine from Etruria and shipped via Marseille up the Rhone to the interior of Europe . (This was what stimulated the Etruscan and Roman civilizations) .

But what did they get in return ?
This has always been a puzzle .

Celtic Gaul circa 1000 BCE was a post-collapse society , an exhausted Bronze age civilization overrun by Celtic barbarians . But they did know their cows and their cheeses .

What they had in return was cheese , furs and charcoal .
But mainly cheese .

But not cheese as we know it , Jim .

Hard , rock , like Parmesan . Formed in ox-hide shapes as a brand . Far more valuable than metals . (Post-collapse societies have lots of metals lying around , but things to eat are scarce .) (That is why there are so many ox-hide shapes in old ship-wrecks from this era : not metals , but cheese , eaten by the sea-life .)

The Greek trading drove them to alter the manufacturing process to softer cheeses in containers . The Greeks and Romans only knew how to make cheap round pottery containers . So we are still stuck with cheese wheels .(Remember , the home of Cheese , Holland , never had a collapse op the Western Roman Empire . )

Think India had sacred cows ? Try Europe . The cow was more important than children , because the whole family could die in winter without it .And future generations depended on the fat of the human mothers(known , but not in a scientific way).

You don’t have “Kobe beef” in Europe not because the pampered beef , but because they would skin anybody who made such a suggestion . Eating dogs or horses had an easier reception .

Do not confuse the Celtic , Bantu or Texas cattle-cultures with West-European Swiss or Hindu cow-cultures .

Celtic and Bantu cultures .
These are so similar that we have to wonder if there is not cultural contamination .
Both used the same huts , cattle as wealth , clan structure , border raiding , metallurgy etc, etc .

Bantu culture suddenly erupted from the West coast of Africa south of the Congo-delta circa 50 BC and spread south-eastwards because of the cattle . No other societies around them had the same cattle-based economy or iron metallurgy . The iron-working (a variant of bog-iron folding) spread into Angola and Southern Africa . The same with the cattle .

Where did this come from ?

An intriguing speculation is that it came from the Celts .

The Celts had this mechanism of getting rid of surplus population : split the populace at random in three . One third has to leave . By about 70-60 BCE , the Romans had made it clear (after Marius massacred 500 000 at Aquiliae Sextae) that no further volkewanderung in Gaul or Italy would be tolerated .

So they tried the sea-route down the west coast of Africa . About 200 coast-hugging ships of the time could take about 100 000 people . Another 100 ships for the cattle and horses . A population of about 500 000 would be rich enough and powerful enough to get the lowlanders to build the ships . The Druids probably could see problems ahead either with the Romans . So they would also give their support , and more importantly , money .

This is why Julius Caesar invaded Britain . He knew that a powerful Gaul fleet had sailed not long ago , and he had to know where they were . There was no way that he could tell the Senate

“By the way , a fleet of 100 000 Gauls can descend anytime on Rome , Egypt or Carthage . “

He knew that they had not been recently sighted in the Mediterranean . His most immediate danger would be that they had gone to Britain and would sally forth at their leisure . So he took the initiative : a reconnaissance in force .
When he found out the truth , he withdrew .

But he sent pursuit forces to make sure they did not return .
Talk about the last legion .
But he probably sent no more than two maniples . About 1200 men . Enough for the job .
These were real Romans with orders to make sure that the Gauls never return .
The highest probability is that they caught up with the weather-beaten fleet and burned most of it on the beach .

His policy decision then to eradicate Druidism because of their demonstrated capability to mobilize a fleet of about 300 ships coloured Roman and Roman-Catholic policy since .

Prestor John Empire myths
The Prestor John Empire myths stem from this episode . The ambivalence of the Roman-Catholic Church is understandable . They knew very well there might be a Western culture in Africa , but that it probably would have Druidic roots .

So what did happen to the Gauls ?
They hopped down the western coast of Africa in true Peoples of the Sea fashion . The first place suitable for cattle is south of the Congo .
This is probably where the Romans caught up with them , catching them by surprise and burning the ships on the shore .

After they lost the horses and the ships , they made the best of a bad business and acculturated , slowly drifting south-eastward . The Druids formed the core of the traditional healers , and still has the old verbal knowledge .

