Saturday, March 31, 2012

New Staffordshire Treasure

New Staffordshire treasure .
Andre Willers
1 Apr 2012
How to find the well-preserved remains of the Anglo-Saxons.
Discussion :
See “Staffordshire Treasure and a Welsh Cannae” Mar 2012
The stretch of relevant old roman road is about 10 km of hilly terrain . This has changed considerably over 1300 years .
Go back to the initial ambush . This had to be in a valley . The sides of the valley had narrow gulleys , formed by stream erosion of gravel-clay conglomerates . These formed dykes of dried gravel-clay , with semi-liquid mud-gravel behind them .
As panicked tons of horses with pointy things sticking out crowded into these narrow gulleys , the dykes broke and they were overwhelmed by mud-gravel slides . But these were not normal mudslides . The dykes were breached at the bottom . The horsemen were entombed in place like flies in amber . The top in spinward direction (ie East) fell over this. This formed an obstruction in the narrow ravine , which over 1 300 years translates into what can be easily mistaken for a moraine , with a small stream at the anti-spinward side .
So look for fairly narrow valley , with a moraine in front and a small stream on anti-spinward (ie west) side .
Search with detectors toward the spin-side of the moraine .
The results should be spectacular . The first thing an excavator would see is a gold-encrusted sword sticking up . (Cf Avenue of Bayonets in WWI)
The sideways mudslides would preserve the riders like between slides .
The earliest ones fleeing would be deepest into to ravines . These would be the leaders , heaviest in gold .(“First in battle , first in flight”) .
These riders would be heavy in iron (weapons , armour) , easily detectable by metal-detectors.
A nice little hobby for Easter .
Grave robbing in real time . Lara is there .
Twitter and facebook will enable this process to be followed in real time . The moment a significant find (Gold!) is made , a flash crowd will assemble . Welsh Separatists and other political groups will assemble . An Hysterical Focus will form .
Why ?
This whole thing has been characterised by very low-probabilty events becoming real . What I call Murphy riding with the raiders . This will probably happen again to anything associated with it .
A Hysterical Focus . The Media will go mad .Which means any person should steer clear . Strange things will happen .
To sum it up :
If you go onto the old Roman Road west of Lichfield this Easter( 7 April 2012) , you will make some life-changing discoveries . Low probability events become high-probability .
Interesting times for all .

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Staffordshire Treasure and a Welsh Cannae

Staffordshire Treasure and a Welsh Cannae
Andre Willers
29 Mar 2012
Synopsis :
A Welsh sting-raid inveigled a pursuing Mercian Anglo-Saxon force into an ambush of annihilation . In the process , the bait (the Staffordshire Treasure) got lost .
Discussion :
Militarised refugee remnants of Romano-Britons in the Welsh mountains gained in confidence and audacity as the pressure from Anglo-Saxon Mercia decreased . Mercia was suffering from a bad case of military over-stretch , and under increasing pressure from surrounding Anglo-Saxon kingdoms . The Danes were also starting to appear in larger numbers . (This eventually resulted in Offa’s Dyke about 770 AD)
A daring cattle raid (see “Marwnad Cynddylan”) led to a more ambitious undertaking .

The Staffordshire Raid .
Like all cattle raiders , they delighted in elaborate ambushes and counter-ambushes .
An elite (read a bunch of hot-heads , with a nominal wiser elder) bunch of about 100 slipped deep into Mercia to near their religious capital (Lichfield) . Their target was a three senior Christian clergymen , with a strong escort of 92 elite (noble) Mercians and about 200 trained , professional cavalry .
Their personal prizes were the weapons , armor and especially horses . Gold was not a treasure to them , since they had no way to exchange it . The aim of their chiefs was to give Mercia such a bloody nose that they would pause .
Both aims succeeded beyond their wildest expectations .
The raiders managed to surprise the escort (probably by a pre-dawn attack) , massacred them and loaded the loot on the captured horses . They then took off for the shortest-time route towards the West , hotly pursued .
Mercia had to answer this insult . The pursuit was commanded by a senior officer , probably a brother or son of the king .
Then , as now , this was the Old Roman Road west of Lichfield . This linked up to three other old roman roads , one a T-junction after a southern junction . These old Roman roads were specifically built to keep the hill-bandits in check , but now served as fast transit for the ambush forces .
The Staffordshire Treasure .
While on the gallop , the Welsh raiders broke off the golden ornamentation from the weapons (hence their bent and broken shapes) . At some convenient and obvious spot , they buried them rather shallowly. They were decoys , meant to slow down the Mercians as they stopped to loot .
The Mercian commander ,realising it was a ploy , was senior enough to browbeat his immediate followers into ignoring it and to trample their horses all over the site , hiding any trail from subsequent followers .
They then pursued , rallying the countryside as they went .
The Welsh raiders had sent three of their best riders on their fastest horses ahead , to tell the jaws of the trap to move into position . (Hence the attempted delaying tactics) . No smoke signals were used , as this would have alerted the experienced Mercian commander of a possible ambush .

The Welsh Cannae :
See Annexure I about size of the armies .
The ambush wiped out the cream of the Mercian Anglo-Saxon troops , as well as their most experienced commanders . It was a battle of annihilation . Ethnic cleansing memories going back generations . No one in the pursuing Mercian force survived . With them went the memory of the Staffordshire Treasure .
This had far-reaching effects on English History .
1.Offa’s Dyke . Mercia settled into a defensive posture on the western frontier .Wales is still one of the Kingdoms of United Kingdom .
2.Wessex Survived . King Alfred the Great et al .
3.Mercia succumbed to the Danes.

Why is it not better known ?
Jealousy . This was a raid cobbled up by a bunch of young hotheads , supported by some chiefs of frontier tribes , that succeeded beyond wildest expectations .
An inverse of military disasters . (Murphy was on the raid)
The politicians scrambled to take credit , and in the process the Welsh treasure got lost as surely as the Staffordshire Treasure .

Why do I call it a Treasure , and not a Hoard ?
It was meant to be a treasure , to distract loot-hungry Mercian troops . Not to get lost for 1 300 years .
Murphy must have been there . Humans elaborately hide treasure , which is immediately looted , but when they hide it in the open , it takes 1 300 years to find it .
Itemizing it will illustrate it :
The items are all gold or garnets . (Garnets from India , Bohemia ,Portugal) or gold (melted down Roman Solidi) . Valueless to Welsh hill dwellers without trade .
Note the absences :
1.No useful weapons .
2.No armour , especially ringmail , which was far more valuable than gold at the time .
3.There were no horse-bridles .

These would have been an inherent part of the looted horses (the most valuable loot of all) . Their bridles had gold as functional parts . No raider would have parted with them except under the direst circumstances .
4.No coins : Valueless to a raider : left as a distraction .
5.No women’s accoutrements : it was a religious caravan , with no women .
The Gold Treasure :
1. Sword Hilt fittings : 300 (ie 300 cavalry . all elite )
2. Sword Pommel Caps : 92 (elite of the elite : Nobility)
3. Scabbard Pendants : 10 Officers .
4. Religious artifacts: 3 . A bishop and two attendants .
At the time , from Roman cultural diffusion and illiteracy , military units were organized in centuries : The treasure represents three centuries of elite cavalry , of which one century was aristocracy . Ten were officers .
Add one bishop and two prelates .
No wonder the King of Mercia (probably Offa) was furious .
Notice the sharp decline of Mercia’s power from this point .

And so it goes .

Appendix I
Number of troops :
Difficult to get . I approximate it :
The Kingdom of Wessex had about 500 000 population . Half were women , and of the remaining half , if we exclude children and the elderly) , gives about 100 000 ablebodied men . These were mostly agricultural workers . We know that a modern army requires about 90% of the workforce as support . That is with the benefit of agricultural mechanization .
This gives a set of boundaries for professional troops Wessex or Mercia could support :
Upper Boundary : 10 000 (10% of 100 000)
Lower Boundary : 1 000 (10 % of Upper Boundary)
The pursuing troops of Mercia must have numbered about 1 500 – 2 000 , including some of their best officers and troops .
Their annihilation was as shattering blow to Mercia , from which it never recovered .
Appendix II
Where was the ambush ?
Archaeologists can get hard evidence .
On the Old Roman Road west of Lichfield , past the junction of the first roman road from the south and before bifurcation of the road a bit further on . In a valley that squeezes from the left side .
Why ?
The raiders knew they had to turn around and fight , and wanted the Roman Road on their right-hand (sword) side when they did .
The ambush depended on a ridiculous number of factors to work perfectly . Four forces had to arrive nearly simultaneously at the schwerpunkt , with very little communication and very ill-disciplined troops .
As I said , Murphy must have been riding with them .
The raiders and the forces from the T-junction blocked the front and sides , and the force from the old Roman road from the south behind them blocked retreat for the pursuers .
A perfect battle of annihilation .
A Welsh Cannae.
Not one Mercian survived .
This blow crippled their kingdom . Most probably , the King of Mercia’s brothers and sons perished there .
Find it using Google-Earth .
Or walk it with a detector .
Is there any gold left ?
Yes . The pursuers included many high-status individuals . After the first shattering impact of the ambush , they would have scattered . There were no survivors to tell where they fell , and the Welsh weren’t particularly interested in gold . They had to skedaddle quickly , most probably back along the old roman roads . Look for discarded thingies on right hand verges of the old roman roads from the ambush site .
Appendix III
King Offa
King Offa. Roughly speaking, the 7th century was the age of Northumbrian ascendance, with Mercia playing second fiddle. In the 8th century these roles reversed. The most powerful and well known of the Mercian kings was Offa, who ruled from 758-796. A successful warrior (which is a given for anyone in those days who managed to hold onto power for so long), he defeated kings in Sussex, Anglia, and Wessex, proclaiming himself King of the English.

Penny of Offa of Mercia
Offa's Dyke. Offa caused to be built the earthwork that still bears his name, Offa's Dyke, which stretches the 150 mile length of the Welsh border. Begun in the 780's, the purpose of the dyke seems to have been as a fortified frontier barrier, much as Hadrian's Wall some six centuries previous.

In most places the ditch was 25 feet from the bottom of the cut to the top of the bank, with wood or stone walling on top of that. The work involved has been compared to the building of the Great Pyramid. This gives us some idea of the power wielded by Offa. It seems that the dyke was not permanently manned, relying instead on the warning given by a series of beacons.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

George Washington

George Washington
Andre Willers
25 Mar 2012
‘Fortune favours the prepared mind.” Pasteur
“He thought it through .” AW
George Washington’s military successes have been ascribed to luck . They weren’t . Neither was his moral influence on the nascent USA .
Look at his history as a CV for a job application .
Moderately wealthy parents , dominated by his mother after the death of his father when George was 11 . Attempts to enrol as a Royal Navy midshipman blocked by his mother at age 15 . (A nice alternate history : British Admiral Washington crushes North American rebellion) .
Ambitious to be a British Commissioned Officer , he enlists in the Colonial Militia and has extensive combat experience in the wars against the French in North-Western America . Eventually commissioned as Colonel of Virginia Regiment by Governor Dinwiddie in 1755 .
The Crux :
There is a gap between 1758 to 1775 (17 years )when Washington resigned his heart’s desire (an officer’s commission in the British Army) , and being appointed Commander-in-Chief of the rebels .
What gives ?
Look at the event :
In September, Grant was assigned to lead an advance part of around 800 men to determine the French strength at Fort Duquesne. The force was mainly made up of militia, but he took along a number of officers from the regulars, since he had little respect for the colonial troops. He then decided to split his force hoping to encourage a French attack that he could surprise and overwhelm. Having no wilderness experience, he was ambushed himself by Indians and French on September 14, 1758. At this engagement, the Battle of Fort Duquesne, the British force was repelled with 342 men killed, wounded or captured. The prisoners consisted of Major Grant and 18 of his men. He was paroled soon after, and tried to blame his defeat on the failure of the colonial militia to follow orders.[1]
Grant , a man who had bought his commission overrode higher-ranked militia commanders to lead his men into disaster , then blamed the militia . And got away with it , even though his superiors knew the truth .
A lesser man would have blamed Major Grant , but Washington spent 17 years thoroughly examining the situation and where his loyalties lay . And what was wrong with the underlying system . This turned him into a committed Republican who disbanded his armies in favour of civilian rule . A tradition that still persists .
He was also evolving strategies , tactics , intelligence networks . (ie spies) and political support . He knew his enemy in depth , having been one of them . Their Achilles heel that eventually led to their defeat was the arrogance engendered by their class-system . Washington exploited this mercilessly through politics , spies , propaganda , etc . He used this to split them and defeat them in detail , even though they were numerically and organizationally superior .
And Luck ? When it was good (Yorktown) he exploited it to the hilt . If it was bad (Long Island) , he still managed extrication and a rapid counterpunch (Trenton)
He would have won regardless of luck .
But there was one instance when only luck saved him . He was reconnoitring near Brandywine Creek in 1777 , when he encountered Captain Patrick Ferguson of the British Army .
Ferguson was armed with his invention , the Ferguson rifle (a six bullets per minute rifle) . He called out to the officer (he did not recognize Washington) and his hussar escort to surrender . They coolly galloped off and he could not bring himself shoot a gallant enemy in the back. That was luck .
See Appendix I for something similar regarding Hitler .

