Sunday, February 27, 2011

Optimized Censorship

Optimized Censorship
Andre Willers
27 Feb 2011

"What can't be killed must be managed" AW

Synopsis :
Optimal censorship involves balancing the advantages of free communication against the disadvantages . This can be optimally done by monitoring or blipping a random 1/3 of traffic , with a hot-pursuit element . Already implemented in China (Feb 2011)

Discussion :
Societies need free interchange of information , but also needs to inhibit
1.Enemy and criminal action
2.Hysterical frenzies (the major danger with humans)

Look at the error arguments in "NewTools : Infinite Probes" Nov 2008

Item 1.Enemy and criminal action
These need some organization , hence Reserve arguments in NewTools apply .
The state needs only to disrupt the reserve of the opposition organizations .
This means it only needs to monitor a random 1/3 of message traffic , with a hot-pursuit following up promising leads .The random element means that the enemy or criminals must guard every communication , in itself a suspicious activity .

Item 2.Hysterical frenzies (the major danger with humans)
We have just seen this in Northern Africa (Tunisia ,Egypt ,Libya) with more to follow.
These states tried to smother the communications media (internet , facebook , cellphones ,twitter , etc) by forcing the service providers to deny service .

This did not work .
The main lesson thus learned the hard way : Information and rumours routed around blocks . The overpopulated cities meant that everybody is in earshot of everybody else . And somebody always has a satellite phone .
Rumours exploded . The government would have been better off if allowed normal communications , but blipped out a random 1/3 of it . The truth would have filtered through , but the momentum of the hysterical rumours would have been broken .

Hysterical Focus :
To quote from "Financial Crisis 3 Sep 2010"
"The Hysterical Focus is the mechanism whereby Humans determine large-scale directions of collective effort .
See "Inside the ignition of an hysterical focus"
Internal revolution is a much more likely route ."

No need to lie . Truths broken into pieces soothes the savage human breast while they assemble the truth in Hysterical Focus .

Once a Hysterical Focus has ignited , blackout does not work .
It can be managed by delaying selected communication channels . Blipping out a random 1/3 of all messages , but allowing a slightly smaller than 1/3 blipping for approved networks will biase the Hysterical Focus . Don't try to lie about it . Simply say what you are doing it and why . Enough people will agree to allow the bias to operate .

Hysterical Foci learning process .
I have noticed that Hysterical Foci have become more sophisticated . They have learned from previous experiences , especially the Eastern European collapse of the USSR .

Self-assembling smart-crowd .
Remember , this is not a system with Leaders . It is more like a flash-crowd . A self-assembling smart-crowd . The filaments containing the smart elements are in the connection media , with temporary storage in the wetware of humans .
Now you see why blackouts of the media did not work .
The human element remembers and seeks reconnection . This cannot be stopped . (From historical examples , in any case) . But it can be managed , delayed and diverted .

Why do I even publish this ?

Well , a Hysterical Focus is not unalloyed bliss . It has an annoying habit of taking on a life of its own , usually ending in Reigns of Terror . Robespierre , Napoleon , Lenin , Stalin , Hitler , Mao , etc . You get the drift . Populist fervor morphs into a cloud of dread .
But this process can be managed . The Leadership model can't seem to manage , mainly because the Leader that has to manage it is also the same one who wants to subvert it to his own ends .

A note of tribute to Kemal Ataturk . The only Leader in the 19th century that did it correctly . It means that it can be managed .

Hence the evolution of the present self-assembling flash crowd , with memory in media interconnections and humans .

This has already led to the demise of the USSR , the most heavily armed state in history , without a shot being fired . The present (Feb 2011) little squabbles in North Africa and the forthcoming ones in Saudi-Arabia are a bit ho-hum and predictable .

China .
After a close shave with Tianenmen , they seem to have realized that a military or traditional censorship method will not work in future .

I noted with amazement on 27 Feb 2011 that ISP censorship from China has been relaxed nearly completely . I presume mechanisms like blipping out 1/3 of traffic in case of Hysterical Foci forming are in place .After all , they read this blog too .
The basic principles are clear .

Other states at Risk :
Most citizens are two monthly paychecks away from the street , where they are classified as vagrants and criminalized .
(See "Inverse Anthropomorphism : Human Rights")
They form a majority potential flash crowd . Very dangerous .
The USA faces a potential "Egypt style" flash-crowd revolt , with the armed forces remaining neutral while the civilian structure is being remodeled . A delicate little matter would be the large mercenary forces("contractors") that have been allowed to concentrate outside the control of Congress .

They should seriously consider different Economic Zones .

Permanent state of revolution . Everybody runs around waving the Chairman's little book , but the pages are blank .

Africa :
All are at risk . High cellphone usage , combined with big discrepancies between promises and deliveries , as well as a complete incompetence in even basic security arrangements , make all these states vulnerable .

South Africa :
There have been numerous flash-crowd phenomena , usually denigrated as "service delivery " riots . If only . These are warning signs .

The RSA military (about 1 million private security , 200 000 police and 50 000 soldiers) are not co-ordinated at all . In case of a Egyptian-style revolt , the soldiers (who have the heavy weapons) would side with the protesters , as would 3/4 of the police .

The private security are basically mercenaries , outside state control The major control on them (like now with Libya) is money and fear of future prosecution by the International Court in the Hague . Serbia has taught these cowboys that International Law has teeth .

See "Emperor Zuma" Oct 2010 et al
The only way for the State to avoid Civil War is external war , but hopefully in moderation . Overreach will end up like the Third Reich .

South America :
The locals have been mainly characterized by divisiveness , exploited mercilessly by numerically inferior Europeans .
Always ripe for revolution , but if the USA has major problems , there will be a hot time in the old town .

India :
The complete incompetence of the Middle East and Indian sub-continent to control their populations will force India into wars of defence against Pakistan et al , as well as wars of colonial aggression against African states .
They already have long-term leases on many millions of hectares of the best agricultural land in eastern Africa ..
Does this sound familiar?
We've been through it before with the British Empire and WW I

Australia :
The continent is grossly overpopulated (at present about 22 million). It can feed at most 3 million , less when the unfolding debacle of the MacKenzie basin leads to the final salt-desert of formerly lush fields . (This is due to known effects (over-irrigation on a salt substrate) , but overridden by human greed .)

States in this predicament usually sell what they have in abundance . In this case humans . But unskilled humans have no market value . Hence mercenaries . A three month course can train a wimpy Sydney dweller into a Banzai Buckaroo . Contracted off to Iraq , Afghanistan or some other hell-hole of your choice . AK fodder .

Will they revolt ?
Not in going . The returnees usually got no hearing , but this has changed
All this has been going on for some time .(Since the 1950's)

Self-assembling smart-crowd of all the millions of returnee veterans of Vietnam , Laos , Singapore , Iraq , Iran will be abrupt , violent and messy .

Australia has quietly changed into a mercenary soldier state (like Hesse in 18th Century ) .
Nobody said anything .
But a lot of chickens are about to come home .

As they say in Norstrilia :
"We welcome immigrants . Our Defence Forces need the practice."

Stroon anyone ?


Saturday, February 26, 2011

Coffee Liqueur .

Coffee Liqueur
Andre Willers
25 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
How to make sugar-free Coffee Liqueur with carb-count = 0 and alcohol volume of 25% .

Discussion :

General method :
For one standard 750 ml bottle of Coffee Liqueur :

Method :
1.Make about 300 ml of coffee syrup using the cold brew method .
See previous posts or Google it .
Briefly , 3 –4 tablespoons of coarsely ground coffee beans of decent quality (I like Columbian) in a plunger with about 350 ml water (cup and a half) .
Put in fridge for about 12 hours . Push plunger home and decant clear coffee syrup .

2. Add sweetener . The coffee syrup is more bitter than ordinary coffee .
Add enough for about 4 cups of coffee . To taste .
Those fortunate ones that do not have to worry about sugar or carbs can use sugar .

3. Pour about 280 ml of the syrup into your 750 ml bottle . Top up with your alcohol of choice . Whisky , cane ,vodka etc .These are usually about 40% alcohol by volume. This is stated on the bottle .

4. Pour into a liqueur glass and enjoy !

Caffeine concentration :
See Appendix A below .

Cold brewing gives a slightly higher caffeine concentration than hot brewing .
The three tablespoons of ground coffee used above would be the rough caffeine equivalent of two cups of hot brewed coffee in the syrup .
A bottle would then contain after dilution 281/468 *2 = 1.2 cups of hot brewed coffee caffeine .
A liqueur glass is 25 ml . This then has the equivalent caffeine of 1.2*25/750 = 0.04 of a cup of hot brewed coffee (4 %) . This will not exactly keep you awake .