What happened to the horses ?
They are notoriously susceptible to diseases , especially African Horse sickness .
See “Mongols of the Serengeti”
Horses could survive , but only with a large initial influx or continual replenishment .
Without replenishment of new blood they would have died out . This implies that the Gaulish force lost sea-going capability , which is consonant with pursuing Romans catching up with them .

What happened to the Romans ?
They probably walked back . Well , most of them . They could sail as far as the Niger and then up to Lake Chad . Then march back to Egypt (It was wetter then). Take them about two years . There was little in Africa that could stop two Roman maniples .
The Primus Pilum probably retired on the shore of the Red Sea , telling unbelievable stories to his grandchildren on their visits .

More Cheese

Agricultural production quadrupled after Jethro Tull invented the seed-planter in 1700.

But exactly how did this translate into greater wealth ? More agricultural produce did not immediately lead to more people . The lag is too great and the produce could not be stored directly . But it could be stored indirectly via living organisms , ie cows , the major consumer of Western European produce . There was an explosion of cow numbers . Cream and cheese went from expensive delicacies to affordable items . The birthrate responded . The Great English Speaking Population explosion happened . Growth rates of about 13% per year was recorded .

A corollary can be seen in the production of nitrates for gunpowder . Europe was self-sufficient . England had to import nitrates from Bengal , laying the groundwork for successive famines in the area (nitrates were produced from cattle and horse urine , which depended on their feedstock)

Lots of people , lots of food and lots of munitions .So the humans had a war-fest called the Napoleonic wars .

Their response to the age of reason .

Bah .


Thursday, August 21, 2008

Tennis – a Supersport

Tennis – a Supersport
Andre Willers
21 Aug 2008

The sweat rate of a sport is taken as proportional to the heat-generation of muscles . Tennis is found to generate about three times as much work as the closest runners-up like tri-athletes , marathoners , sprinters ,etc . (See table below)
We try to show why .

The Sweaty table
Sweating p68 Pop Mechanics Aug 2008
Quarts/hr PercDiff Increase
Tennis 5.92 270%
TriAthlete 1.60 6%
Marathon 1.51 2%
Sprinter 1.48 1%
RaceWalker 1.47 16%
ShotPut 1.27 7%
200M sprint 1.19 3%
Baseball 1.16 35%
LightBoxer 0.86

Why the sudden jump at the tennis level ?

Uncertainty and Mirror Neurons
See “Mirroring People” by M. Iacoboni (ISBN 13 978 0 374 21017 5)
See Mirror Neuronal networks as discussed in

Briefly , mirror neurons project future actions . The system is activated by visual and verbal actions (the accent is on actions) . The physical sites of the most active mirror sites have been identified by fMRI as the Broca’s area and visual centers.
The critical thing to realize is that neurons in the brain that accompany actual muscle movements fire the same as for real movements . The impulses to activate the muscles are interrupted , presumably by an adaptation of the mechanism that prevents dreams being translated into movements .

This mechanism has been proven to discriminate between neuron-firings from various levels of mirror networks of “what-if” and an actual real-life signal coming through .

Tennis has a very high level of uncertainty . The ball can come at any speed from any direction and it is not a team sport (team sports dilutes the uncertainty)

The easiest way to explain is by way of analogy :
When you throw a ball to your dog to “fetch” , notice his quivering . This has hardly anything to do with fight-or-flight .

The dog does not know where the ball is going , so it prepares for any trajectory .
His system is flooded with ATP , continual nerve signals are sent to antagonistic muscles to increase tension between intra-cellular molecular groups .

This shows as shivering or trembling on the macro-scale .
Every muscle is mobilized , not only the probable ones .

Normally , the mirror-neurons would have fired on the most probable actions and there would be no shivering .

When the “go” nerve signal arrives , there is an immediate intra-muscular cascade . The muscle contracts in a spasm .

Shivering is of course the main mechanism for generating heat if the organism is cold.

The same mechanism is used if the organism’s mirror neurons cannot come to a decisive vote on a course of action . Signals leak through and shivering results . Extreme stress symptoms are shown . Tears and explosive violence are not unknown .

This is usually described as a psychotic break or a paradigm shift , depending on your standing in the old dispensation .