Washington’s Legacies :
1.He resigned supreme military command with a large army at his back .
He committed the military to be under civilian control .
On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession. At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief. Historian Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe.[94] King George III called Washington "the greatest character of the age" because of this.[95]
This morphed into an offer of King after the Newburgh conspiracy , where he defused a proposed coup by disgruntled officers of the Continental Army .
Haggard first summarizes how the myth grew by reviewing accounts of it in historical works. The earliest of them, published in 1823, states ""a letter was handed to Washington containing the demand of some for a monarchy, and himself the king." From there the story grew. As recently as 1984 a prominent American historian wrote that "Washington’s refusal to countenance Nicola’s scheme ‘signifies the death of the monarchical idea in the United States and the total triumph of representative government.’" (Haggard p. 142).
2. He refused a third term , setting the precedent of only two presidential terms . This was crucial , and responsible for much of the USA’s success .
3.He refused to write his memoires . Charles Thomson , the secretary of the Continental Congress jointly agreed with him . Between them , they knew all the dirty secrets . Even now , it would cause severe strain on the body politic .
An intriguing speculation is that they did write such a memoire , for the future presidents’ eyes only .
4.He forced a new , dedicated capital .
“The Residence Act “ of 1790 was his personal baby . The capital of the new nation had to have no ties to any state . His opinion of politicians can be seen in the property he chose : a swamp . Now called Washington , DC . This postponed the War between the States by about 3 decades .
5.Religious tolerance .
Washington was an active enemy of intolerance .
Washington had been Free Mason since 1752 , when he was 20 . During his term as first President , knowing that it would set the tone , he made a point of attending churches of all denominations and using his clout to come down heavily on any overt religious intolerance . (A mere suggestion from him led to severe trouble for the intolerant ones)
He blocked the Jacobins , Illuminati and Committees of Correspondence (called Democratic Societies below ) : All intolerant , fundamentalist organizations . They funded themselves by seizing wealth from their opponents . Modelled on the Spanish Inquisition .
In February 1793 a major war broke out between conservative Great Britain and its allies and revolutionary France, launching an era of large-scale warfare that engulfed Europe until 1815. Washington, with cabinet approval, proclaimed American neutrality. The revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Edmond-Charles Genêt, called "Citizen Genêt," to America. Genêt was welcomed with great enthusiasm and propagandized the case for France in the French war against Great Britain, and for this purpose promoted a network of new Democratic Societies in major cities. He issued French letters of marque and reprisal to French ships manned by American sailors so they could capture British merchant ships. Washington, warning and mistrustful of the influence of Illuminism that had been so strong in the French Revolution (as recounted by John Robison and Abbé Augustin Barruel) and its Reign of Terror, demanded the French government recall Genêt, and denounced the societies.
6.The Special Relationship with Britain .
Established with the Jay Treaty , of Nov 19 , 1794 . This lasted till today . Even wars were treated as an interfamily bickering .
A good man gone right .
PS:Some interesting asides :
1.Dominant Women :
Washington’s grandmother and mother were very dominant women . The real article .
The Washington men usually went to a minor public school in Britain (Appleby) , where they were routinely brutalised and brainwashed into being obedient subjects . After seeing what this did to his older half-brother , Lawrence , May Ball Washington nixed it and had her favourite eldest son educated by private tutors .
The same for suggestions that he become a midshipman in the Royal Navy . (When he was 15)
He , of course rebelled and joined the militia with the hope of eventually getting a commission .
If for no other reason, George Washington, regarded as the finest horseman of his day, should probably give credit to his mother's genes. Mary's mother specified in her will that a good pacing horse and fine side saddle be purchased for her. (Mary was 12 years old at the time.)
"I could not behold that remarkable woman without feelings it is impossible to describe. Whoever has seen that awe inspiring air and manner so characteristic of the Father of his Country will remember the matron."
2.Why George Washington has only one personal name ?
The American affectation for two names before the surname came from the Roman Republican naming system : PersonalName , Gens , FamilyName .
This only happened after the victory over the British , when all the fellow travellers embraced Roman Republicanism , without really understanding it .
3.Why no Washington Dynasty ?
Washington contracted smallpox while accompanying his half-brother to the Caribbean islands . He survived it , but was rendered sterile . (A common side effect) . (Alternate history : if he had children , a series of Washington presidents would have been possible.)
4.Why no duels ?
The challenger would have to have rocks for brains . Washington was large (6 feet) and broad to match . Heavily muscled after years of military service . Extremely fast and coordinated reflexes . He was reckoned to be the best horseman of his cohort . Also a veteran of years of the dirtiest close-quarter fighting in the world in the French-British Wars . Something like Vietnam , but worse . He would have sneered at SEALS , Green Berets et al .
Duels were then allowed to settle differences , but there is no recorded instance of anybody trying it on .
If there was , the body was never found .
George Washington was a really formidable individual , both in person and organizationally . He deliberately kept a low profile , since scaring people normally is counter-productive . But he did it to Horatio Gates in 1784 , entrapping him in the Newburgh conspiracy and forcing him into retirement .
Remember , Washington had been cultivating an intelligence network since 1758 (about 30 years)
(Gates was a real slimeball ,well known for his speed on the fastest commandeered horse after losing a battle.) .
He was lucky to survive . Washington punished him by whittling away at his allies and assets .
Gates sold Traveller's Rest (his estate) in 1790 and freed his slaves at the urging of his friend John Adams.
John Adams was a major Washington ally .
Washington was amazingly tolerant , but if he decided that somebody has exceeded the bounds , he did what he did to Horatio Gates . He dismantled them bit by bit until nothing was left . Not even a grave . He (Gates) died on April 10, 1806, and was buried in the Trinity Church graveyard on Wall Street, though the exact location of his grave is unknown.[12]
The only one I can think of in comparable terms was Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne) . Large , fast , deadly and sneaky .They both thought it through first .
Appendix I
Tandey , there is some good news and some bad news .
The good news is that you saved a man’s life . The bad news is that it was Adolf Hitler .
Tandey stayed in in Coventry , and bitterly regretted his decision on seeing the aftermath of the bombing .
Henry Tandey VC, DCM, MM (30 August 1891 – 20 December 1977) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the most highly decorated British private of the First World War.
Hitler incident
Although disputed, there is a story that Adolf Hitler and Tandey encountered each other after the battle at Marcoing (in October 1914, whilst Tandey was serving with the Green Howards). A weary German soldier wandered into Tandey's line of fire. The enemy soldier was wounded and did not even attempt to raise his own rifle. Tandey chose not to shoot. The German soldier saw him lower his rifle and nodded his thanks before wandering off. The soldier was later identified as Lance Corporal Adolf Hitler of the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment. Hitler later saw a newspaper report about Tandey being awarded the VC (in October 1918, whilst serving with the 5th Battalion Duke of Wellington's (West Riding) Regiment), recognized him, and kept the clipping.[7]
Tandey, now a war hero, was featured in a painting, commissioned by the Green Howards Regiment, by Italian artist Fortunino Matania, carrying a wounded soldier at Ypres. In 1937 Hitler asked Tandey's old regiment for a large photograph of the painting, which was sent. Captain Weidmann, Hitler's adjutant, wrote the following response: 'I beg to acknowledge your friendly gift which has been sent to Berlin through the good offices of Dr. Schwend. The Führer is naturally very interested in things connected with his own war experiences, and he was obviously moved when I showed him the photograph and explained the thought which you had in causing it to be sent to him. He has directed me to send you his best thanks for your friendly gift which is so rich in memories.' Hitler also obtained a copy of Tandey's service record.
In 1938, when Neville Chamberlain visited Hitler at his alpine retreat, the Berghof, for the discussions that led to the Munich Agreement, he noticed the photograph and asked about it. Hitler replied, "that man came so near to killing me that I thought I should never see Germany again; Providence saved me from such devilishly accurate fire as those English boys were aiming at us". He also asked Chamberlain to convey his best wishes and gratitude to Tandey. Chamberlain promised to phone Tandey in person on his return, which he did.

There is evidence that the original incident actually occurred in 1914 at the First Battle of Ypres, which both men were also involved in.[citation needed]

Tuesday, March 20, 2012


Andre Willers
20 Mar 2012
“I can resist everything except temptation.” Oscar Wilde
Willpower has been experimentally shown to be a domain-general , limited pool . It has a limited replenishment capacity .
Discussion :
NewScientist 28 Jan 2012 p30 “Where has your willpower gone”
NewScientist 28 Jan 2012 p42 “The Orchid children”
What we know from experimental results :
1.Willpower is a domain-general , limited pool .
If you use willpower to refuse one cookie , then another , then another , then make a decision involving some thought (brain activity) , then at every stage you are using the pool faster than it can be replenished , regardless of what type of decision .
Eventually the pool is depleted and the path of least resistance is followed. It does not matter what you use the willpower for .
The Collapse of the Will . (Not a Leni Riefenstahl favourite)
2.Replenishment of the Willpower Pool.
Rest and food . Glucose is implicated (lemonade + 15 min restores a measure of functionality)
3.Re-synchronization of brainwaves
Sleep , catnaps , meditation , tea ceremony etc
4.Childhood effects :
Some children (Orchid children because they need special care) are very sensitive to the emotional environment . They have genes once thought to be purely deleterious , like the short form of the serotin re-absorption , and others . Now thought to be extremely beneficial given a suitably supportive early childhood . Which is why they and their families have been strongly selected . Why personal violence in society has decreased . They learn to have large pools of willpower , quickly replenished . (Selection intensified from about 70 000 before present.)
In a bad environment , the normal syndrome: ADHD , depression , Learned Helplessness , erratic violence . These also have survival potentials in a chaotic environment .
Dandelion Children :The norms . Dandelion because they grow anywhere , regardless of conditions .