The really interesting thing here is whether this ratio of caffeine to alcohol balances the depressant effects of alcohol and the stimulant effect of caffeine at a stable level . Cf Irish Coffees .

Note the popularity of caffeine boosted mixers like Coke or Red Bull .

As an exercise , the Dear Reader can calculate the exact peak point of the interaction .
A lot of experimental evidence will be required .
Hint : Try shooters of coffee and tequila in varying ratio's .

Who says science is not fun ?



Appendix A
Some calculations :
The general relationship is
{ V(1)*A(1) + V(2)*A(2) } / {V(1)+V(2) } = A(3) …(Eq1)
where V denotes Volume and A denotes Alcohol concentration per volume .

The Right-Hand of the equation A(3) means the alcohol concentration of your liqueur. This is usually about 25% . Drinkable in small sips . Hence the liqueur glass .
V(1) and A(1) means the Volume and Alcohol concentration of your booze .
A(1) is typically 40% per volume . Cane , whisky , vodka , etc . See the bottle .

V(2) and A(2) means the Volume and Alcohol concentration of your Coffee Syrup .
There is no alcohol , so A(2) =0 .

The left-hand of the equation is the weighted average of the two concentrations , weighted by volumes .

We merely plug in the values into (Eq1)
A(3) = 0.25
V(1)+V(2) = 750 ml (our bottle)
A(2) = 0 The Coffee Syrup has no alcohol .

This gives booze volume
V(1)* 0.4 = 750 * 0.25
V(1) = 750 * 0.25 / 0.4
V(1) = 468.75 ml
Hence coffee syrup volume
V(2) = 750-V(1)
V(2) = 281.25

Round as you please
281/750 = 0.37 . Filling the bottle about a third with Coffee syrup and topping up with booze should be ok .

Friday, February 25, 2011

Toilet lid up or down ?

Toilet Lid Up or Down ?
Andre Willers
15 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
Women will tend to hide smells . Men to advertise them

Discussion :
The evolutionary argument is simple : a smelly human was a quicker lunch to the leopard-class predators .

Hominins evolved all sorts of tricks to beat this .
See previous posts .

Females especially were vulnerable , as oestrus and pregnancy lights them up to a olfactory predator .

They evolved a real instinct : hide smells or disguise smells .

Indeed , it is quite probable that human female year-round sexual receptiveness only evolved after most of the leopard-class carnivores that specialized in hominins (notably felix dino) were exterminated .

Males , especially after their partnership with dogs , used scent to mark territories .

What does this mean ?
Humans have long forgotten the underlying reasons for scent .
But women still are driven to hide odours or disguise them

Tricks :

1.Toilet lid down ,
2.toilet paper hanging over ,
3. pong freshener .

4.Wash behind the ears
"The cheese-like unpleasant smell you have occasionally noted is your "human" scent as opposed to the scent of the deodorant, shampoo, bath soap and other toiletries you use. This human scent is sufficiently unique that trained dogs can follow your distinct scent trail even hours after you have walked through the grass and on into the woods. This is the scent bloodhounds follow and the scent you notice when you gather it up from behind your ears.
These human scents are somewhat volatile compounds associated with fats called sebum. They are, therefore, most prominent in oily areas of the skin like the face, behind the ears, under the arms, around the nipples and at the groin. I'm sure you have had your neighbor's ill-mannered dog greet you by sticking his nose directly into your crotch. He is just getting a clearer olfactory sense (or scent) of who you are."
Read more: Sometimes when I rub my finger behind my ear, my finger smells like Hershey's chocolate. Why is this? | Answerbag

5.Wash around the nipples .
Extra sebaceous glands developed around the nipples to ensure an airtight seal with the suckling infant's mouth , and reduce chafing .But this released odours that predators could sense easily . Hence , nipple caps should be an early item of clothing .

An interesting line of research .
"I am passionately interested in Neolithic nipple caps . "
A guaranteed conversation stopper .

Do bodybuilders who abuse steroids have to use deodorants around their nipples ?
The mind boggles .

6 Use scent to disguise smells
Most women are quite aware that a nice-smelling scent does not significantly enhance reproductive success . But it is hardwired in that scent-disguise does enhance survival success . More , the scent-trail has to be broken . Hence , a new perfume every morning .
It is notable that the perfumeries have not yet figured out this fundamental instinctive drive .
A putative brand like "Neolithic Woman" would give a distinctive scent every day on a random basis . At present , women do the same with a number of different brands applied at whim .

7. Women hate woodsmoke at a deep , instinctual level . There are no "woodsmoke" perfumes , nor will there be . But it could be used as a subtle contrapunct .
See "Shampoo II" Feb 2011 et al
This why women dislike braais (barbecues) . The freely dispersed smells of woodsmoke , roasting meats and fats makes them feel vulnerable .

Farts amongst women are bad manners in nearly any culture . Polite belches might be acceptable .

9.Males like to disperse smells showing their putative dominance .
Hence the toilet lid up , farts , raucous barbecues , a small boy's hatred of washing behind the ears , or washing in general .

10 .Clothes and Fashion
Clothes get impregnated with smell-molecules . A woman gets uncomfortable with clothes that smells too much like her . She is driven to break the scent-trail , even if she does not know why . Males act the same way , but not to the same degree .

Hence fashion . Change clothes as often as possible . Ridiculous extremes were reached in European aristocracy , when clothes were changed 4 to 6 times a day .
Clothes were worn once , then given away . Or given away each season .

An interesting correlation is that the sales volumes of perfumes vs clothes are in an inverse relationship during or after big wars .
Old clothes are revitalized by new perfumes . Cf Chanel , etc .

11. Auto-immune diseases
Some humans will literally sicken of their own scent , especially women . In our terms , the immune system targets it's host because the same molecules are being presented too often .
So , something like rheumathroid arthritis might benefit from a complete change of clothing (especially underwear) and scent . Use the scent in large doses .
This is relatively cheap . A practical application of the placebo effect .
Besides which , the horse might learn to talk .

Some practical applications for human males :
1. Putting the toilet seat down does matter .
2. When giving perfume , give at least four completely different scents .
3. Do not give perfumes and clothing (especially lingerie ) at the same time. The woman will see this as a double change of identity , hence a dissatisfaction with her on the man's part . Go figure .
4. Wash behind your ears .

It is not a war between sexes . Just a long mutual surrender .

A Formidable Woman .
Andre Willers
25 Feb 2011

Émilienne Moreau-Evrard

Teacher , Nurse and upholder of Moral Standards
Done when the going was hard .

(Google her name to see a picture)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Émilienne Moreau-Evrard (June 4, 1898 – January 5, 1971)