Since there is such a close correlation between shivering from cold and shivering from multiple probabilities , we wonder if we cannot induce the one from the other .

We know that rearranging features in a smile can change a mood . There is a whole school of psychology based on it (operant conditioning) .

A tennis player would do well to train in shivering a cold environment .

Conversely , certain types of psychosis should respond well to “Freeze Therapy” .
Freeze them till shivering sets in . Show action examples and words of the desired roles . Hopefully , the patient’s mirror networks will change .Note that this does not require conscious collaboration on the part of the patient . By sculpting the environment , any desired vote of the mirror-neurons can be engineered , especially in a shivering cold .

Can you see why shivering in an uncertain athletic circumstance causes a lot of
sweat ?
The body is preparing to go in any direction . Most sports involve a repertoire of limited actions . The body , after a lot of training , can perform these if it can get over it’s various sulks . But , faced with uncertainty like an incoming tennisball it reverts to the shivering model . Hence the heat generation and the sweating .

People with schizophrenic tendencies should not play tennis unless under medical supervision at temperatures above shivering .

Tennis players , their children and grand-children should beware of kidney stones because of epigenetic factors .

You can find shivering temperatures at any large bottle-store with walk-in refrigerators .


Friday, August 15, 2008

Orders of Randomness 2

Orders of Randomness 2
Andre Willers
15 Aug 2008

See : “Orders of Randomness”

I have been requested to expand a little on orders of Randomness and what it means .
Please note that human endeavours at this date use only randomness of the order of flipping a coin ( Beth(0) )

Aleph is the first letter of the Hebrew Alphabet . It was used by Cantor to denote
Classes of Infinity (ie Aleph(0) for Rational numbers , Aleph(1) for Irrational Numbers , etc

Beth is the second letter of the Hebrew Alfabet . It means “House”

I will first repeat the derivation of Orders of Randomness from : “Orders of Randomness” because it is so important .

Start Quote:
First , simple Randomness .
Flip of a coin .
Heads or Tails . 0 or 1
Flip an unbiased coin an infinite number of times ,write it down below each other and do it again .
All possible 0 and 1’s

An example : Beth(0)
Flips(1) 0,1,1,1,1,… etc
Flips(2) 0,1,1,1,0,… etc
Flips(infinity) 0,0,0,0,0,0,…etc

This describes all possible states in a delineated binary universe .
“delineated binary” means a two sided coin which cannot land on it’s side .

Now draw a diagonal line from the top left of Flips(1) to Flips(infinity) .
At every intersection of this diagonal line with a horizontal line , change the value .
The Diagonal Line of (0,1)’s is then not in the collection of all possible random
Horizontal coin-Flips(x) .

This means the Diagonal Line is of a stronger order of randomness .
This is also the standard proof of an Irrational Number .

This is the standard proof of aleph numbers .
Irrational numbers ,etc
Since any number can be written in binary (0,1) , we can infer that the order of randomness is the same as aleph numbers .

This means we can use number theory in Randomness systems .
Very important .

Google Cantor (or Kantor)

Define coin-flip Randomness as Beth(0) , analogous to Aleph(0)
Then we have at least Beth(1) , randomness an order stronger than flipping a coin .
Then we can theorize Beth(Omega) <->Aleph(Omega) .

End Quote

Cardinal Numbers .

The cardinal number is the index x of Aleph(x) .
Cantor proved that
Aleph(n+1) = 2 ^ Aleph( n )

Where n is the cardinal number of the infinity .

Tying them together :
He also proved that
P(A) = 2^ n
Where A is any set , P(A) is the PowerSet of A and n is the cardinal number of set A
Thus , Cardinal Number of P(A) =(n+1)

The PowerSet of A = the Set of all subsets of A .
This sounds fancy , but it is simply all the different ways you can combine the elements of set A . All the ways you can chop up A .
You can see it easily in a finite binomial expansion (1+1)^n = P(A) = 2^n

See : “Infinite Probes”
There we also chop and dice , using infinite series .

Can you see how it all ties together ?

Why 2 ?

This derives from the Delineation Axiom . Remember , we can only talk about something if it is distinct and identifiable from something else . This gives a minimum of 2 states : part or non-part .

That is why the Zeta-function below is described on a 2-dimensional plane , or pesky problems like Primes always boil down to 2 dimensions of some sort .