What is Willpower?
Using Willpower means making a decision . To make a choice means that the alternatives must be computed . This takes consumables , mainly ATP (derived from glucose via mitochondria- see Appendix I) , as well as oxygen and some neurotransmitters .
This processing is coordinated via the brainwaves . Distant branches of the decision trees usually use Beta waves . But they get out of synch easily (better known as “losing concentration” or “losing train of thought”
The glucose and oxygen supply to the brain is fairly constant , but the system bottlenecks at ATP . There are a fixed number of mitochondria at any particular instant , and they spin at a generally fixed rate . (See Appendix I)
When your brain runs short on ATP , it runs short on choices . It cannot see as deeply . Far-off branches on decision trees truncate . This feels like a “foggy” fatigue . In the Risk vs Reward tables , the brain sees only the immediate , less risky choices , because it cannot see the way to the riskier , higher payoff paths.
This is clearly seen in gambling establishments (free food and drink , but little rest) . Keep the sucker on his feet doing the obvious that favours the house .
Also seen in the behaviour of Parolee Judges in Israel (Levat et al) , where riskier decisions (requiring deeper thought) were made after a food and rest break .

Improving your willpower .
1.Increase production of ATP
This can be done by use of an ATP generator . ( or Appendix I)
2.Re-synchronize brainwaves when fatigued .
Biofeedback devices on the Alpha waves will help .
So will catnaps , sleep , old music favourite , old movie favourite , old favourite book , anything that does not involve choices that will deplete your willpower pool . Ie no interactive sport , chess , bridge , etc
3.On losing concentration , first re-synchronise (short meditation or mantra will do) , then retrace your steps . This will save a lot of willpower .
4.Training: Willpower is a lot like a muscle : you can deepen your willpower pool through training . Most interactive sports involving many decisions at various depths will do it . Some of the latest computer games are more complex than real life . Users will have deeper Willpower pools , but use it all on the Game . Sigh .
5.Dieting .
Play half a game before eating .
A properly designed dieting game for juveniles will pause , requiring input from the supervising adult to proceed.
Comfort food :
This happens when your willpower pool is exhausted . A quick replenishment is a teaspoonful (NOT more) of ordinary booze (about 2 ml of alcohol) . Alcohol is the preferential energy source for mitochondria . This kicks up the ATP concentration . Then your favourite mood enhancer , usually chocolate . Or combine the two , with 4 bitter liqueur chocolates . By then the willpower pool should have recovered enough to avoid a binge .
6. Can you buy the App online ?
Not yet , but I presume soon . It is possible to write an App that will do most of the above .
Some pieces are available . Apps that induce Alpha brainwaves , or train retinas (See “Itarin Update” Jan 2012 )
Music of course , old favourite movie snippets . ATP generation through ocular means is possible in theory .
Do not squander your willpower .
Prioritize what you want to do and use your willpower only on that .
Notice that high-achievement individuals appear focussed , or even mono-maniacal .They are not . They simply use a scarce resource on what they consider important .
It is self-realizing in that once you have identified the priorities (a small number , not more than three) , you will always have enough willpower left to deny any temptations .

Hypoglycemia will shortly lead to a collapse of the will . The ATP shortage leads to severe impairment of judgement as the decision branches are truncated . Irrational behaviour results . Basically , an organic robot .
Hyperglycemia leads to a breakdown of the timing mechanism (ie brainwaves cannot synchronize mirror-neuron networks as they fragment ) . Irrational , erratic behaviour results as various networks battle for control . Aggressive systems tend to win control . Basically , a homicidal , mad organic robot .
The two attractor basins both end in an entity that has no willpower .(An organic robot) .
Luckily , the ridgetop separating the two systems is very broad . More like a plateau . The diabetic can use his willpower to construct roads on this plateau and drive where he likes , as long as he does not fall over the edge.
The roads are things like insulin , Low-Carb diets , exercise , etc .
All the above are then applicable .

The major one affecting Willpower is serotonin . We know this because of it’s causal relationship with depression and learned helplessness , both involving truncation of decision trees . We also know there is an active gene that speeds up serotonin re-uptake (this is the process targeted by Prozac) .This means that there must be a rapid link to ATP generation .
Serotonin is a precursor of melatonin . The less serotonin , the less melatonin and the less ATP . The less willpower , the more truncated decision trees and the greater the despair and sense of helplessness .
Melatonin increases the activity of the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes and the production of ATP in rat brain and liver mitochondria.
Martín M, Macías M, León J, Escames G, Khaldy H, Acuña-Castroviejo D.
Departamento de Fisiología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada, E-18012 Granada, Spain.
Normally this does not matter , but under stress it does . Even small effects get magnified by feedback processes . Individuals with one or two short forms of the Serotonin re-uptake gene and a history of depression might benefit from small , continuous doses of melatonin through the day . They should sleep better ,too . The body would use melatonin first for ATP production . What is left over for sleep .

This is not medical advice . Consult your doctor .
Melatonin additives are usually sold as 3mg in slow release or fast release form
Individuals prone to depression in jobs that rapidly decrease the willpower pool , will benefit from taking about 1.5 mg slow release melatonin with breakfast , about 1.5 mg at about 3pm , and 3 mg fast release at bedtime.
The idea is that the slow release melatonin will compensate for the loss of serotonin and thus eventually ATP, due to rapid serotonin re-uptake . Adjust dosages to fit . Do not do this if you are taking a serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (like Prozac) .
Other neurotransmitters like dopamine also plays a role , but you should by now know how to create sufficient willpower to handle mere pleasure syndromes .

An interesting aside :
Temptation and risk
Temptation is something immediately available , but your brain , either from conditioning or future conditional branches , tells you is associated with a cost . This is the risk .
Your willpower is supposed to pare away the decision branches to the cost you are willing to pay . But if your willpower is at low ebb , you take the immediately available . Just like an animal . This is the basis of most humanity tests in antiquity (rites of passage , initiation , etc) . Those who failed were denied reproduction rights , demoted ,or killed.
These tests are still prevalent everywhere (paying your dues , newbie , etc).
This works for Dandelions or Orchids with a supportive history . But backfires badly with Orchids from a bad background . You get Hitler , Stalin , Mao and others . Sheepdogs turned wolves .
Wolves 1 , Sheepdogs 0 , Sheep -1
Appendix I
ATP as Neurotransmitter
Andre Willers
18 Jan 2010

Synopsis :
ATP has been proven to be a neurotransmitter . Various receptor sites on cellwalls have been found as result of the Human Genome project . Important health considerations result .

Discussion :
See important article in ScientificAmerican Dec 2009 , p60 "The double life of ATP" by BS Khakh and G Burnstock (let us hope that nominative determinism does not hold sway .)
Beg , borrow , steal or buy a copy .

See "ATP and Catalytic Motors" . Appended in Appendix A for ease of reference .

Crackpot duckling into Swan :
The effect had been clinically demonstrated since 1959 , but disregarded as not fitting into the accepted model .
The isolation of certain ATP and ADP receptors in 1993 and 1994 , as well as development of Clopidogrel to prevent clot formation led to greater acceptance .
The Human Genome Project led to the genes for receptor sites of ATP and it's various breakdown products . It is now a Hot Subject (ie fashionable) . A number of drugs are in various development stages .
A lot of money , major health items and knowledge is in play .

A Brief Description .
It is a very elegant mechanism . Also very old .

1. ATP = Adenosine + P + P + P
= AdenosineTriPhosphate
2. ABP= AdenosineBiPhosphate (the last phosphor atom has been stripped away . This is energy bond powering the muscles)
3. AMP= AdenosineMonoPhosphate . Only one phosphor atom .
4. Adenosine is adenosine (a purine) without any phosphor atoms .

Every cell has specialized receptor sites on the surface that interacts with one or a combination of these compounds . This gives at least 2^4=16 possible basic receptor types .
See "Phene Systems"

The information being triggered is in the cell-wall (the Phene system) . This causes various portals to open or close , influencing sodium , calcium , etc balances in cellular substructures (including DNA in the chain)
See "Unpacking and packing information"

Surrounding the cells are class of enzymes called EctoATPases that sequentially strip away the phosphor atoms from ATP .
See "Chaperones , unpacking and asthma"

This stripping of phosphor atoms makes the whole system workable by creating four unique markers necessary and sufficient for a three dimensional contiguous information space.

A teensy little problem is : where does all this energy go ? Heating up the synaptial fluid seems to be a result . Is this essential for multi-cellular life ? The intercellular information transfer spaces are then always hot and ready to roll . Certainly , it would give a great advantage to even a cold-blooded lifeform . The energy costs would not be very high .

From an evolutionary viewpoint , it is easy to see that a temperature control mechanism in synaptial fluids expanded into the whole organism in a random mutational-selection process .

But what is the original mechanism ?
See ApendixA "Throttle"
It must involve the production speed of ATP : ie the rotational speed of the rotor in the mitochodria .
There are two known ways to influence this:
Ironically , sleep seems to be basically necessary to give synaptical spaces a chance to cool down . If they grow too hot , the other neurotransmitters start breaking down and the well-known dementia of sleeplessness results . Obviously , the immune system is affected as well . This whole ATP signaling system is part of the immune control-system .
Note the correlation of symptoms between heat-stroke , sleeplessness and forms of dementia associated with various neurotransmitter shortages .

2.APS generator .
(See AppendixA)
The pulsed waveform will not only speed up lagging mitochondrial rotors, but also slow down ones that are too fast (ie overproducing ATP) . This should ameliorate synaptial fluid overheating .
Ideally , we should have an APS generator that can force a desired spin rate on any set of organs . But the one we can buy now is set at 3 milliseconds .

Remember , a standard human produces about 40 Kg of ATP per day (See AppendixA)

An useful analogue:
Using the energy transmission conduit also as an information transmission route is used in electrical systems . You can buy a system that uses the electrical wiring of your home to transmit music , video , internet , etc .
The analogue goes both ways , since the problems with the electrical system will also be experienced in the ATP system .

Known systems using ATP as neurotransmitter:
1.Blood vessel constriction : ATP as co-neurotransmitter with noradrenaline .
2. Blood vessel dilation : shear stress->ATP->NO->vessel relaxation.Part of the feedback system .
3.Blood clotting: platelets have ADP receptors.
4.Cell proliferation : eg restinosis , various cancers . See Phene control system .
5.Eye: acetylcholine and ATP are co-neurotransmitters.
6.Ear :about 50% of cochleal hairs have ATP receptors.
7.Taste:as expected , evolutionary old chemical receptors like taste or smell do not function without ATP receptors(in this case P2X2 and P2X3 receptors) .
8.Pain and touch: mainly the P2X3 receptor .
9.Neuropathy :
See "Neuropathy"
P2X receptors are involved .
10.Digestive system:
Irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease :P2X and P2Y receptors are involved .
11.Clotting :
Existing drugs Clopidogrel and Prasugrel blocks P2X12 receptor .
12.Tumors , developmental diseases , etc .
13.Disease regulation using bacterial ATP signaling.
14.Old Age
Apoptosis and ATP quorum mechanisms await exploration .

The Phene System:
It seems that the ATP signaling systems plays an important part in the meta-control system of multi-cellular organisms (multi-cellular includes a single cell with a mitochondrium by definition) .

We know that viruses encapsulated by cell-wall material is the signaling mechanism of cells .

Speculation : Distributed Viruses .
That ATP , ADP , AMP and Adenosine plus receptor sites form a distributed virus
The crystal structure of the P2X receptor looks like a typical virus . It only needs the key(s) to activate . As expected from a phene control mechanism , it regulates activities in the cell via switching on or off of genes in the DNA .
(See how handy the concept of phenes is ?)

Even more speculative :
Do not try this without qualified supervision .
Diseases like AIDS , cancer or old age must interact with the ATP signaling system at some stage . Quorum systems play a role (why we use melatonin)
Slow down the mitochondrial rotors with melatonin , and simultaneously entrain them with a APS generator on selected organs . Pulse if necessary .
This will hopefully break interlocked feedback cycles .

Interestingly , this should work on fevers as well , as well as disrupt quite a few viral diseases .

A hot time in the old town tonight .

Andre .


Appendix A

ATP and Catalytic Motors
Andre Willers
4 Dec 2008

The Catalytic Motor.
See Annexure A below .
This is a new concept to me .