was a French heroine of World War I, a high-profile female member of the “Brutus” Resistance network during World War II and later, a member of the “Assemblée consultative provisoire”. Moreover, she is one of only six women recipients of the Ordre de la Libération.
Émilienne Moreau was born on June 4, 1898 at Wingles, in the Pas-de-Calais département.
In 1914, her father, a retired miner, opened a grocery store in Loos-en-Gohelle, close to Lenswhilst World War I was breaking out.
World War I
Émilienne Moreau, who was starting a teaching career, witnessed the German invasion of the north of France during October 1914. In December of the same year, her father died whilst the German soldiers were housed in their village.
In February 1915, she created, in a basement, an improvised school for the local children.
During the same month, on the 25th, whilst Scottish soldiers of the Black Watch counter-attacked her village, Émilienne, who was only 17 years old, went to meet them and gave them the precise location of the German positions in a small, impregnable fort. Thanks to this information, the allies were able to go around the small fort, reducing the German effectiveness in this particular corner of the battlefield, with very few casualties. Further to this attack, Émilienne organised a first aid post in her house with the help of a Scottish doctor, to take care of the wounded, but the Germans tried to take back the village.
To save a British soldier who was under enemy fire in the village, she went out of her home with explosives and succeeded, with the help of some British soldiers, in forcing the Germans to flee from their position in the neighboring house. Later on, she shot two German soldiers though a closed wooden door. Eventually, the village was under the sole control of the allies.
Evacuated, she was awarded the Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with an army acknowledgementgiven directly by Marshal Ferdinand Foch and the Croix du Combattant by the French Army. Moreover, the British army awarded her the Military Medal, the Royal Red Cross (first class) and the Venerable Order of Saint John. This last award is rarely given to a woman. She was personally invited to meet the President of the French Republic Raymond Poincaré and later the King of the United Kingdom, George V.
The French newspaper Le Petit Parisien wrote in detail all her exploits, making her a national hero. The army and the press used her image to buck up the civilians and the fighting people. A bit later, the story of an Australian-made movie entitled “The Jeanne d'Arc of Loos”recounted her accomplishments but it received much criticism for using such a revered name for the title.
After graduating, she ended the war teaching in a boys' school in Paris.
After the war, she went back to the Pas-de-Calais in the north of France and got married in 1932 to the socialist activist Just Evrard. In 1934, she became the General Secretary of the women's socialist movement of her department.
World War II
When World War II was declared, Émilienne was living with her husband and her two children, Raoul and Roger, in the city of Lens. As with many people in northern France, they fled from the war zone, but after the French Armistice, she went back to Lens with her family.
Émilienne, who was famous for her former military actions during the Great War, was quickly placed under house arrest in Lillers. However, she was permitted to return home after some time. There, in Lens, she started to distribute propaganda brochures against Marshal Philippe Pétain and his capitulation and made contact with the British Intelligence Service, giving them crucial information. At the end of 1940, Emillienne and her husband created a secret section of her socialist party in Lens.
Émilienne Moreau is known in the French resistance under two names: “Jeanne Poirier” and “Émilienne la Blonde”. She was in charge of linking “Brutus” in Switzerland with CAS (inEnglish: Socialist Action Committee), combining this with some specific missions in Paris.
Then she joined the resistance movement named “France au Combat” (in English: “The Fighting France”) founded in 1943 by André Boyer. There she worked with Augustin Laurent,André Le Troquer and Pierre Lambert.
In March 1944, at Lyon, she was about to be arrested, following the case of the “85 de l’Avenue de Saxe”. In this affair, seventeen of her friends in the resistance network were arrested by the Gestapo. Two months later, still in Lyon, she escaped yet again from another series of raids by the Gestapo. In one of these, Nazi soldiers were waiting for her near her house and when they saw her, they fired in her direction but missed. She quickly escaped using a basement in the neighbourhood.
Now officially hunted down, she tried several times to escape to England, finally getting away on August 7, 1944.
Back in France in September 1944, she sat in the “Assemblée consultative” where she embodied the French female way. For her work in the French resistance, she was awarded the rare title of Compagnon de la Libération by Général Charles de Gaulle inBéthune in August 1945.
When World War II was over, she became a politician in the French Socialist Party.
Émilienne Moreau-Evrard died on January 5, 1971 and was buried in Lens, aged 72 years old.
§ Officer of the Légion d'honneur
§ Compagnon de la Libération - legislative bill of August 11 1945
§ Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with one palm
§ Croix de guerre 1939-1945
§ Croix du combattant
§ Croix du combattant volontaire de la Résistance
§ Military Medal
§ Royal Red Cross
§ Venerable Order of Saint John
External links
§ (French) Official biography on the website of the Ordre de la Libération

A Salute

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Hayflick Limit and Societies

Hayflick Limit and Societies .
Andre Willers
23 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
We calculate the Hayflick Limits of societies with elective systems , whether faux or not .

Discussion :
See "Hayflick Limit Calculation" Feb 2011

The underlying relationship holds :
1/3 = p*n*(n+1)/2 …(1)
This means that the rulers of a society are granted a leeway of 1/3 for mistakes , but anything over that means a loss of mandate (The Chinese concept of Mandate of Heaven)

The n means the number of turnover in decision makers , where errors creep in .
The p means the chance of an error in appointment of a decision maker at a turnover point .

Faux elections :
Popular with authoritarian regimes . Sadly for them , the system sees a faux election as a real election , and errors made during this counts as real errors .

The executive :
Let the executive ie people whose mistakes count , Cabinet ministers , deputies , etc number m . Then the probability of error can be approximated by p= 1/m at each appointment (ie n)
Let elections happen every R years (typically 5-7)
Then over time T , n can be approximated by n=T/R

Putting this in eq (1) above gives
1/3 = 1/m*T/R*(T/R+1)/2 …(2)
this gives a quadratic equation
T^2 + T*R – 2/3*m*R^2 =0

Which solves as
T = ½ +- (R^2 + 4*2/3*m*R^2)^(1/2) =0
T= ½+- R*(1+8/3*m)^(1/2) … (2)
This expresses the duration of a regime (dynasty , whatever) in terms of the number m of important officials (ministers) appointed every R years .

The table in Appendix A below shows this
Endless fun can be had with this .
Eg Stalin : m=1 and R= 1953-1917 = 36 . This gives an expected regime life of 69 years . Which brings us to 1917+69 = 1986 , fairly close to the collapse of the USSR .Remember , the various effects have to be summed .
Much easier with an AI .
Chinese Dynasties can likewise be estimated . (Easier actually)
I have not tried it on Ancient Egyptian Dynasties . Do it yourself .

Present North-African and Middle-Eastern Civilizations :
Faux elections : set R=5
Inner circle : These goes in sets of three from basic principles .
An inner cabinet of 15 with 5 year elections , gives an expected lifetime of 33 years .
This brings these regimes to the present .
It also means that they cannot maintain any pretence of legitimacy . In Chinese terms , they have lost the Mandate of Heaven.
They have exhausted the reserves any new system is granted by a long-suffering populace . Only genocide can stop this . And that is not so very certain . Mercenaries might be willing , but they know they will have to face the International Court in the Hague some time or other (especially their commanders .)

South Africa .
Zuma has a predeliction of an inner cabinet of three . Himself and two lieutenants .
Cf Shaik's . The present ones are the Gupta brothers .
This gives an m=3 and R= 2 The next election is due in two years . This gives an expected life of 7 years from 2010 from the table . This means he will lose or win the next election with a very slender margin . Unless he does the old invasion of Africa routine , as described previously .
Emperor Zuma !

And so it goes .


Appendix A
Table of life-expectancies of Civilizations .

Remember , set R=40 for expected life of Ruler-for-life (Like a Pharaoh ) .At death there is an elective process . They usually start about 20 till 80 . Expand the table where necessary .
Dynasty table
The number of years a regime or dynasty is expected to last with an election every R years and with M important decision makers .
T= ½+- R*(1+8/3*m)^(1/2)
R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
1 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 10
2 4 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 19
3 6 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28
4 8 11 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 37
5 10 13 16 18 19 21 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 42 43 44 45 46
6 12 16 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 32 34 35 36 38 39 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
7 14 18 22 24 27 29 32 34 36 37 39 41 42 44 45 47 48 50 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 64
8 16 21 25 28 31 33 36 38 41 43 45 46 48 50 52 53 55 57 58 59 61 62 64 65 66 68 69 70 71 73
9 18 23 28 31 35 38 40 43 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 65 67 68 70 72 73 75 76 77 79 80 82
10 20 26 31 35 38 42 45 48 51 53 56 58 60 62 65 67 69 71 72 74 76 78 79 81 83 84 86 87 89 91
11 22 28 34 38 42 46 49 52 56 58 61 64 66 69 71 73 75 78 80 82 84 85 87 89 91 93 94 96 98 100
12 23 31 37 41 46 50 54 57 61 64 67 69 72 75 77 80 82 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 107 109
13 25 33 40 45 50 54 58 62 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 86 89 92 94 96 99 101 103 105 107 110 112 114 116 118
14 27 36 43 48 54 58 63 67 71 74 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 101 104 106 109 111 113 116 118 120 122 124 127
15 29 38 46 52 57 62 67 71 76 79 83 87 90 93 97 100 103 106 108 111 114 116 119 121 124 126 129 131 133 136
16 31 41 49 55 61 66 71 76 81 85 89 92 96 100 103 106 109 113 116 118 121 124 127 129 132 135 137 140 142 145
17 33 43 52 59 65 71 76 81 86 90 94 98 102 106 109 113 116 120 123 126 129 132 135 138 140 143 146 148 151 154
18 35 46 55 62 69 75 80 86 91 95 100 104 108 112 116 119 123 127 130 133 136 140 143 146 149 151 154 157 160 163
19 37 48 58 65 72 79 85 90 96 100 105 110 114 118 122 126 130 134 137 141 144 147 151 154 157 160 163 166 169 172
20 39 51 61 69 76 83 89 95 101 106 111 115 120 124 129 133 137 141 144 148 151 155 158 162 165 168 171 174 178 181
21 41 53 64 72 80 87 94 100 106 111 116 121 126 131 135 139 143 148 151 155 159 163 166 170 173 177 180 183 186 190
22 43 56 67 76 84 91 98 104 111 116 122 127 132 137 141 146 150 155 159 163 167 170 174 178 181 185 188 192 195 199
23 45 58 70 79 88 95 102 109 116 121 127 133 138 143 148 152 157 162 166 170 174 178 182 186 190 193 197 201 204 208
24 46 61 73 82 91 99 107 114 121 127 133 138 144 149 154 159 164 169 173 177 182 186 190 194 198 202 206 209 213 217
25 48 63 76 86 95 104 111 119 126 132 138 144 150 155 161 166 171 176 180 185 189 194 198 202 206 210 214 218 222 226
26 50 66 79 89 99 108 116 123 131 137 144 150 156 161 167 172 177 183 187 192 197 201 206 210 214 219 223 227 231 235
27 52 68 82 93 103 112 120 128 136 143 149 156 162 168 173 179 184 190 195 200 204 209 214 218 223 227 231 235 239 244
28 54 71 85 96 107 116 125 133 141 148 155 161 168 174 180 186 191 197 202 207 212 217 222 226 231 235 240 244 248 253
29 56 73 88 100 110 120 129 138 146 153 160 167 174 180 186 192 198 204 209 214 219 225 229 234 239 244 248 253 257 262
30 58 76 91 103 114 124 134 142 151 158 166 173 180 186 193 199 205 211 216 222 227 232 237 242 247 252 257 261 266 271
31 60 79 94 106 118 128 138 147 156 164 171 179 186 192 199 205 212 218 223 229 235 240 245 250 256 260 265 270 275 280
32 62 81 97 110 122 132 142 152 161 169 177 184 192 199 205 212 218 225 231 236 242 248 253 258 264 269 274 279 284 289
33 64 84 100 113 125 137 147 156 166 174 182 190 198 205 212 219 225 232 238 244 250 255 261 267 272 277 282 288 293 298
34 66 86 103 117 129 141 151 161 171 179 188 196 204 211 218 225 232 239 245 251 257 263 269 275 280 286 291 296 301 307
35 68 89 106 120 133 145 156 166 176 185 193 202 210 217 225 232 239 246 252 258 265 271 277 283 288 294 300 305 310 316
36 69 91 109 123 137 149 160 171 181 190 199 207 215 223 231 238 246 253 259 266 272 279 285 291 297 302 308 314 319 325
37 71 94 112 127 141 153 165 175 186 195 204 213 221 230 237 245 252 260 266 273 280 286 293 299 305 311 317 322 328 334
38 73 96 115 130 144 157 169 180 191 200 210 219 227 236 244 252 259 267 274 281 287 294 301 307 313 319 325 331 337 343
39 75 99 118 134 148 161 173 185 196 206 215 225 233 242 250 258 266 274 281 288 295 302 308 315 321 328 334 340 346 352
40 77 101 121 137 152 165 178 190 201 211 221 230 239 248 257 265 273 281 288 295 302 309 316 323 330 336 342 348 355 361