This is why the irrational numbers play such an important part in physics .
Z=a+ib describes a 2-dimensional plane useful for delineated systems without feedback systems

Its in the axiom of Delineation , dummy .

But we know that Russell proved that A+~A smaller than Universum .
The difference can be described as the Beth sequences . Since they are derivatives of summation-sequences(see below) , they define arrows usually seen as the time-arrows .

These need not to be described a-la-dunne’s serial time , as different Beth levels address the problem adequately without multiplying hypotheses .

Self-referencing systems and Beth sequences .

A Proper Self-referencing system is of one cardinal Beth number higher than the system it derives from .
Self-referencing systems (feedback systems) can always be described as sequences of Beth systems . Ie as Beth(x) <-> Beth(y) . The formal proof is a bit long for inclusion here .

The easiest way to see it is in Bayesian systems . If Beth(x) systems are included , Bayesian systems become orders of magnitude more effective .

Life , civilization and markets are such . See below .

Conservation Laws :
By definition , these can always be written in a form of
SomeExpression = 0

Random (Beth(0) Walk in Euclidean 2-dimensions

This is a powerful unifying principle derived from the Delineation Axiom .

In Random Walk the Distance from the Center is = d * (n)^0.5 . This is a property of Euclidean systems .
(Where d = step , n=number of random beth(0) steps)

Immediately we can say that the only hope of the Walker returning to the center after an infinity of Beth(0) steps is if d ~ 1/(n)^0.5 . This is the Riemann Hypothesis .

Now , see a Universum of 2-dimensional descriptors z=a+ib

Sum all of them . Add together all the possible things that can be thus described .

This can be done as follows :
From z=a+ib Raise both sides to the e
e^(z) = e^(a) . e^i(b)
Raise both sides to the ln(j) power where j is real integers.
j^(z) = j^(a) . e^(b/ln(j))

Now , sum them :
Zeta=Sum of j^(z) for j=1 to infinity

Now we extract all possible statements that embody some Conservation Law . Beth(1)

This means that Zeta is zero for the set of extracted statements if and only if (b/ln(j)) is of the order of Beth(0) and a=(-1/2)

Tensors .
The above is a definition of a tensor for a discontinous function .

Riemann’s Zeta function.
This can describe any delineated system .
If Zeta = 0 , conservation laws apply .

Zeta = Sigma(1/j )^z for j=1,2,3,…,infinity and z=a+ib , where z is complex and i =(-1)^0.5
The z bit is in two dimensions as discussed above .

This function has a deep underlying meaning for infinite systems .
If you unpack the Right-Hand side on a x-yi plane you get a graph that looks like a random walk .

If every point is visited that a random walk would visit over infinity (ie all) , without clumping , then Zeta can only be non-trivially zero if a=(-1/2) .

Why (x – yi) plane ? See “Why 2 “ above . The system is fractal . Two dimensions are necessary in any delineated system .

Remember , randomwalk distance from origin = step*sqrt(number of steps) .
So if the steps = 1/ ( sqrt(number of steps) ) , then the Origin might be reached if and only if a= -1/2
This is easily proven .

If a= - 1/2 , then b can be any real function . This would include Beth(0) and Beth(1) , but not higher orders of beth .

If a= -1/2 and b is an unreal number , then a cannot be equal to -1/2 anymore . Conservation cannot hold at any level .

Conservation Laws can only hold for Beth(0) and Beth(1) systems .

This is forced by the two dimensions of delineation .

Mathematically , this means that Beth(2+) systems of feedbacks can only be described in terms of attractors or/and fractal systems (ie not in isolation)

Physically , conservation of energy and momentum need not hold for Beth(2+) systems .

This has an interesting corollary in decryption (unpacking) . A Beth(2) mind unpacking Beth(0) or Beth(1) encryption is functionally equivalent to Non-Conservation of Energy .

Some other consequences :
If a< -½ , then Riemannian Orbitals are described . Beth(any)
Also described as nuclei , atoms .

If a> -½ , then a diffuse cloud is described . Beth(any)
Also described as magnetic effects .

What does this mean?
Present technology uses Beth(x) technology in a rather haphazard way .(Quantum physics) .

A better understanding will bring about a sudden change in capability .