The basic principle :
The chemical equilibrium of a reaction is biased in a certain direction by dynamical , rotational processes .

And not in a trivial way either . A whopping 40 kg per day production and consumption of ATP for a sedentary human (of say mass 80 kg) means a very finely balanced mechanism . (Half of body mass per day)

The logistical demands almost necessitate a multi-cellular organism .

Where does the rotor come from ?
From bacterial flagellae . They work by rotation of the flagella .(Google it)
The rotor is driven by proton gradients , caused by electron-flow balances between inflowing nutrients and usage .

Putative evolution :
The ur-mitochondrium was a free organism whose flagellae by chance could beat two poisons (oxygen and alcohol) into harmless ATP . As if protein-folding was not complicated enough , now dynamics have to be considered as well .
As the concentrations of these poisons increased , ur-mitochondria did the usual plaque - freeform alternation of bacteria . In every colony episode , the efficiency of the conversion was enhanced . At some stage , a freeform colonized some other bacterium . The host learned to use ATP as an energy source . Multicellular forms were force-formed .
The motors of the mitochondria cannot stop spinning . (If they do , apoptosis results: see Appendix B) . The ATP has to be used .

Rotor-spin speed:
This seems to be quite slow . (As expected from a flagella heritage) . About one to three milliseconds per revolution . ( About 1 to 0.3 kHz) . The ATP production is not smooth either . There are three units physically opening and closing (see Appendix A).

A very useful analogue:
We can use an national electricity grid operating at 1 kHz alternating current of three-phase current as an tool for understanding the meta-energy flow in the body . Every cell would be like a municipality with its own powerstation .
The voltage and transformers ? Nobody has looked , but a guess would be ATP concentration regulators , like the reticular cellular formations , antioxidants (see Appendix B) , ATP chaperones , cellular-wall ports , etc . You get the drift .

The advantage of this approach is that we then have an immediately usable box of tools to analyze and suggest fruitful new approaches .
Our electricity networks would also gain , since evolution has been at this problem for a tad longer than humans .

Melatonin for ESKOM ? Some would say they are asleep at the switch in any case .

Throttles .
There seems to be a wee problem here .
The problem seems to be too much energy , not too little .
Most organisms normally spend 1/9 to 1/3 of 24 hours actually getting enough to eat . The rest is spent having fun or sleeping .
But a certain reserve needs to kept (see "Infinite Probes" et al )

There is a strong suspicion that melatonin throttles down the production of ATP , but not the usage of ATP (cf fMRI scans of sleeping brains) See Appendix B . Sleep would then be necessary to keep the organism out of trouble (ie quiescent) while surplus ATP is used up . (1/3 : eg 8 hours per day)

Obesity epidemic:
As can be seen from the above , the problem is not a sudden influx of energy-rich food .This has been a trouble since the first mitochondrium took up housekeeping in a host cell .
The obesity is caused simply by a lack of sleep .
Present generations sleep less . Artificial lighting , computers , cinema , etc . The extra waking time is also usually spent eating .
The equilibrium is upset . (This has been going on for about 100 years on a large scale) .

An interesting result is the generational increase in IQ measurements . The system is trying to soak up the extra energy in more complex nervous structures (for which it has the evolutionary tools) . An epigenetic feedback loop is suspected .

Kids who stay up late for three generations will be fatter and smarter .

Diabetes .
Melatonin has many effects . Lack of it causes neuro-degenerative complications (see Appendix B) . Included is peripheral neuropathy . This is where we can use our useful little model of an electricity grid above . Without the feedback from the damaged nerves , the system cannot shift loads . Just monitoring the glucose level is too coarse. Fluctuations build up . Future load estimations cannot be made . Fat builds up .

Old Age
Lack of sleep during old age leads to glucose metabolic complications for all the reasons mentioned , regardless whether the person is obese or not .

Other throttles are rendered less effective by lack of materials:
Specifically , sulfur (H2S hibernation throttle) , chrome (cytochrome oxidase : see Appendix B) , alpha lipoic acid(nerve repair) , melatonin .

Homeostasis is another useful little energy soak .
Large brains ditto .

But Culture , hot or cold , is master of them all .
Nothing soaks up energy like culture . Fashion is by far the largest industry on the planet , outstripping even food production .
Eg sports is a fashion . Clothes .Entertainment . Tourism . Even lies . (JK Rowling is the most fashionable and richest professional liar in Britain .)

What is the culture of your mitochondria ?

An Actual , Physical ATP generator you can buy .
This is a well-known and clinically proven machine usually touted for pain-relief .
It works .
But the theory is rather patchy . There used to be a lot of mumbo-jumbo about the gate theory of pain .

It actually works by alleviating the underlying causes of the pain (see scans on website) . It does this by pumping energy into the ATP-rotors from the outside at the damage site .

It does this by sending 3-millisecond square pulses which decay exponentially (see wave-form on web-site .) This spins up damaged rotors and transfers energy (a non-food source of energy) . Most importantly , it re-establishes timing mechanisms . Cells on the point of mitochondrial apoptosis can be salvaged . (The apoptosis mechanism is very sensitive , due to all the feedback mechanisms involved.)
While the energy input here is small , the energy of an ATP molecule is not exactly large . And the ATP is targeted exactly at the damage site . This helps to stop the cascade effect of trauma-shock .

Your attention is drawn to the well-known effects of aligned magnetic fields on bone-healing . A similar thing happens here .
Notice the effects of zero electro-magnetic fields on early astronauts .(Their metabolisms went haywire) . They had to be supplied with artificial fields .

Energise organisms directly by high-energy em-waves .
Are there any like that already ? The planet is awash with em waves and organisms with flagellae .
Deep ocean , moons of Jupiter or Saturn springs to mind .

An actual cure for diabetes by re-establishing communications between cell-groups to do proper load-sharing .
Also useful for cases of paralysis or strokes .

Fat-loss without dieting or exercising . Fashionable .
Targeted , too .
Spin up the mitochondrial rotors with em-waves , then wash out the surplus ATP in urine after fixing this ATP with something like a mono-clonal anti-body .
Get rid of that cellulite !

Cheating at sports . (Even more fashionable)
A focused em-wave of the right form will boost ATP production of an athlete or horse at that critical instant , and is nearly undetectable .

Muscle building for the gym-brigade .
Eg the machine for training the biceps can have an em-generator focused on the biceps while training . Saturation by ATP will hopefully rapidly increase muscle mass.

MRI problems .
As you will have gathered , alignment of mitochondrial rotor-spins by a powerful magnetic field as found in MRI machines can have unfortunate effects if the patient is soon afterwards exposed to em radiation of periods of 3 milliseconds (or beats thereof)

Melatonin and DHEA supplements should form part of the old age package (like statins , etc) .

Nanotech should be able to do really interesting things .

And so it goes round and round .


Annexure A
Sunday, January 21, 2007
ATP Generator Structure – Function
Almost incredibly, a sedentary adult makes and uses 40 kg of ATP per day! ATP is made by the F0-F1 ATPase, a molecular motor with a rotating shaft and fixed "stator". One end of the shaft, F0, is buried in the mitochondrial inner membrane where the proton gradient causes it to rotate. A single gamma subunit connects the F0 to three alpha and beta subunits, together F1, which are responsible for synthesizing ATP from ADP and Pi (H2PO4-). As a catalytic motor and not just a catalyst, the F0-F1 ATPase is able to increase the rate of reaction away from the equilibrium (which strongly favors the reverse reaction, hydrolysis, because the concentrations of reactants and product in mitochondria are similar). The gamma subunit rotates too slowly, in the microsecond-to-millisecond range, for standard molecular dynamics simulation. To solve this, the authors applied "biasing forces" as the motor moved and assumed these forces would not change the mechanism. Positively charged amino acids on the gamma subunit attract negative amino acids on beta subunit, producing smooth and efficient ionic coupling. Rotation of the gamma subunit induces the opening of the beta subunits. The beta subunit closes spontaneously. Synthesis is not the reverse of hydrolysis, explaining why high concentrations of free ATP does not inhibit synthesis. Gao and colleagues propose a detailed model of how the motor harnesses the proton gradient to act against the equilibrium. Their quantitative model is based on the conceptual “binding change mechanism” model proposed by Boyer, where ATP synthesis proceeds by each beta subunit changing from “open”, weak nucleotide binding, to “tight”, high affinity ATP binding, to “loose”, with the release of ATP. The authors used this model to make accurate predictions about synthesis and hydrolysis kinetics and they invite others to test their detailed model.
PubMed :Yi Qin Gao, Wei Yang and Martin Karplus, "A Structure-Based Model for the Synthesis and Hydrolysis of ATP by F1-ATPase" Cell Oct 21, 2005; 123(2):195-205

Annexure B

Melatonin, mitochondria, and cellular bioenergetics.

Acuña-Castroviejo D, Martín M, Macías M, Escames G, León J, Khaldy H, Reiter RJ.

Departamento de Fisiología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada, Spain.

Aerobic cells use oxygen for the production of 90-95% of the total amount of ATP that they use. This amounts to about 40 kg ATP/day in an adult human. The synthesis of ATP via the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the result of electron transport across the electron transport chain coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. Although ideally all the oxygen should be reduced to water by a four-electron reduction reaction driven by the cytochrome oxidase, under normal conditions a small percentage of oxygen may be reduced by one, two, or three electrons only, yielding superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radical, respectively. The main radical produced by mitochondria is superoxide anion and the intramitochondrial antioxidant systems should scavenge this radical to avoid oxidative damage, which leads to impaired ATP production. During aging and some neurodegenerative diseases, oxidatively damaged mitochondria are unable to maintain the energy demands of the cell leading to an increased production of free radicals. Both processes, i.e., defective ATP production and increased oxygen radicals, may induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cell death. Melatonin has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in several experimental and clinical situations involving neurotoxicity and/or excitotoxicity. Additionally, in a series of pathologies in which high production of free radicals is the primary cause of the disease, melatonin is also protective. A common feature in these diseases is the existence of mitochondrial damage due to oxidative stress. The discoveries of new actions of melatonin in mitochondria support a novel mechanism, which explains some of the protective effects of the indoleamine on cell survival.

Publication Types:
• Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
• Review

PMID: 11270481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Sunday, March 18, 2012


Andre Willers
18 Mar 2012
Synopsis :
Monasteries in the remains of the Old Western Roman Empire evolved into vertically integrated biotech companies ., specialising in horses and crops .
Discusssion :
Monasteries evolved in old civilizations to smooth over the “bust” periods of their cycles .
(The civilizations that did not have the equivalent , perished)
They all share some characteristics :
1.Large , fortified buildings (they had to survive)
2.A disciplined labor force willing to put the common good above selfish considerations .
3.Extensive agricultural hinterlands , worked by the monks in para 2 above.
4.A culture of literacy and record keeping .
5.Ties to the surrounding communities (markets , innovation , quality control )
6.Vertical integration :
Implied in the above . The monastery had to be self-sufficient , not only in it’s own needs , but in producing trade articles to be used to purchase paper , ink , etc .
6.Disinterested in Procreation
See Appendix I .
About 11%-21% of population .
Any society that selects against this group has insufficient reserves to survive a major collapse . They will go out not with bang , but a whimper .