Shampoo II

Shampoo II
Andre Willers
23 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
Grooming of horses has evolved over thousands of years and in all sorts of conditions into a minimum-necessary-sufficient process to ensure the horse's health .
It can be adapted to humans with minmal changes .
The major advantage is that it is an entirely cost-benefit driven process .
Hence the minimum-necessary-sufficient bit .

Discussion :
See "Shampoo" Feb 2011


From Wiki:

Shampoo :
"Too-frequent shampooing can strip the hair coat of natural oils and cause it to dry out. Though horses in heavy work, such as racehorses, may be rinsed off after their daily workout, it is generally not advisable to shampoo a horse more than once a week, even in the show season. A well-groomed, clean horse can be kept clean by wearing a horse blanket or horse sheet." (Ie clothes)

Descendants of the Compound-Comb :
The Compound Comp has broken into 6 elements :

1."Curry or Currycomb: A tool made of rubber or plastic with short "teeth" on one side, that slides onto the hand of the groom. It is usually the first tool used in daily grooming. The horse is rubbed or "curried" to help loosen dirt, hair, and other detritus, plus stimulate the skin to produce natural oils. The curry comb is usually used in a circular motion to work loose embedded material. Curries are generally too harsh to be used on the legs or head, though varieties made of softer rubber are available."

2.Dandy brush or Hard-bristled brush: A stiff-bristled brush is used to remove the dirt, hair and other material stirred up by the curry

3.Body brush or Soft brush: A soft-bristled brush removes finer particles and dust, adds a shine to the coat and is soothing to the horse.

4.Grooming rag or towel, also called a Stable Rubber: A linen or terrycloth towel or similar type of cloth can be used to give a final polish to a horse's coat and is also used after riding to help remove sweat.
5.Mane brush or comb: Horses with short, pulled manes have their manes combed with a wide-toothed plastic or metal comb. The mane comb is also used for pulling the mane. Tails and long manes are brushed with either a dandy brush or a suitable human hairbrush.

6.Bot knife or pumice stone used to remove botfly eggs from the horse, which are usually laid on the legs or shoulder. Bot eggs are yellow and roughly the size of a grain of sand, they are clearly visible on dark hair, harder to spot on white hair.
(This morphed into strigils)

Health reasons :
"The main reasons for daily grooming include:
§ improved health of the skin and coat
§ decreases the chance of various health problems such as thrush, scratches, and other skin problems
§ cleans the horse, so chafing does not occur under areas of tack (ie clothes)
§ gives the groom a chance to check the horse's health, such as looking for cuts, heat, swelling, lameness, a change in temperament (such as depression) which could indicate the horse is sick, and look to see if the horse has loose or missing horseshoes
§ helps to form a relationship between horse and handler, which can carry over to other handling duties and riding" (Cf king and barber/surgeon)


Diet :
Horses , fur animals and leather animals and humans
MSM is necessary for skin and fur health . Supplements are given , even necessary , given the dearth of biologically assimilable sulfur as discussed previously .
(The fur and leather lot is a notoriously unsentimental industry .)

War and Farmers :
The two main users of horses had it drummed into them : always take care of the horse first , or Bad Things Happen . This starts with currying as a minimum .
This has been found out the hard way over thousands of years .

Are humans so different ? Is the ungroomed soldier a second-class soldier ?
Note the spit-and-polish brigade .
It certainly makes sense in terms of typhoid , fleas , nits , morale etc .

Adaptation to Humans :
Skin ecology :
The skin oils with their load of friendly skin bacteria should be kept intact , but pores should be kept open from detritus for temperature control . Harmful bacteria should be kept under control .

Hair wash :
Do not shampoo more than once a week at most .
Instead , use and array of brushes (The Compound Comb) in the shower without a soap .
These are in order : Curry , Hard-bristle , Soft-bristle , Coarse facecloth , Wide-toothed comb , pumice stone (or loofah) . You can make your own Compound Comb with a bit of ingenuity or simply use the brushes in order .

If the head is shampooed , only the head should be done . The soap should not go over the body .
Before the shampoo , rub the hair with a reasonably sterile head-towel or use The Compound Comb .
After the shampoo , rub the hair with the same head-towel .. Or use The Compound Comb
This is to transfer friendly bacteria .
The towel would be better , since some oil would be restored .
(Of course , do not do this if a disease was present . Then simply sterilize the whole apparatus by dumping it in bleach for half an hour and then rinsing)

Note that many hair-salons do something similar , but without knowing why it works .

Keep bodyhair short
(as discussed in "Old age Markers" Dec 2007 )

Note that strigils removed bodyhair and parasites in ancient Greece and Rome . Only scalp-hair remained , and this was carefully groomed with compound combs or multiple brushes .

Deoderants :
The variety using fine metallic particles (usually silver) to short the electrostatic processes of sweating on the pore mouth should be avoided . This is like choking the radiator of your car .
Bactericides should be avoided for the same reason , unless some disease is present .
Wiping the smelly regions with a coarse cloth once a day under a shower should be sufficient .
From evolutionary considerations , friendly skin bacteria (neutral smelling) are quite capable of keeping bad smelling ones in check ,

Marketing opportunity :
These bacteria can be genetically tweaked to give off an appealing perfume .
But knowing humans , it is quite likely that the bastards will build in a timer that will switch on a stench unless overridden by a later version .
This is possible even now .

Scents :
Alcohol based scents or aftershaves kills off the friendly bacteria . It sells more because more scent is then needed to disguise the bad smells resulting from the elimination of friendly skin-bacteria
Water or oil-based variants are freely available .

Body Wash :
The above holds for body wash as well , except the nether regions .
Pubic hairs and anal hairs have evolved to carry large numbers of scent molecules as old-age markers . These should be washed in soap , especially if older than 30 .
See "Old age Markers" Dec 2007

Feet Wash
Ever seen an ancient Greek or Roman statue with cracked heels ? No ?
Why not ?
The first thought is that the sculptor edited it out , but many were sticklers for reality .
The "warts-and-all" school .
The only alternative is then that the models had no cracked heels .
Why ?

They normally wore variants of sandals made of leather .
These had to be oiled to remain supple . So the foot and heels were continuously oiled by chafing with the sandal .The sandal stored oil in micropores and cracks in the leather . (Olive oil or lanolin) .