The military connection .
The severe shortage of manpower after the plagues of circa 130 AD in the Roman Empire
(See “Hadrian and Critical plague mass” Apr 2009)
, combined with the Roman experiences with Parthian Cataphracti , led the Roman military establishment to start a breeding program for large horses , centered in Gaul .
The idea was the same as what they did with the navy during the Punic Wars .
Put the heavily armored legionnaire on top of a mobile platform , the horse . This would use mobility to compensate for lack of numbers ( Mongols did the same) . When the shebang collapsed , the duces (later dukes) formed the core of their knights around the breeding establishments , which became monasteries because the religious orders were the only literates around . And they needed literacy for breeding programs .
These monasteries became really ,really good at it . Look at all the very specialised breeds of horses a knight needed .
They could furnish a new breed of horse , mule , ox ,cow ,sheep , dog within about a century from when the order was put in . (Present biotech companies cannot even do it)
Crops as well .
Flax of Flanders spring to mind . So does merino sheep , percherons , mules . The list goes on and on .
Monks were all over the world , ostensibly as observers (see 12th and 13th century Chinese and Mongolian writings , or Marco Polo) . They were looking for useful genomes .
The islands around Britain made for useful test sites . (Eg Friesland , Guernsy , Jersey cows) .
All modern fast racehorses are descended from a single Shetland pony with very fast-twitch muscles , putatively brought in from Tibet (some DNA sequencing required)
Beer , wine and cheese :
The same breeding principles apply to yeasts . These are so well known no further explanation is required .
An interesting aside:
Gregor Mendel’s experimental results have been conclusively proved to be fraudulent . They used fairly sophisticated forensic statistical techniques to do so .
Essentially , he knew what the results of his peas should be , and fudged it in the time-honored tradition of all undergraduates . This much is generally acknowledged .
But how did he know what the correct results should be ?
Data from the monasteries , of course (he was a monk) . All kept confidential as trade secrets for centuries .
Where are they now ?
All around you . Incorporated and at the frontiers of technology , like always . Just look for vertically integrated companies in biotech .

Appendix I “The Sexes of man” Nov 2004
The Sexes of Man

Standard Darwinism as applied to genes would indicate that the optimum strategy for a single cell is to have as many offspring as possible .

But how did multicellular organisms then manage to survive in competition with single cells ? After all , it takes more energy to run a multicellular : the organizational overheads .

Their edge is “tough times” . Some cells in multicellular organisms learned to utilize neighbour cells . Since these resources were close , the energy of utilization compared to a unicell hunting food was low .

If times are good , unicellular organisms like bacteria are inclined to eat multicellulars alive or eat their food (cf virulent tropical diseases , etc) . Unicellulars are still by far the biggest biomass on the planet .

If times are bad , the multicellular lives off the designated sacrificial cells , while the surrounding unicellulars die off en masse .

So the optimal environment for multicelluar organism to evolve and flourish is in environment of periodic scarcities . ie Tidal pools , seasons , Milankovich cycles , meteor strikes, volcanoes etc .

Note:the synoptic argument below is in time- and logical sequence .

Some cells became more important than others : in good times cells differentiated , in bad times the less important were scavenged first . Cells learned to package themselves for neat absorbtion (apoptosis) . Organs formed . Only some cells reproduced new organisms . This was a huge saving : stem cells differentiated from egg-cells . The immune system developed. (Differentiated stem cells) . Sex developed as a immune system response against attackers (parasites and diseases ) . Sex also had huge energy saving advantages , since a single gene-set could populate an eco- niche (and deny it to competitors) , but nearly all the males could be sacrificed when times are bad . One would expect a really strong hardwired tendency for males to die near their offspring . (Cf wars , exiles)

Parental care evolved . Now surpluses could be transferred from the adults to the children as long as the adults lived ( or were programmed to care ) .

To put it another way : a gene group can ensure better survival by having a non-reproducing group of relatives. This is but our old principle above where close cells are used as reserves . The only question is the exact percentage .

If a constant percentage (r) of every human generation is postulated to lead to offspring , the relevant percentages for maximized resources per child are
Grandchildren Offspring : 79.3701% No-Offspring : 20.6299%
Great-Grandchildren Offspring : 88.0749% No-Offspring : 11.3251%
(This derivation is available on request , but can easily be duplicated . Just remember that the surplus per generation is the children the “non-offspring” lot did not have , and that the surplus only accumulated after the “non-offspring” should have had children (ie one generation))

As long as the number of offspring per parent remains constant (regardless of 1 to 1 , 1 to many) parentages , these percentages will remain .

What does this mean ?
With humans , it means there is a large niche ( 11% to 21% ) of any generation where having no offspring means that the chances of a gene-groups viable survival is optimal . ie It pays the society to have 11-21% childless people .

The other sexes of Man
These are the gays , asexuals , misanthropes , explorers and other assorted misfits .

(Note recent statistical finding that the female relatives of gay men have more children than average : either a gene fit or the women looking around and thinking they can afford more children on expectations . )

Furthermore , if the birthrate decreases , this niche decreases by between the square and the cube of the decrease the birthrate during the period of the decrease . (Vicious)
Ie a halving of the birthrate will mean a decrease in the niche to ( 3% to 5%) at the best . Note that this is only applicable during the transition . Once it is stabilized , it will return to the 11-22 % range . But things in the interim will not be pleasant .

A societal decrease in tolerance of 8% can only be described as a turn towards fundamentalism .

This is structural:ie driven by factors effectively outside human control .

In both the West and Muslim worlds , the chance of having viable offspring in the 2nd and 3rd generation has decreased markedly . In the West by decreasing birthrates , and in the Muslim world by a static resource base divided by an increasing population . This tends to fundamentalism . Ironically enough , it does not hold (at the present moment) for China,India,Japan because of high growth rates .

But if a worldwide recession (a-la-1930’s) set in (probability +-45%) , then China and Japan could hunker down , but India would be forced into a fundamentalist Hindu expansionist phase . This would trigger a US - India alliance which would grind Islam fine , re-colonise Africa and eye South-America with a hungry eye . Australia is already past its carrying capacity .

To put it in other words , get off-planet . The monkeys are soon going to render this one uninhabitable .



Thursday, March 15, 2012

Crustal Superconductors.

Crustal Superconductors
Andre Willers
15 Mar 2012

“Diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble” Isaac Newton
“O Diamond , diamond ! Thou little knowest the mischief done! “ Isaac Newton

Speculative .
What can the beachcomber on Mauritius pick up in the line of crustal high-temperature electric superconductors ? We try to deduce the origin , appearance and main characteristics of such materials , as well as where they may be found .

Discussion :
Read “Continental Lurch” Mar 2012 .
Especially the bits about the origin of diamonds .

Diamonds are rather ho-hum . Superconductors are much more interesting and valuable .

Our putative superconductors are formed when a metallic meteor punches through the crust to the high-temperature , high-pressure areas underneath . The combination of diamond fullerenes , exotic metals and wildly fluctuating temperature-pressure shock wavefronts cook up a metamaterial like an inverted crystal structure .

One possible model:
The “crystal” nodes are occupied by diamond fullerenes , connected by metals , which stabilize by collapsing into stable states by emitting neutrino's , of all things .

Piezoelectric effect :
Squeezing it will cause an excess of electrons ,
The system will self-organize into nodules and layers of nodules as continuous pressure differentials causes magnetic effects .

It is not very strong physically , and about as temperature resistant as diamond .

The pervasive presence of a liquid conductor (like seawater) will enable nodules and slabs of nodules to survive .

But a cool volcano will be needed to bring it to the surface (like with diamonds)

Does this sound familiar ?
“Industrial diamonds” grit . The matrix is actually the really valuable part , but trust humans to discard it .

Commercial deposits :
Seawater and mud currents will do the normal geological trick of concentrating deposits .

They can be recognized by the magnetic anomalies they create .
Being superconducting and piezoelectric , small pressure differentials in the ocean creates large magnetic fields . The nodules self-organize in the center of ocean gyres .

So , we can expect strong magnetic fields causing very deep inclinations in magnetic compasses in areas like the Bermuda Triangle or Dragons Triangle or Mauritius Triangle . An ordinary magnetic compass will look as if it is rotating , as it thinks North is underneath it .

To sum it up :
A low/high pressure front (eg fog) moving over an area where nodules are concentrated will induce intense magnetic effects . Any vehicle with conducting materials moving through it will experience intense localised heating . Aircraft will simply disintegrate , and ships with rivets or welds not do much better .
Accompanied by serious St Elmo effects , neutralizing any radio transmissions .
Nodules 1 . Humans 0 .

What does a nodule look like ?
About the size of a fist , black with glints . Leaves sooty marks and disintegrates rapidly if taken out of seawater .

If you see one , do not touch it with bare hands . The diamond bits are sharper than razors , and the heavy metals will poison you .

It will probably disintegrate if put into a Faraday cage .

Do NOT connect it to a battery . Being an inverse crystalline metamaterial , it will suck the battery dry . The current flux will cause the battery to explode , and the node extremely shortly after that .

Industrial uses :
1.The perfect battery
2.Superconductor of electricity at high temperatures (est ~800 C)

1.A large enough organized concentration should give a magnetic monopole , which means a reactionless drive . Might already exist in the Triangles . Good luck with the theory . Fusion power .

2.Small , sensitive neutrino detector and generator . This will enable fine-detail detection of life-bearing or technological planets .

Where to find them :
Locals in areas like Florida , Eastern China coast , Mauritius coast most probably know them .
The Scientific Community has , mouldering away in some luckless students' theses , the clues . But it did not fit the Orthodoxy .
Eg , there are terabytes of data about magnetic anomalies , but very steep anomalies are elided as instrument or human error (like what happened with the ozone hole).
(I looked at some . Every time things got interesting , there was a break in the data .
The self-censorship of timidity.)

An interesting aside :
Global Warming will cause steeper pressure gradients , generating greater magnetic fields in the Nodule Concentration Fields . Also changing the general Magnetic field of the planet . Influencing the impact of solar storms , etc . So , we do not need major changes in the deep-magma core flows to get magnetic field reversals at the surface .

This means that the Nodule Concentration Fields are energy sinks , cooling the planet by radiating excess heat as EM radiation . Another one of Gaia's little tricks .

Nodule Concentration Field Lasers :
With a little help from humans , Nodule Concentration Fields can be tweaked to more efficiently cool by radiating as lasers .

Maybe it is built-in .
This might happen when the magnetic fields self-enclose , forming a magnetic monopole .
I definitely want to elsewhere when this happens .

Systems like these tend to be over-enthusiastic . So there should be a strong correlation between magnetic field reversals and ice ages .

Ley Lines :
I can't pass this up .
There is a school of thought that ley-lines (dragon-lines) are energy conduits powered by generators in the Nodule Concentration Fields . If they power up the ley-lines will also power up and megalithic ruin sites will become very interesting places .
This has the merit of being measurable .

Stone-Henge , the Pyramids and other sites could suddenly reactivate .
And it would be sudden . The self-enclosure of the magnetic monopoles is an on-off switch .

The Matriarchy strikes again !

Another Pebble . Anyone ?



Monday, March 12, 2012

Continental Lurches

Continental Lurches.
Andre Willers
12 Mar 2012

Continents drift along , but occasionally and periodically basement collapses around expansion ridges causes lurches in all three dimensions . Large portions of real estate go up , down or sideways .

Discussion :
Think Spinward and anti-Spinward .
Structures uplifted tend to move anti-spinward , and structures collapsing tend to move spinward .
(Elementary trigonometry).

Now look at a coarse map of the world that includes the sea-floor .
Notice the Mid-Atlantic ridge . This is where the sea-floor gets created and old sea-floor gets crumpled like paper .

Notice the assymmetrical distribution relative to spin direction . Multiple ripples , but much wider in the anti-spinward direction than spinward .

See Crumpling argument in Appendix I . The sea-floor structure has enough similar characteristics to paper (loose crystalline structure) to apply the Crumpling Algorithm .

This then means that most of the crumpled structures are not floor material , but filled with a fluid matter under high pressure (water , water-gas under pressure , light magma , etc) .