Croc shoes .
These are made of silicones , with no oil adsorption . Wearing them without some woollen sock results in disruption of the skin-ecology on the soles and heels of the feet .
Water , then oil-molecules are wicked away by osmotic pressure .This results in eczema , dry skin , cracked heels and fungi infections .
Wiping the croc's insides with an oily rag (lanolin or olive oil) before wearing them barefoot should solve the problem . Else wear woollen socks . (Artificial fibres that do not soak up oils will not work .)

Dubbin , anyone ?


Saturday, February 19, 2011

Financial Crisis 19 Feb 2011

Financial Crisis 19 Feb 2011
Andre Willers
10 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
The Hysterical Focus is moving from North-Africa and the Middle-East to the Arctic Ocean .

Discussion :
The events in Egypt and adjacent territories can and have been foreseen .

To quote from "Financial Crisis 3 Sep 2010"
"The Hysterical Focus is the mechanism whereby Humans determine large-scale directions of collective effort .
See "Inside the ignition of an hysterical focus"
Internal revolution is a much more likely route ."

This is what happened now .
Internal revolutions broke out , and all will succeed .
To see why , look at "Hayflick Limit Calculation " and adjust the arguments used accordingly .

Briefly , the rulers have exhausted the reserves allocated by the society . No amount of violence (except genocide) will help . The best example is the Ming revolt against Mongol rule .

The important point wrung from Saudia-Arabia is that their oil-production will plateau in 2012 , putatively remain stable for 15 years , then gradually decline .
But nobody believes this . They have lied too often

Decline in revenue , and especially expected decline in revenue will cause massive social unrest .
Not too fine a point on it , the Saudi royal family's days are numbered .
You can calculate the number of days using "Hayflick Limit Calculation"
The principles are clear . Ladbrookes or Las Vegas are expert in probabilities .
Why not bet on civilizations and nations ?

Now you see why the Somali pirates are allowed to flourish . This gives an excuse for really large military forces in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean .

But this is a sideshow . Western interests have already written off the Middle East .
It would horrify the good citizens of Arabia that their territory has been already sold for fracking , using seawater . Their deserts aren't much but at least it was their own .
Fracking with seawater will turn it into a slab of salt .

The Hysterical Focus has changed to the Arctic Ocean , and to fracking in territories like Canada and South Africa .

So , the present crisis is not much . Everybody is trying to get out of the Middle East .
A good example to note is how the Nobel brothers got out of the Caucasus oil-fields in 1912 . From the biggest to zero . In 1917 , the Communist s nationalized the lot .
(Stalin was a heavy-duty union organizer in Baku.)

Not much of a crisis .
But we aim to entertain


Hayflick Limit Calculation

Hayflick Limit Calculation .
Andre Willers
19 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
The Hayflick Limit calculation from first principles is looked at in more detail (on request)

Discussion :

See "Ageing" Feb 2011

The bit below seems to need some amplification .

" Suppose there is a p probability of damage at each mitosis event .
Then the cumulative damage ratio would be Cd= p* n(n+1)/2 , where n is the number of cell divisions . A linear summation .

From "NewTools" Reserves and error arguments we know that for an old system like this 1/3 error ratio would probably render it non-viable .

Thus , we can say 1/3 = p* n(n+1)/2 would solve for n at the Hayflick limit ."


Detailed Explanation :

1, Error Probability p
TTAGGG is the switch for activating a telomere cap .
There are 4 bases , which gives 4^6=4096 possibilities .
p = 1/(4^6) = 1/4096 = 0.000244414 as discussed .

2, Reserve :
There exists a Probability Reserve to counter errors.
This term includes the various repair mechanisms , fail-safes , etc to mitigate damage
The organism can only afford to allocate a specific percentage of it's resources to this . It has been calculated (in old systems subject to evolutionary pressures) to be an average of 1/3 of unity probability .
See "NewTools" Nov 2008 . The subsections under "Infinite Probes" and Reserves . I am not going to repeat these here .

3.At each Cell division :
Division 1 : Error Prob = p Deduct p from Probability Reserve .
Division 2 : Error Prob = p+p (old error plus new error) Deduct 2p from Probability Reserve .
Division 3 : Error Prob = 2p+p (old errors plus new error) Deduct 3p from Probability Reserve .
Division n : Error Prob = (n-1)p+p (old errors plus new error) Deduct n*p from Probability Reserve .

The summation 1+2+3+…+n = n(n+1)/2

The Probability Reserve is exhausted when the deductions have reduced it to zero .
Then n has reached a limit when
Probability Reserve = p*n(n+1)/2

Probability Reserve= 1/3 as discussed .

Then solving for n when
1/3 = p*n(n+1)/2 for p=1/(4^6)
gives n= 51.5866 or -52.58666

This is the Hayflick Limit .

What does it mean ?

Positive solution : The Individual Hayflick Limit .
The positive solution of n= + 51 seems fairly direct . The cells in an organism have a ceiling on the number of divisions . Cells will apoptose following a more-or-less quadratic curve . Standard old age without scientific intervention .

Negative solution : The Species Hayflick Limit .
The negative solution of n= - 52 is more speculative .
It could mean that species go extinct after 52 speciation events .
Ie , they "spontaneously" go extinct . Like an individual "spontaneously" goes extinct due to old age .
Sharks and crocs have nearly no speciation events .
The problem is where to put the zero-point .
(A new telomere switch ?)
This needs more work .

Boundaries of this argument :
The repair mechanisms postulated in Probability Reserve does not include conscious interventions like Science (ie where Beth(>1) )

A roll in the hay used to be more fun .

Andre .


Click and Wheelchairs

Click and Wheelchairs
Andre Willers
19 Feb 2011

A simple Click language is used to navigate a wheelchair .

Discussion :

See NewScientist 4 Dec 2010 p24 "!Kung inspire wheelchairs that move at the click of a tongue."

Apparatus developed by Ravi Vaidyanathan of the University of Bristol , UK .

A simple microphone picks up low-frequency sounds made by four types of distinct tongue-click (the simplified Click language) .

The resultant electronic signal is sent to a simple processor that recognizes the type of click , and sends the commands to the wheelchair .

The four tongue-clicks can be learned in few hours .

Simple , quick to learn and unambiguous .

The requirements of a proto-language .

See blogs on "Click" , starting about Aug 2009 .

Will click make a comeback ?

Possibly .
As an international language with no histotical baggage .
But a complete redesign would be necessary .
This can be done .

Clickety-clack instead of yakkity-yak .


Thursday, February 17, 2011


Andre Willers
17 Feb 2011

"How long is a piece of string ?" Anon

Synopsis :
Random Intron sequences between genes get mistaken for telomere chromosome caps at mitosis . Drastic chromosome shortening occurs , with concomitant apoptosis . Old age results .

Discussion :
See "Phene Systems II" Feb 2011

To quote :
"Genes on the outer Heterochromatin string , on activation from the Phene system , unwinds to make the DNA accessible . The chromatin string simultaneously also migrates inward to a transcription factory (presumably triggered by the phene signal) and gets expressed ."

Introns :
The chromatinin string is not magic chewing gum . To stretch like this , lengths between activation markers on the DNA are filled in with random codons , hopefully signifying nothing . But there is a basic problem with Randomness .
See "Problems with randomization" Nov 2010 .
It is not as random as we would wish . Meaning to other systems creep in .

In this case , telomeres for VertebratesHuman, mouse, Xenopus are coded by TTAGGG
These creep in .We calculate how often below .

During mitosis , an intron with this tag will initiate a telomere cap .
Bad things happen then .

For true non-ageing , it would be necessary to elide any intron DNA with a TTAGGG coding .
Present technology can do this . Whether it would be sufficient , needs some further consideration .

Probability of TTAGGG
1,There are 4 bases , which gives 4^6=4096 possibilities .
2,This is one of those little pitfalls of probability . A combination of double , single and triples seemingly gives a higher probability . But there is only one permutation that satisfies the requirement .
thus p = 1/4096 = 0.000244414

Suppose there is a p probability of damage at each mitosis event .
Then the cumulative damage ratio would be Cd= p* n(n+1)/2 , where n is the number of cell divisions . A linear summation .

From "NewTools" Reserves and error arguments we know that for an old system like this 1/3 error ratio would probably render it non-viable .

Thus , we can say 1/3 = p* n(n+1)/2 would solve for n at the Hayflick limit .

Calculation :
1/3 = 1/4096* n(n+1)/2
This gives quadratic equation of form
n^2 + n – 2.71266666667 = 0 …Notice how close the constant is to e = 2.71828. Remember , the ratio 1/3 is also an approximation . The usual tantalizing , delicious things are going on .
n = (-1 +- (1+4*2.7126666)*0.5 ) / 2
n = -1/2 +- 52.06566
n = 51.5866 or -52.58666

This is the Hayflick Limit . (See Appendix B below)
We have thus derived the Hayflick limit for humans from first principles .