Now what happens if the pressure is relieved by a burp along the mid-ridge ?
(Not even a volcano)

The elevated regions to either side of the ridge collapse rapidly , (like a souffle falling) ,
crowding up to the anti-spinward side of the ridge or spreading out from the spinward side .
The continental floor lurches sideways from the Ridge , and so do the continents .
Unstable faults are triggered . The dust may or may not trigger an ice age (recent findings are that there was more dust during glacial periods than after)

Then the slow cycle starts again , the upliftment causing spread on the anti-spinward side and crowding the spinward side of the ridge .

This gives the pattern of ripples we see around the ridge , smeared towards anti-spinward because of the relative difference in the speed of the processes .

You can calculate the periodicity by examining the ripples .

We know a fairly major one was about 10 000 years ago ,

Now we have a mechanism to explain rapid plunging of intact surface areas by thousands of meters .

See “Atlantis Colony II” Nov 2011

When is the next Lurch ?

Ask the Net . I do not know .

An interesting aside :
Major impact site at roughly 22 S 67 W (just east of Mauritius) at present .

Normally a globe like Terra would find 4 major rifts sufficient . An so we find for three , spread at 90 degree longitudes in pole-to-pole directions .
Mid-Atlantic (30 degrees W)
East Pacific (120 degrees W)
West Pacific ( 150 degrees E)

But one is tangled up .
Indian Ocean (60 degrees West)
Something whacked the Earth very , very hard , crumpling the seafloor like paper and aborting the East-African rift . Continents were sent lurching off in new directions . This would then seem about 8 million years ago (start of India's northward drift) ,

Looking at the seafloor and the anti-spin and spin distribution of the five major crumpling ridges , there seems to be an acceptable substitute for the original African Rift valley .
However , it will be the source of instability for the next 10 million years .

Diamonds and other goodies
See Appendix II below .

Diamonds are formed routinely in the crust under high pressure , but are stable under lower pressures .
Lots of other really useful materials share the same characteristic . But they cannot survive a high temperature ascent to the surface (hot volcanoes)

Hence the diamond fields of Africa (cold volcanoes resulting from the Vredefoort impact)

The same thing happened at our impact site above . But it is underwater .

Look at the spinward side of the ridges , where there should be extraordinarily rich pockets of diamonds in the alluvial mud-flows . Use the Vredefoort impact site as a baseline to calculate the optimal distances .

I can intuit that high-temperature superconductors might very well be found here .
(Diamonds , fullerenes and exotic metals)
Use thermal imaging . Anomalous magnetic effects are probable .

The same as Bermuda Triangle (KT impact) ? Does SA around Vredefoort have superconductors ?

As usual , nobody has looked . They very likely have the instrumental readings , but it was disregarded as not fitting the orthodoxy .

Very likely , some island children of the Mascarine Islands are playing with those funny stones .

We lurch from the obvious to the obvious .

Appendix I
Crumpling Paper and Space-Time
Andre Willers
23 Feb 2012

“The moving finger writes , and having writ , crumples it in random ruins.”
With apologies to Omar Khayyam .

Crumpled paper gives a good approximation of spacetime as a membrane with clumpy masses .
“Empty” spaces not occupied by the membrane gives an impression of dark matter .
We derive an expression to give this ratio using Infinite Descent and Beth(0) Random Walk .

Discussion :
1.The Crumpled paper :
Consider a paper disk of radius r and thickness d .
It's volume is then Vp=pi * r^2 * d
Draw a line from the center to the edge , in steps of length d , over the edge , then back to the center Let nu=r/d , a measure of the thickness of the paper . Note that it is a pure number .

The number of steps in the line is then n0=(2r/d)+1
But the number of steps to the edge of the original paper disk is n1=r/d=(n0-1)/2

Vp=(pi*d^3*(n0-1)^2 )/4

Crumple it up in a way that is as random as flipping a coin (ie Beth(0) )

The Trick : The line we have drawn up above breaks up into random vectors by rotating through a third dimension = crumpling into a ball .

We thus have a continuous line of random steps of known number of steps .
In 3 dimensions , the mean square distance from the center then is known
R = d * (n0)^0.5 …. See true for all dimensions as long as all are of Beth(0) order of randomness.

Volume of crumpled ball Vb=4/3*pi*R^3
The Ratio Vb/Vp = mu then gives the ratio of crumpled ball space to volume of paper mass .

Mu={4/3*pi*d^3 *n0^(3/2)} / (pi*d^3*(n0-1)^2 )/4
Notice the d^3 term and pi cancels out . This has profound physical implications .
This simplifies to

Expressed as thickness of paper , nu , which is a pure number independent of metric chosen .
mu=4*4/3(2*nu+1)^3/2 / (2*nu)^2
mu=4/3*(2nu+1)^3/2 / nu^2
This gives a quartic equation in nu , which can be solved exactly algebraically .
(mu)^2*(nu)*4 – 2^7/3^2 *(nu)^3 – 2^6/3^2 (nu)^2 – 2^5/3^2 * (nu)^1 - 2^4/3^2 =0

Test it on A4 paper:
A4 paper has thickness d~0,1 mm and r~150 mm
mu= 1- 0.90257841
This means that the crumpled A4 paper ball encloses about 90% empty space .
This agrees with experimental results . See NewScientist.

Note that the force applied does not matter . As long as the paper is untorn , mu will be the same .

How many times can it be folded ?
Solving the above (see below) gives mu=1 for about nu=14.7 to 14.8 .
This means there are no empty spaces left to fold into .

This can get complicated , so I will keep it simple .
Take a piece of paper and fold it . You then have a new piece of paper .The test-circle of same r will have double the thickness .
Ie , nu will double .
Between 7 and 8 folds , nu will hit the ceiling of mu=1 , regardless of the starting value of nu .
This is the maximum number of paper folds , as confirmed from other sources .

Physical interpretations :
Take an m-dimensional space . Randomness of order Beth(0) applies equally to all . The underlying equalizer . Collapse it to three dimensions and let the third one approach single Planck lengths .
Then we can use the above paper approximation . Notice how d cancels out except for an addition of 1 in final ratio .

What does it mean ?
See the physical universe as a brane (ie sheet of paper) in a multiverse . Crumpling it means it has mass and singularities . Both are aspects of the same thing .
An estimate of the number of singularities can be made from edges and points in crumpled paper .

Can we crumple the paper to a ball that is just paper ?
That is a particle .
The answer is “Yes” .

Such crumpling means that mu=1 (no empty space in any dimension )
This gives an quartic equation in nu that solves to four values , other dimensions than three denoted by i=(-1)^0.5

See for a calculator
nu1= 14.722181 (this makes the physical particle universe possible . Mass .
Nu2= - 0.004167 + i*0.49558 (Rotation :Spin :charge and magnetism)
nu3 = - 0.004167 - i*0.49558 (Rotation :Spin :charge and magnetism) notice the minus sign .
Nu4= - 0.49164542 (quantum effects as the particles dither. Inertia?)

What does a negative nu mean ?
nu=r/d . A negative nu means one of r or d must be negative .
1.If r is negative , it can be interpreted as curled up dimensions , inside the “outside” dimensions as defined by i . See “ The inside of zero” Aug 2009
2.If d is negative , it can be interpreted as quantum effects . A particle does not “occupy” all the space . Likes hopscotch .
3.But notice the the two are interrelated .The notorious observer effect . Where we place the minus sign between r or d .

There should be relationships between nu2 , nu3 and nu4 . Various rotations between macro- and micro dimensions .
This means the contraption is not symmetrical But we already know that ,

Physical constants :
Things like charge , mass , etc should be derivable from these basics . Hint:use lots of crumpled paper .

There is hope . The fact that it is quartic equation , which is always solvable , means that the Universe can be understood . Complicated and perverse , but as long as you stick to Beth(0) randomness , it can be understood . For higher orders of randomness , good luck .

Dark Matter :
I nearly forgot . Using Planck units , we can define the ratio of thickness of the brane as
nu=c*PlanckTime/(1*Planck Time)
nu=c = 3*10^8
This gives a
Mu=4/3*(2c+1)^3/2 / c^2
Simplifying (c is very large) . This gives the approximation
mu=4/3* 2^1.5 / c^0.5
mu=2.1773242 * 10^ (-4)
mu = 1-0.999783357
This means that 99.9783357 % of the universe can be interpreted as being “Dark Matter”.
Ie with attractive and repulsive qualities . Basically empty space .
May you have joy of that .

An interesting aside :Creative artists .
How many pieces of paper does an artist need to crumple up and throw away before he finds something acceptable ?
Something acceptable would translate to mu=1 . Thus , we can say 7-8 truly random foldings should give a result .
The same holds for cryptanalysis or any attempt to find an unknown .
Algorithm :
Try 8 times , crumple , then put it aside and try again later .
There is a quantum connection , strange as it might seem .

And what about a nice little Crumpling App for smartphones ?
But the randomness should be from truly random tables , not pseudo-random generators .