Well and good , but what does it mean ?
Such a close fit with the Hayflick limit indicates that random intron generation (and insufficient intron absorption on chromatinin shortening ) is the main driver of the ageing mechanism

What to do ?
1. Increasing telomerase will make things worse .
See Appendix A . The more primitive the organism , the longer the telomere . This indicates more of a sideways gene-material transfers than longevity .

2. iRNA could be used to remove TTAGGG at mitosis .
Promising .

3. I think that an attempt to reverse the directionality of the DNA copying process (from 3 prime to 5 prime or the other way) holds a lot of promise .There are more variables , especially Phosphor . Can do a lot of things with phosphor .

4.Immune system will have to be used , but later on . Not of much use inside cell-nuclei .

5 Phene systems , of course .
Combined with valets .

6 Note that Cytosine has been left out of TTAGGG .
Why ?
These are very old systems .
There must be a very good evolutionary reason .

6.1 Cytosine has been used in quantum computing .

6.2 As cytidine triphosphate (CTP), it can act as a co-factor to enzymes, and can transfer a phosphate to convertadenosine diphosphate(ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

6.3 In DNA and RNA, cytosine is paired with guanine. However, it is inherently unstable, and can change into uracil (spontaneous deamination).
(Beware of "spontaneous" DNA changes AW)
This can lead to a point mutation if not repaired by theDNA repair enzymes such as uracil glycosylase, which cleaves a uracil in DNA.

6.4 Cytosine can also be methylated into 5-methylcytosine by an enzyme called DNA methyltransferase or be methylated and hydroxylated to make 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Active enzymatic deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine by the APOBEC family of cytosine deaminases could have both beneficial and detrimental implications on various cellular processes as well as on organismal evolution.[4] The implications of deamination on 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, on the other hand, remains less understood.

This means Cytosine is part of the Histone System , hence part of the Phene system

Attach it to any or all of the Guanine's in TTAGGG and the problem is solved . But we must still ensure that other G's are not inadvertently activated / deactivated .

Some plants can already do it . Tea (Green tea) . Using the methylization (epigenetic) route .
It can be made much easier with programmed water "Memory of water" Feb 2011

Death :

See "Singularities"

Remember , Death is the Singularity
Old Age is simply the event horizon .

Ask Lady Gaga



Appendix A (from Wiki)
Some known telomere sequencesGroupOrganismTelomeric repeat (5' to 3' toward the end)VertebratesHuman, mouse, XenopusTTAGGGFilamentous fungiNeurospora crassaTTAGGGSlime mouldsPhysarum, DidymiumTTAGGGDictyosteliumAG(1-8)KinetoplastidprotozoaTrypanosoma, CrithidiaTTAGGGCiliate protozoaTetrahymena, GlaucomaTTGGGGParameciumTTGGG(T/G)Oxytricha, Stylonychia,EuplotesTTTTGGGGApicomplexanprotozoaPlasmodiumTTAGGG(T/C)Higher plantsArabidopsis thalianaTTTAGGGGreen algaeChlamydomonasTTTTAGGGInsectsBombyx moriTTAGGRoundwormsAscaris lumbricoidesTTAGGCFission yeastsSchizosaccharomyces pombeTTAC(A)(C)G(1-8)Budding yeastsSaccharomyces cerevisiaeTGTGGGTGTGGTG (from RNA template)
or G(2-3)(TG)(1-6)T (consensus)Saccharomyces castelliiTCTGGGTGCandida glabrataGGGGTCTGGGTGCTGCandida albicansGGTGTACGGATGTCTAACTTCTTCandida tropicalisGGTGTA[C/A]GGATGTCACGATCATTCandida maltosaGGTGTACGGATGCAGACTCGCTTCandida guillermondiiGGTGTACCandida pseudotropicalisGGTGTACGGATTTGATTAGTTATGTKluyveromyces lactisGGTGTACGGATTTGATTAGGTATGT


Appendix B (from Wiki)
The Hayflick limit was discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961,[1] at the Wistar Institute(Philadelphia), when Hayflick demonstrated that a population of normal human fetal cells in a cell culture divide between 40 and 60 times. It then enters a senescence phase (refuting the contention by Alexis Carrel that normal cells are immortal). Each mitosis shortens thetelomeres on the DNA of the cell. Telomere shortening in humans eventually blocks cell division and correlates with aging.[clarification needed] This mechanism appears to prevent genomic instability and the development of cancer.


Negative Kelvin Update

Negative Kelvin Update .
Andre Willers
17 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
Laboratory achievement of negative Kelvin energy storage devices should be done during 2011.

Discussion :
See "Negative Kelvin" Feb 2009 (Copied in Appendix A for ease of reference)

The experimental set-up is explained in
NewScientist 4 Dec 2010 p15 "How to venture below absolute zero"
And set out more formally in
Physical Review Letters , DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105..220405
(Work by Mosk , Rosch and colleagues.)

Interestingly , this model also suggests that atoms in the negative-temperature state has relatively higher energy .
In other words , an energy storage device .

Their model does not use spin (ie chirping of laser-lattices) to speed things up .

Use of the Algorithm-generating tool in "P vs NP" Feb 2011 might give faster , sharper and stabler results.

The Lady is only Fair if she can Dance All Night .
(With apologies to Audrey Hepburn)



Appendix A

Negative Kelvin
Andre Willers
11 Feb 2009

Synopsis :
Negative degrees Kelvin temperature and high-density energy storage .

Sources :
ScientificAmerican Nov 2008 p40

Discussion .
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is found to hold for linear momentum transfers , as long as non-equilibrium systems are examined in fine enough detail , though extra dimensions of descriptions have to be added .

The problem lies in transfers of linear momentum to angular momentum and vice-versa .

This is easiest shown with thought experiments :

1.The Maxwell Demons :
The Demons directs higher-speed molecules to one side and the lower-speed ones to the other side . After a large number of iterations , one side boils and the other side freezes .

2.The Andre Demons :
The Demons direct molecules onto target molecules to increase their spin (paddlewheel principle) . After a large number of iterations , you have a matrix of molecules with zero linear motion , where all the energy is locked into the spin .
This is a material at negative degrees Kelvin . Any impinging particle will first have to soak up some of the energy in the spin before influencing the linear momentum (especially if the rotating molecules are locked in a matrix) .

These are theoretical ideals .
Ironically , Andre demons are much more feasible than Maxwell demons .
We use existing technology , mainly magnetrons(as in microwaves) and laser tweezers for the finishing touches for really high-density storage .

How to make a strong energy storage capsule:
Take a very well temperature- and electronic insulated capsule of hot water , put a strong electrical field across it to give a directional bias to the linear momentum of the water molecules .
In the same direction as the electric field , chirp the output of a magnetron at decreasing harmonic frequencies of 2.45 gigaHz .
The chirp has to be integrated with the Doppler-feedback from the spinning water-molecules(like a laser tweezer) . Some fancy electronics might be required .
This feedback process satisfies the Beth(1) requirements .

This spins a statistically significant number of water molecules using heat vibrations .
The capsule's measurable temperature decreases .
Repeat until desired energy density is achieved .

To tap it :
We can use the Reciprocity Relation (for which Onsager received the Nobel prize) to get a burst of electromagnetic-waves (laser weapon up to gamma ray wavelengths ) , or tap the EMW for electrons like a battery .

Biological systems .
It bothers me that present theory allows only mitochondria to use rotations .
Biological systems use anything available .
What about things rolling around on the cell-surface between receptor sites ?
Most viruses (like HIV) follows a circular configuration . A simple physical block preventing rolling between the CD4 and CCR5 receptors might prevent HIV infection.
Or spin the HIV virus using electromagnetic radiation at a resonant frequency , reducing the incidence of docking .

This is a Beth(1) technology .

And so it twirls .

Andre .


Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Click and Ears

Click and Ears
Andre Willers
16 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
Ear-lobe formation denoted descent from click-capable nobility , especially in the degenerate phases .

Discussion :
After seeing the adaptation to click in the left earlobe in the "Mask of Agamemnon" , I had a look at Egyptian portraits .

The general pattern :

The sphinx
The sphinx's left earlobe has a distinct double whorl . This cannot be an accident .
How can this have been missed in at least 5 000 years without somebody wondering why ? (Measure it for yourself) .
The mind not only boggles , but also despairs .

Nobility are shown with bare ears . Real nobility with bare left ears , showing some sign of a double whorl (or double earlobe) .
One is reminded of the Cretan double-axe . It looks like it . The ancients were quite capable of such symbolism .And the maze of the Minotaur would be the whorls of the ear .

Commoners have the typical Egyptian hairstyle with the hair covering both ears .

Gods or goddesses are shown with double earlobes on the left side .