Randomly yours.
Appendix II
Andre Willers
8 Feb 2011
"Diamonds are a girl's best friends " Gaia
Synopsis :
Earth is globed by a glittering shell of diamonds formed during the cooling phases of the planet about 3 to 1 billion years ago . A few of these survive transportation to the surface during some cool volcanic , tectonic and impact events .
Discussion :
See Appendices below  below :
1.Lots of Carbon
A planet without a diamond necklace would not have enough carbon to give rise to a carboniferous life .
Startrek would say :
"No diamonds , no life as we know it , Jim ."
2.Neutrino Signature :
Large concentrations of diamonds have a distinct neutrino shadow (due to multiple refraction and absorption) .
Sufficient masses of diamonds in a semi-liquid matrix self-assemble into meta-materials to more efficiently absorb neutrinos . Cold volcanos result .
For the proof of this :
Either you see it , or else it will be a bit of a slog .
Remember , the surrounding semi-molten rock is transparent to neutrinos .
A lot of energy is absorbed by the diamond metamaterial  . This plays a major part in the planetary energy balance .
This has obvious significance to detection of extra-solar planets capable of bearing carbon-based life .
Venus indicates too much energy can be transferred , leading to mantle-eruptions that paved the planet . The carbon went into CO2 in the atmosphere . Not that many diamonds left on Venus .
Mars should be lousy with diamonds . Just look around the hot pockets .
Or that big ,cool volcano . Or the fracture zones between the hemispheres .
Or … .
You get the drift .
Are there undiscovered diamond deposits in South Africa ?
Yes .
The Vredefort  impact created numerous near-contiguous fractures. The gave way under pressure to cool volcano's with very rapid exit velocities (ie the diamonds scooped up from the mantle did not have time to burn up . ) These weathered and water washed the diamonds away to be concentrated in places like Alexander bay .
This took a fairly long time . Rivers formed , vanished , reformed and the land twisted
To the West , many deposits have been found . Kimberley , etc
To the East , few .if any .
Algorithm :
Draw a circle around Vredefort with radius at Kimberley . You will notice it encompasses most of the gold and platinum bearing areas towards all areas except East and South-East . This is because these areas got squinched up in subsequent tectonic movements . Nobody can un-squinch them , but we can say meaningful things on a macroscopic scale . Because the time-scale is relatively large , we can use "Newtools" Nov 2008 . The Reserve and Error arguments indicate that we simply progressively shrink the East and South-East present map measurements to a third of the radii projected from Vredefort-Kimberley
radius . This gives a kidney shaped depression just east of the Orange River and west of the coastal escarpment . From Estcourt in the north to Colesberg-Noupoort in the south . Minerals should be concentrated here .
Note that the first diamond in South Africa was picked up at Colesberg . I could never figure out why this was not followed up .
Estimated diamond reserves :
About 1/3 of that found at Alexander bay .
Platinum etc : about 1/3 to ¼ found to the north .
Heavy metals would tend to settle at dead-ends or swirling lees .
The corridor from Colesberg to East London is the most remarkable geological trap system I have ever seen . It looks like a baleen whale's mouth .
It should be lousy with heavy metals .
A less remarkable system can be seen heading to Idutywa .
Read Appendix C link .
Would Luna have diamonds ?
Doubtful . Diamonds probably did form in Earth(0) before the impact event that resulted in Luna , but the impact temperatures probably cooked any diamonds .
But , some might have survived in pockets of Earth(0) ejecta in Trojan orbits . There is a distinct probability (+-15%) that large diamonds can be found in Earth-Lunar Trojans .
Re-entry diamonds with datable pyrodone garnet inclusions would then give formation dates before the Luna-forming impact . Has any been found ?
Unknown . On human form results like these have probably been swept under the carpet .
So , Gaia might have diamond earrings . These should be even easier to detect from really far away using neutrino shadowing .
Simply put , a planet with lots of carbon and a big moon can be detected from very far away .
So much for Ceti . Anyone interested already knows what is here , and has done so for millions of years .
Gaia will not be pleased .
You think I am joking ?
See "Inverse Anthropomorphisms" Feb 2011
See "Death of the Dinosaurs " Dec 2008
See "AI-1 " Jul 2008
See "AI update " Jun 2009
And sundry others .
I do not know how aware or self-aware Gaia is at the moment in logical terms , but both will follow in the near future .
See "Singularities " Feb 2011
And Gaia would not be pleased to be ignored . (Remember anthropomorphism)
Information (like this blog) would be open to her . (Memory)
I , for one , have no intention of pissing her off .
Maybe a teensy bit of exploration might be called for ?
Tentatively yours
Appendix A
A good general discussion :
Mine or Location
Diamond Age 
(Billion years)
Pipe Age  
(billion years)
Pipe Rock
Diamond Inclusions
Orapa, Botswanna
Premier, S. Africa
Argyle, Australia
Finsch, S. Africa
Finsch, S. Africa
Kemberly, S. Africa
In the above listing, * means approximate. The Finch Mine, South Africa is listed twice because it includes two pipes featuring diamonds of differing ages. Note the vast difference between the ages of the diamonds and of the pipe material that carried them to the surface.
Appendix B
Impact considerations from Vredefort impact .
Formation and structure
The asteroid that hit Vredefort is one of the largest ever to strike Earth (at least since the Hadean) and is estimated at 5–10 km (3.1–6.2 mi) wide.[3] The crater has a diameter of roughly 250–300 km (155–186 mi),[2] larger than the 200 km (124 mi) Sudbury Basin and the 170 km (106 mi) Chicxulub crater. This makes Vredefort the largest known impact structure on Earth. (The Wilkes Land crater in Antarctica, if confirmed to be the result of an impact event, is even larger at 500 kilometers across.) The Vredefort crater's age is estimated to be more than 2 billion years (2,023 ± 4 million years), striking during thePaleoproterozoic era. It is the second-oldest known crater on Earth, a little less than 300 million years younger than the Suavjärvi crater in Russia.
It was originally thought that the dome in the center of the crater was formed by a volcanicexplosion, but in the mid 1990s evidence revealed that it was the site of a huge bolide impact, as telltale shatter cones are often discovered in the bed of the nearby Vaal River.
The Vredefort crater site is one of the few multi-ringed impact craters on Earth, although they are more common elsewhere in the Solar System. Perhaps the best-known example isValhalla crater on Jupiter's moon Callisto, although Earth's Moon has a number as well. Geological processes, such as erosion and plate tectonics, have destroyed most multi-ring craters on Earth.
The nearby Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) and Witwatersrand Basin were created during this same period, leading to speculation that the Vredefort bolide's mass and kinetics were of sufficient magnitude to induce regional volcanism. The BIC is the location of most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs), while the Witwatersrand basin holds most of the known reserves of gold.
The Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site is currently facing threats from unstructured property developments and the Parys Sewage Treatment Plant, which are in a dilapidated state and are pumping untreated sewage into the Vaal River and the crater site.[citation needed]
Appendix C
A more detailed consideration of impacts .
Note the general fractal nature of fractures in the scope of the supersonic impact wave and subsequent relaxation  wave
Cool routes to the surface result .
Hence survival of diamonds .

Wednesday, March 07, 2012

Cold Adaptation in Real Time

Cold Adaptation in Real Time
Andre Willers
7 Mar 2012

“She asked me why
I was such a hairy guy “ Hair

We use established epigenetic pathways to trigger cold-adapted genes in every cell , even in mature individuals .

Discussion :
The Analogue : Architecture of a computer system
Think of the DNA code as the Operating System Kernel and the Histone System as the Application Interface .

We know that mammalian DNA has cold-adaptation genes (ask any bear)
We know that epigenetic markers plays a role in cold adaptation .
(See NewScientist 4 Feb 2012 p8 “ Ice age survival:clues in fossil DNA .” Some nifty biochemical detective work by Alan Cooper found definitive methylization in fossilized bison bones 26 000 years old from an ice age)

There are at least ten epigenetic mechanisms . See Annexure I

But we also know that ordinary seasonal temperature changes trigger different parts of the genome being activated in every cell . All over .
Eg animals become more hairy , pelt color changes , degrees of aggression, etc , etc .

These are epigenetic changes .
To use our model , an Application Program is accessing the Operating System Kernel .

This Application Program has been refined by evolution , and can be activated by a few Hot-Keys .
We merely have to find them .

Cold Adaptation Syndrome .(CAS)
Hot-Key 1
Temperature on glabrous skin surfaces .
See Appendix II below .
Small arboreal animals (ie our distant ancestors) could regulate their temperature by friction (heating) or quiescence (cooling) while in contact with with the heat-sink of the branch , all the while regulating the greatly variable bloodflow under the glabrous skin .

The glabrous (hairless) skin is the palms , soles , inner genitals , parts of the digestive system , especially the mouth , parts of the breathing apparatus .

The inner genitals are interesting . Peeing in sub-zero temperatures sends very definite signals to the system as far as temperature and pressure is concerned .
Cicumcised men would a better cold-adaptation in areas where daily temperatures fluctuate around freezing .(eg desert)

Hot-Key 2:
Pressure on skin surfaces .
See Appendix II below .
Reduced pressure on glabrous skin will increase bloodflow . In an cold environment , the heat-loss will trigger an element of the Cold Adaptation Syndrome .

Increased Pressure :
A surprising finding . We know that increased pressure on muscles increase the efficiency of the lactate metabolism . It is actually a cold-adaptation See Appendix III below .
Cold weather shrinks the hide and tendons .

Hot-Key 3
“It ain't over until the fat lady's teeth chatter”
Compression waves from teeth-chattering is the final trigger .
See previous posts on about the Click language .
As previously described , this can be optimized as
“Double teeth click , double tongue click , repeated at least three times”
No need to wait until you are half-frozen .

Hot-Key 4
Availability of biologically active sulfur .
See Appendix IV

Putting it all together :
Three Hot-Keys are the minimum sufficient , but sulfur is really a pre-requirement .

How to program your epigenetic Cold-Adaptation Syndrome
The poor man's way , without fancy , expensive equipment :

1.Take MSM (about 1000 mg) with about 300 mg Vit C at least one hour before .
This gives gives sufficient sulfur for hibernation triggers .

2.Take three heat-conducting rods (eg iron pipes) about a foot long , coat them with a sticky syrup (honey is fine) . Put them in the freezer .

3.When they are frozen , put on the pressure-bands on the voluntary muscle groups :
elastic bands on the upper arms , thighs , mid-torso and forehead .

4.Drink a glass of iced water .

5.Douche penis glans or inner labia with cold water . (Optional)

6.Open the freezer compartment , grip the sticky pipe and open and close your hands while it remains cold and sticky . This reduces the pressure on the palms , stimulating glabrous blood engorgement while cooling it . About three times per pipe for the three pipes should be sufficient .

7.Simultaneously , breathe in cold air from the freezer compartment through the nose .

8.Simultaneously , double-click teeth , then double-click tongue , while doing this . At least 0 times . (Essential)

9.Pregnant women should not do this .

Congratulations !
You have now epigenetically programmed all your cells .

Some interesting asides :
1.Athletes who have used the apparatus as described in Appendix II (LA footballers) .
Some of them must have had children since starting . Are these children cold-adapted ?
And have these footballers themselves become cold-adapted ?

2.Does the pressure reduction in a gecko's feet as it hangs from the ceiling play a role in it's temperature regulation ?

3.Will this put hair on your chest , or , more importantly , on your bald pate ?

Hirsutely yours


Annexure 1
From Wikipedia
. Modifications of the tail include methylation,acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, citrullination and ADP-ribosylation. The core of the histones H2A, H2B and H3 can also be modified. Combinations of modifications are thought to constitute a code, the so-called "histone code".[9][10] Histone modifications act in diverse biological processes such as gene regulation, DNA repair and chromosome condensation (mitosis


Annexure II
The Mile-High Effect .
Andre Willers
11 Nov 2011


Flying makes you randy .

Naturally hairless (glabrous) skin have subcutaneous vascular systems that are used in mammalian thermoregulation . See Appendices A,B,C .

The blood supply to labia minora (women) and glans penis(men) also involves sexual arousal and excitation .

A jet aircraft rapidly ascends , but cabin pressure is stabilized at about 7 000 ft altitude (about a mile high ) .
This rapid ascent decreases the air pressure around the passenger , resulting in blood rushing into these vascular pockets in the hands , feet , lips and genitalia .

Reverse feedback :
The body-state influences the mental state . A well-known effect , and used extensively in therapy .

What happens with aircraft :
1.Randiness .
Engorgement of genitals :
The body-mind senses this and thinks there must be some reason . Autonomous sexual arousal mechanisms in the genitalia and brain are initiated . Very old and robust mechanisms . Especially if fear is involved .
Young , healthy passengers get extremely aroused . Inhibitions vanish like the clouds outside .
They are elevated to the mile-high club .
Women in the fertile part of their cycle would be especially vulnerable .(Cf recent case of female's over-exuberant sexual approach to a airline steward .)
Alcohol will worsen things , apart from relaxation of inhibitions . Alcohol also relaxes peripheral blood vessels , which increases engorgement even more .

2.Feeling cold :
2.1Sensing the blood rush to the hands and feet , the brain thinks the body must be cold . A feeling of cold results , hence the cabin temperature is thus kept elevated and blankets dished out . This can cause problems on long flights , as the homeostatic mechanism adjusts . Hyperthermia and heatshock can result .
2.2Short-term hypothermia can be problem , especially if a lot of alcohol is consumed . Typical hypothermic symptoms like hallucinations , etc . Google it . A real effect .

3.All that blood rushing hither-and-yon will tax the vascular system , especially in unfit persons not used to aerobic exercise . Turbulence in the veins and arteries , especially as they are also dilated by the decreased pressure , causes a greater threat of blood-clots forming . The longer limbs like the legs are more vulnerable . Hence DVT(deep vein thrombosis) on flights . Or roughness on vascular walls (like with plaques) .

4.Pressure in the brain .
Humans simply have not evolved to handle rapid external pressure changes . The only serious research has been done by the military . Note that Grahn and Heller has major military contracts .
But it will have some effect , major if the passenger has some brain abnormality and/or the Eustachian tubes are blocked .

5.Feet will swell .
Don't wear tight shoes . Try not to cling to the baggage racks with your toes .

6.Fingers will swell
(See Appendix B : ventral portions of the fingers are glabrous)
This will decrease musical abilities across the board .
Many sports and other abilities depending on tactile rhythm and pattern perception (tennis , violin , darts , cricket , surgery , etc) will take some time to recover after a flight .
How long ?
I don't know . Research is really needed .
At present , I would refuse to be operated on by a doctor that has flown within the last 24 hours .
See “Human Nails” Aug 2007

7.Fluctuating atmospheric pressures over selected body areas .
Humans have evolved to associate hyperbaric with heat and hypobaric with cold .
(Meteorolgical systems)
Interesting effects can be obtained by varying these over selected portions of the human anatomy , especially if heating or cooling is also selectively applied .