Tutankhamun's funerary mask shows distinct differences between the left and right ear . But one of the reasons he was rejected was that he did not have enough of a difference . Also , his funerary mask was not done by click-speaker .

How can we tell ?

Look at the "Mask of Agamemnon" . Sound waves bend around the head . A click-speaker would "see" the sides of the head from the frontal position . Rendering this in visual terms would look like flanges sticking out around the head , including ears . Exactly like the "Mask of Agamemnon" .

This is not seen in Tutankhamun's funerary mask .This was not done by a click speaker . There must have still been some around .But nobody wanted to do it .

Tutankhamun was not seen as noble , not because of his parentage (this did not play a major role) , but because he was not a click-speaker .

Interesting on p197 of "Hidden treasures of antiquity" , it shows a number of party –girls with tantalizing hints of earlobes sticking out from very carefull hairdressings , (teasers) as well as a harpist with the distinct double-earlobe on his right ear !

The harpist is bald (ie a priest) , a real , full-blooded click speaker .(about the time of Thutmosis IV) . It was a funeral , and he was fat and old . The caption describes him as blind , since his eyes are closed while playing . This would have made no difference to a click-speaker . Showing such a high-caste person in the company of good-time girls says a lot about him .
Go for it , whoever you were , are or will be .
I bet he did not worry about life-everlasting .

Note that priests had to shave all head-ear off to make click easier to hear , especially as the gene-structure got diluted . (See ben Cohen)

The mummies of Baharyia Oasis all had markedly double left-earlobes .Probably by training and stimulation . Poor slobs (something like foot-binding in China) .

Not to mention Easter Island and the Americas .

Notice the lack of upward earlobe extension . Humans deformed skulls , noses , and ears in all directions with gay abandon , but upward elongation of the earlobes (ie mimicking a double earlobe) is conspicuous by it's absence .
The rulers would have zapped any such forwardness . And the habit persisted .
We still do not find it today .

I wonder what would happen if somebody did that now ?
I think the old memes are still alive . It would be judged ne-kulturny .
Ideal Goth
The nearest humans got was elf-ears .

And Vulcans , of course .

Logically yours



Superconductors and Valets

Superconductors and Valets
Andre Willers
15 Feb 2011

"No man is a hero to his valet."
Anne-Marie de Bigot Cornuel . (Aptly named)

Synopsis :
Superconductors require a host of ancillary , supportive valet molecules .
Many have evolved in the biological field , since it is easier in a watery matrix .
Also known as chaperones .

Algorithm :
1. First , find the strongest physical structure under compression . This means there is the least lateral movement of constituent elements .

Think electrons knocking each other along with least resistance .

Elliptic Umbilic shape
We have many candidates , but the best is an Elliptic Umbilic (bifurcation set only , three control dimensions and two controlled dimensions .) . From Catastrophe Theory

See "Why is the Parthenon not round" Jul 2009
See "Acropolis and Catastrophe Theory" Aug 2009

See "Catastrophe Theory" by D. Postle p25
See Catastrophe Theory by Rene Thom .

Why this shape ?
Stability .
The structure is two sets of 3 points , each one connected to any other by a portion of an ellipse . Each subset of 3 is connected by a narrow point in the connecting ellipses , the umbilicus .
The material structures (ie control dimensions) would be extremely stable . They are in stable attractor zones .Hence the use as chair legs . Very strong .

Catastrophe Theory enables us to ascribe attractor-basin dimensions . Within the attractor basin , any linear disturbance (ie stress) strengthens the structure . Torque at the umbilicus is a weak point , but is compensated for by bundling the structures .

Note that the structure is closed . Hence crystalloid formations of this configuration are possible . These will also be very stable .

Some Applications:
The above structure describes PNA , but this is too stable for life-forms in competition . Hence the less-stable RNA , DNA . All give rise to the familiar helix .

Superconductivity :
The stability means that a surplus electron in one set of 3 will pop through the umbilicus to the other set of 3 (where there is a created deficit of one electron) with no measurable resistance (with a little help from the valet .)

2. Next , find Valets (chaperones).
Biological systems have evolved many .
Biological systems are essentially electron transport systems . And they do it on a massive scale . A normal human body of about 80 kg creates and destroys about 43 kg of ATP per day . Half its bodyweight . The electron transport in mitochondria and elsewhere is mediated by valets(chaperones) . In other words , organic superconductors .

If something goes wrong , there is massive heat release . In extreme , this results in spontaneous combustion . Usually , just fever or apoptosis .(Old age ?)

Known valets :
Chicken fat
Immune system
Any good biochemist can think of many more .

Compound Superconductors
Combinations of organic valet's around Elliptic Umbilic chains of three basis atoms (like mercury , barium , calcium) or (iron , arsenic ,oxygen ) or (iron , tellurium , sulfur) , etc with valet compounds especially around the narrowest umbilical points has very high temperature superconductivity .
Design your own core and try out the best valet .
Or ask for references .

An analogy :
The valet is like a broad rubber band around the narrowest point , supporting the mechanical strength and also quantum-absorbing an electron close to the choke point , then popping it out again after the choke point . This will happen easier in pairs . Pair entanglement will play a role to minimize energy loss . Cf sonon theory .
This is the closest I can put it in words .
See also "P vs NP" Feb 2011 for use of pairs in quantum simplifications .

Delicious !
See NewScientist 25 Dec 2010 p40 "Sozzled Superconductors" , where tired superconductors were rejuvenated by being soaked in red wine .(Flavenoids)

Jeeves strikes again!


P vs NP

P vs NP
Andtre Willers
15 Feb 2011

"If it were done when 'tis done , then 'twere well
It were done quickly ."

Synopsis :
A Quick Proof that P = NP
An Algorithm can always be found that reduces the Aleph number by one , with an error factor .

Discussion :
This is just a blog , not a formal proof .

Pre-requisite axiom :
Axiom of Delineation .
Items can be defined , ie delineated .

Then statements about anything can be True (+1) or False(-1) (Aristotelianism , computer logic)

The Universe of True and False statements (U(A) can then be expressed in combinations as
U(A) = { (+1) + (-1) } ^ n
Where n can be large finite or any Kantorian Infinity .
(Amusing to note that this means the expansion of zero , Cf Quantum Foam)

Just counting the statements , where (+1) counts as one and (-1) also counts as one , gives the number of statements , gives the
Number of statements in U(A) = 2^n . This fits in with Kantorian Aleph classes .

Definition of Algorithm :
An Algorithm has a smaller Aleph number than that of n , by definition .
This can be expressed as
Algorithm = { (+1) + W * (-1) } ^ n …. Where 0 <= W < 1

Can an Algorithm always exist ?
Yes . We show it as follows :
We express U(A) in logical notation as :
U(A) = { (+1) + W*(-1) - (1-W) } ^ n … a congruent tautology .

Using Binomial expansion to give all possible combinations gives
U(A) = { (+1) + W*(-1)} * F + (-1)^n * (1-W)^n
Where F is the other terms of the expansion

This means that
U(A) = Algorithm * F + (-1)^n * (1-W)^n

Interpretation :
A delineated universe can always be expressed in terms of an Algorithm of one less Aleph number , with an uncertainty of { +- (1-W)^n } .

Popular methods in this Universe is to set W=1/2 . Ie Quantum physics of spin .

Travelling Salesman problem :
See "Travelling salesman Problem and Quantum Gravity" Nov 2010 .
Here W=1/2 by using Arrival and Departure points in a city as quantum pairs that have to filled first after a finite sorting of n(n-1)/2 distances .
Sorting can be used as n (the number of cities) is finite .

For the same reason , the cumulative error can be made as small as we like , smaller than the smallest distance between cities . Hence , an exact solution is possible .

Applications :

1, I am releasing this since it has important applications in real-world problems like protein folding . Remember , old age sucks .

2. Some quick adjustments will have to be made to many cryptographic systems that depend on the difficulty of factoring large (but finite) numbers .

As for the Clay prizes , they would not even deign to consider this .

Oh , well .

There is always the Wright Prize .
Eppur it flies .



Sunday, February 13, 2011

Click and Agamemnon.

Click and Agamemnon
Andre Willers
14 Feb 2011

The "Funeral mask of Agamemnon" is a high-fidelity death mask in beaten gold .
There is a distinct difference between the left ear and the right ear .
The left ear was a mark of nobility : a click speaker .
This is a very high-fidelity reproduction in beaten gold .

Discussion :
The right ear is a normal human ear , focusing soundwaves to the ear hole .

The left ear is doubled , with sound being focused both on the top half of the earlobe and the bottom half .

The left ear shows no signs of abnormality . The wave guides look very functional
It is not a mutation .

The situation on the left ear is to be expected over the speech center .Skull clicks penetrate to the Broca brain volume without tympanum intervention .