This is possible because so few , highly delimited areas are involved .

Glabrous is glamorous .

A new Dimension of reality in virtual reality , having real physiological effects .
Lots of money in really cool effects in games .

This is already being applied .
The mile-high club is one example . The usage incidence of hypobaric chambers is unknown .

But we are all familiar with the spam about “penile enlargement” involving low-pressure .
Sigh . This does not work too well , because it sends contradictory signals to the body .
The glans engorgement signals both coldness and arousement to the body . The body decides which is which on the basis of temperature , mostly . If the apparatus is not at least 1-2 celsius warmer than body mean (38 C) , it concludes “It's cold outside , babe” and shrinks accordingly . The rest of the body gets conditioned to associate sex with coldness .
Not exactly what was in mind .

Spontaneous combustion is known , but spontaneous refrigeration ?

The mind (and other parts) boggle .

Andre .


Appendix A

Incorporating Variable Vascular Heat Exchangers Into Models Of Human Thermoregulation
Dennis A. Grahn, Howard L. Davidson, H. Craig Heller

Last modified: 2011-03-20

Models of human thermoregulatory function generally assume that heat transfer across the skin surface is uniform. However, only glabrous skin regions contain unique vascular structures that enable a large volume of blood to flow immediately below the skin surface. These are the body’s radiators. We are constructing a novel model of thermoregulatory function that incorporates heat transfer across the glabrous skin regions as separate from heat transfer across the general skin surface.

Appendix B
On the human body, glabrous skin is external skin that naturally is hairless. It is found on theventral portion of the fingers, palmar surfaces of hands, soles of feet, lips, labia minora, and glans penis.

Appendix C
Patent Watch
Patent No. 7,947,068

Controlled heat transfer with mammalian bodies: In the 1990s Stanford University biologists Dennis Grahn and H. Craig Heller discovered a novel way of treating patients with a condition known as postanesthetic hypothermia, in which patients emerging from anesthesia are so cold that they shiver for up to an hour. The condition develops in part because anesthesia reduces the body’s ability to control its own temperature. Applying heat alone does not always help, so Grahn and Heller tried another approach: they increased the volume of blood flowing to the skin of patients’ hands and then applied heat to the same area. “These people were fine within 10 minutes,” Grahn says. “Then the question was, ‘What the heck is going on here?’”
They had stumbled on a feature of mammalian biology that can be manipulated for a wide array of other applications, including ones requiring cooling. Among these uses is increasing athletic endurance, because overheating is one of the primary factors limiting physical performance. One of the main ways the human body regulates internal temperature is by controlling the amount of blood flow through nonhairy skin areas, such as the palms, the cheeks, the nose and the soles of the feet. Underneath the skin of these areas are unique vascular structures designed to deliver large volumes of blood to the surface. When the body needs to release heat, it expands these vessels and floods the area with blood, throwing off heat through the skin. The body holds in heat by constricting blood flow to these areas.
Patent No. 7,947,068 outlines a variety of ways to manipulate these processes. One, called the Glove, is already in use by the San Francisco 49ers. Players stick their hand into the coffeepot-size device, which creates an airtight seal around the wrist. The Glove then uses a pressure differential to draw blood to the palm and rapidly cool it, which leads to an overall decrease in body temperature. The device can be used at any point during a game and takes only a few minutes to work. Tests in the lab, Grahn says, have shown that devices like the Glove can dramatically increase athletic output and reduce heat stress. 

Annexure III
Spandex and Fat
Andre Willers
22 Feb 2012

Elastic Bands at small pressure reduces lactate concentrates faster , as well as persuading the body to store fats elsewhere.

Discussion :
Lovell of University of Queensland , AU , “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research”
NewScientist 21 Jan 2012 p14

They measured lactate levels in the muscles of athletes after fixed exercise . Those with Spandex had significantly lower levels of lactate .
In other words , they were not as fatigued.

What is going on ?
From a purely mechanical viewpoint , pressure would reduce bloodflow , thereby reducing lactate reduction . The opposite is happening . Why ?

The “Feel-Good” Factor .
Endorphin catalysis.
We know from experience that moderate biceps enlargement induces a positive-feedback .
The pressure triggers are on the insides of the upper arm and torso .
Even 20 moderate weight-lifts engenders a feel-good endorphin reaction , and can be sensed on the upper arms .

These trigger points have long been identified by trial and error :
Watch any action movie .
The heroes have bands on the upper arms , upper thighs , mid-torso , upper-forehead .
These essentially reduce muscle fatigue .

Elastic Bands :
Since the trigger is pressure sensors in the skin , a mild elasticity would be more effective than a simple band . The emphasis is on mild . The band should not be too tight . Tighten it every day using velcro .

The effect :
Enhanced endorphin release . The body wants more at a cellular level . Local fat reserves are shifted elsewhere (or used) . There is some evidence that the endorphins act as catalysts in fat release and utilization .

Historically :
Garters spring to mind . Slimming upper thighs .
Upper arm bracelets . Gone out of fashion after the disarming of the common people .
Belts : wide corset belts have shrunk for the same reason .
Hats , berets , etc used to fill the function of headbands . Still does in the military.

Putting it all together :
How to get rid of the flab on upper arms , thighs and belly , while increasing endurance .

1.Headband : an elastic beret is socially acceptable . If you want to make a statement , wear an elastic headband with a suitable slogan . Beret or cap .Works on the frontalis muscles-group .

2.A wide elastic band on the upper arm . Widely available . Worn inside or outside of shirts .
Immediate endorphin feedback .

3.Garters on the upper thighs . For males , spandex underpants would probably be most acceptable . Unless you are a Knight of the Garter .

4.Belts : a mild elastic belt about 3 inches wide worn just below the navel . Tighten as needed .
This is not meant as a support or a corset . Merely a argument to convince the body to move the fat cells elsewhere .

There are other surfaces , but you get the drift .

You will note that I did not tell you to exercise . The endorphin release will take care of that .

Synergistic effect:
The sum is much larger than the parts . Try it .

The Spandex Bonsai Strikes Again !



Appendix IV
Hibernation and Cryogenics
Andre Willers
19 Nov 2008
Discussion :
Jessica Palmer pointed out on the 16th Nov 2008 that the primary problem with cryogenics seems to be in the re-establishment of metabolic processes after un-freezing .
But we have an already existing template for doing exactly that .
Hibernation .
See Appendix A
The evolutionary explanation is that during the transition-phase from methane/sulfur to oxygen atmosphere (circa 1.5 bn years ago) , there was a major advantage in suspending oxygen-driven systems if the organism found itself in a non-oxygen environment . It went into hibernation .
At the same time , alcohol was being excreted as a poison (like oxygen) . The ancestors of mitochondria (who could use low concentrations of oxygen or alcohol  ) sought refuge in cells whose cell-walls were resistant (but not impervious) to alcohol transition .
Remember , alcohol is completely soluble in water , but oxygen is not . This difference drove the process . Alcohol concentrations in water could grow large , but oxygen-concentrations could not .
Mitochondria earned their keep by mopping up alcohol first and later converting oxygen to ATP . (The glucose and ketone metabolism came after this) . The ketone metabolism has never been very popular , because of the high loss-rate in excretory products , but has been kept as a third string on the bow . (Utilization of fat and protein-muscle reserves during low-glucose periods. )
Mitochondria thus has an exclusive  preference of usage : alcohol , glucose , ketones in that order .
From experimental evidence (see Appendix A) , there is a genetic switch sensitive to the concentration of H2S to bring both the host cell and the mitochondrium to a state where all programmed molecular activity is suspended . (The power is switched off) .
But , of course , random beth(0) molecular activity due to temperature does not cease . Uncontrolled and anaerobic  reactions still occur .
We get rid of most anaerobic organisms first .
Lots of sulfur , VitC and alcohol (fermented berries or carbohydrates in the stomach . A low acidity is required in the run-up to hibernation)
Then freeze .
Starting the contraption up again is a bit of a problem .
1. The power-plant :
The mitochondria needs to be primed with their preferred fuel (alcohol)
Oxygen needs to be infused .(Hyperbaric chamber)
2. Garbage disposal
The cellular garbage-disposal systems need to be activated  . ATP from the powerplant needs to be allocated to breakdown-product disposal before the ATP is allocated to DNA/RNA production processes .
The garbage-disposal uses mechanisms that use sulfur to create the various vacuoles and ropes (cf mitosis) . Enough sulfur is vital .
Once again , oxygen and alcohol is used . Both are recognized by all systems as poisons to be removed as a first priority . They activate a quite sophisticated garbage-disposal system as H2S concentrations decrease .
3 . Flushing
All that garbage has to flushed away , preferably not through the kidneys or liver .
Use machines .
As H2S concentrations decrease , damage might occur due to PH fluctuations . Acidity (H2SO4 , etc) Buffering would be advisable .
4. Temperature:
Lots of water at 105 to 107 Fahrenheit for mammals , pulsing at pulserate(about 90 cycles per minute .) 
This is to activate the chaperone systems and discourage opportunistic viruses .
5. Music
See “Music”
Play harmonious music so the vibrations can be felt throughout organism being thawed . This enhances timing-procedures by orders of magnitudes . Emergent order .
(A Beth(0.x) effect . )
The de-hibernization process must have an exact program at molecular level to reboot the cellular metabolism . Precisely what you need after a cryogenic procedure .
But its efficiency (ie your chance of survival) can be boosted by orders of magnitude by using the steps above .
Interesting notes:
1. Do hibernating animals like bears use alcohol-producing cells in their bloodstream to time hibernation? This can be tested .
2. Are there cold-chaperone molecules ? There should be .
3. Hibernation is easy . Nature has done all the hard work . Keeping the mechanism ticking over at a very slow rate enables cellular-garbage clearing for a relatively short period (6-8 months)
4. De-cryogenics is a bit harder , Beth(1) intervention is needed .
5. Alcohol-concentrations : we are talking about 1% to 2% imbibing . About 0.06% inside the cell . Ie , the cell-wall protects by a factor of about 30
6. Pulse-Cryogenics : alternate freezing and hibernation to get a better survival factor . For those who are too stupid to design a zero-entropy system .
Try  : Life=negative entropy . Non-life = positive entropy . Design it so the sum is zero  .
Appendix A
From “ Birdflu Update-4” dated 29 Oct 2005
Suspended Animation (the real thing!)
In 2005, Mark Roth and other scientists from the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle demonstrated that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation by applying a low dosage of hydrogen sulfide (80 ppm H2S) in the air. The breathing rate of the animals sank from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell from 37 °C to 2 °C above ambient temperature (in effect, they had become cold-blooded). The mice survived this procedure for 6 hours and afterwards showed no negative health consequences.
Such a hibernation occurs naturally in many mammals and also in toads, but not in mice. (Mice can fall into a state called clinical torpor when food shortage occurs). If the H2S-induced hibernation can be made to work in humans, it could be useful in the emergency management of severely injured patients, and in the conservation of donated organs.
As mentioned above, hydrogen sulfide binds to cytochrome oxidase and thereby prevents oxygen from binding, which apparently leads to the dramatic slowdown of metabolism. Animals and humans naturally produce some hydrogen sulfide in their body; researchers have proposed that the gas is used to regulate metabolic activity and body temperature, which would explain the above findings
Dosages of H2S:
Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation (because of the high alkality of the SH- anion), a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks. Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Higher concentrations of 700-800 ppm tend to be fatal.
0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic rotten egg odor of hydrogen sulfide [2]
10-20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation.
50-100 ppm leads to eye damage.
At 150-250 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger,
320-530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death.
530-1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing;
800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposition (LC50).
Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.