I never expected to see an actual physical click adaptation . But there it is .
Argue with Agamemnon (or whoever) mask . It is really high fidelity . But looking at the subtle distortions , it was made by a click speaker . So we can expect hyperlinked information packets hidden below the surface layers of the mask.

Ever wonder why you have that whorl on the top of your earlobe leading nowhere ?
This a vestigial click sensory organ .
Press your finger just north of the left earhole .Notice the sensitivity . Much more than on the right earlobe .
Be aware that continual stimulation of this spot will result in genes switching on and earlobe and nervous rewiring proceeding .
HGH secretagogues will help .
This might be helpful in old-age hearing degeneration in the higher frequencies.

The Agamemnon mask has slightly bigger wave guides in the top half of the left ear , but no ear hole in the top half . There are multiple pressure-sensitive nerves here directly connecting with the Broca-brain area .

Kock-knock , who's there ?


Memory of Water

Memory of Water
Andre Willers
14 Feb 2011

"And we are here as on a darkling plain
Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight
Where ignorant armies clash by night "
Matthew Arnold (Dover Beach)

Synopsis :
Yet another battle between Dogma and Experimental results is shaping up .
This concerns whether water can retain a structure (ie memory) for a meaningful time.
The ease in creating quantum entanglement on large and lasting scale indicates that the Water Memory bunch are going to win this time .

Discussion :
Nobel prizewinner (2008) Luc Montagnier released the results of experiments that strongly indicated that water can retain memory structures sufficiently so that extremely sensitive techniques like PCR amplification could replicate a "ghost" DNA structure . The experimental technique used strongly suggests quantum entanglement .

The method of release of the data :
Montagnier obviously did not want to go the same route as poor Jacques Benveniste , whose work and personality was thoroughly trashed by "Nature" journal using non-professionals James Randi (a magician) and Walter Stewart (a "fraudbuster") , both gloryhounds . This from a professional peer-reviewed journal !
Benveniste died in 2004 , after a packed jury of referees was not "satisfied" at the results of a repeat experiment .

This damaged Science Journals irreparably .
Controversial findings could no longer rely on a reasonably objective review and testing .

Hence , Montagnier released his findings first on the platform of choice these days :
Arxiv : See

Then he released it through NewScientist , an objective science reporter with no obvious hidden agenda .
See NewScientist 15 Jan 2011 p8 "Scorn over claim of teleported DNA"

I presumes an article in Scientific American , and maybe National Geographic is in the works .

In the meantime , peer-review journal (whichever one was chosen) is still winding its labyrinthine way .

The Experiment :
This is from the description in NewScientist :
It is simple enough to be done in a high-school lab .

Algorithm :
1,Take a test tube of DNA about 100 base pairs long (Source) . Dilute it between 7-12 times (essential for "entanglement hole")
2.Place it next to test tube of pure water ("Target", both inside a coil insulated from the earth's magnetic field .
3.Subject them to a 7 Herz electromagnetic wave for 16-18 hours . (The entanglement process)
4,Then do PCR (polymerase chain reaction) on both tubes in isolation .
5.The result was that the 100 base pair DNA fragments were recovered from both test tubes .
6.Test protocols ruled out contamination .
7.The inescapable conclusion is that information has been transmitted .
8.But how ? Entanglement ? Memory ?or something else . Only experiment can tell .

Some possible explanations :
1,Entanglement :
Entangled particles have become easier to create and to last longer .
See NewScientist 15 Jan 2011 p1 "Entanglement trap=Memory"
About 7 nanoseconds in solidstate materials .

NewScientist 22 Jan 2011 p12 "Quantum states last longer in birds' eyes"
The European Robin can maintain entangled states for 100 microseconds in it's eye .

A class of Entanglement Chaperones in biological systems is adduced .

So we can theorize that water (hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms) in the Source testtube entangles with water (hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms) in the target Testtube .
In the Target testtube , this shows the target DNA as a hole in the water molecules' entanglements .

Here is the Memory Trick :
Enough molecules remain entangled during PCR that the reaction will recognize shapes .Remember , DNA evolved specifically to do this trick .

One possible mechanism :
Hydrogen atoms in water have an angle of about 108 degrees between them and the oxygen atom , but this is very sensitive to spins in the atoms . And these are notoriously easy to entangle .
This means that a water molecule can have 2^3 = 8 entangled memory states .
(ie 2 for each atom spin) .
And some clump together in long-lasting patterns .
These can be counted by (1+1)^8 =256 . So , any water molecule has a 256 bit entangled memory . Not shabby for three atoms .
Note that this is after qbit collapse .

So , even after the entanglement collapses , the water molecule's individual atoms spin states collapse into 256 different states .
This means that water has a memory via the entanglement route .

If there is only Pure entanglement memory (ie only original has memory)
This is easy enough to test : disturb or destroy Source testtube before doing PCR on Target testtube . Ie destroy any possible entanglement memory . This should include the coils .

If the Target testtube still produces DNA after this , it could mean that the entanglement is across time . This would simply mean a true memory lodged in the original . And may you have joy of un-entangling that .

Or Else water has a memory .
The 256 bit memory theorized above .
This should be able to be verified experimentally .
End If

Why the vicious response ?
This is an old war . "Action at a distance" undermines most of humanity's accomplishments in understanding cause-and-Effect relationships . But this is no longer true due to quantum physics in the last 50 years , noe trembling on the edge of a Paradigm Shift .

The "Action at a distance" side has won decisively .
Entanglement as an industrial process is the death stroke .
What you are witnessing is the death-scrabblings of the old guard .

Instead of embracing the experimental results (as a real scientist would) , they
attack the person , instead of the idea . A priesthood defending dogma .

Internet :
Notice the effect of sites like Arxiv . Journals and establishment are bypassed .
There was a similar effect for about three centuries after the invention of moveable type printing by Gutenberg . They were called "Pamphlets" .
Cheap blogs in our terms
Everybody could (and did) put in their penny's worth .

Commercial Considerations :
If water can be programmed via spin-entanglement into a 256 bit memory , it opens up enormous industrial opportunities .

I hereby place this in the open domain . It is not subject to any duties , fees , copyrights or any or all hindrances to entities to freely enjoy the fruits thereof .

Matrioshka Brains .
Forget them .
The really serious action is in interstellar water clouds , where every water molecule is a 256 bit processor .

And here you thought you were only thirsty .

Andre .

Saturday, February 12, 2011

Inverse Golf

Inverse Golf (Golf+)
Andre Willers
12 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
The hole falls over the club and ball .
An ancient American game (circa 1050-1350 AD)

See also "Cahokia,Amazonia and the Black Death"

Chunkey is an exact inverse of golf , but seems to have been just as addictive .
An entire civilization was built around it .
Call it golf+

The Chunkey Game (Golf+) :
A circular ring (the hole) is rolled down a fairway . The club with attached balls (leather stubs in the case of Chunkey) is pushed , shoved or thrown after it .
Scoring is by which stub (ball) on the club is encircled by the ring when the ring finally falls over.
Minor points for closest .
Does this sound familiar ?

How on earth did this happen ?

Contamination does not seem likely at all . The inverse rules could not develop in isolation . You either have Golf or you have Chunkey .The only common element is a fairway .

Cahokia Centers (called cities) :
These can then be seen more as golf-clubs . Open to various degrees to various classes. Fair enough . But why is the game so addictive ?

Why does an inverse golf formed of over a thousand years ago have the same effect as golf ?
What other games like this are there ?

Addiction is not possible without some form of endorphin release . Endorphin happens in conflict situations . Solitary conflict can only happen against a memory system . Ie a handicap .

One can then predict that Chunkey had a handicap system . This also means that it was like poker: a combined skill and chance game , with skill predominating .
From general considerations , I would estimate that skill is 2/3 and chance 1/3 . This is sufficient to stimulate maximum endorphin release . See "NewTools" Nov 2008 .

An inversion of the game would not change the handicap system . Hence both Golf and Chunkey are addictive .

But Chunkey(golf+) is more addictive .
In golf , the hole is static , the club and ball under player's control .
In Chunkey , the hole is dynamic , and the club-ball tied .

But a rotating ring has more degrees of freedom than a rotating ball .
(falling over the "ball" , instead of ball falling into a hole)
This gives the player the illusion of more control .

Much more addictive , especially playing against a handicap . Ie solitary games .
We can deduce that Cahokia plazas were usually filled with solitary players trying to better their handicap .

Commercial considerations .
The Chunkey fairway can be much shorter than the Golf fairway (probably why that form evolved in a irrigation farm area . Space was at a premium . )
The same today .
Any Putt-putt course or bowling course can be converted to a Chunkey course . Being more addictive than golf , it should be popular as golf+ .

Green , too .

And the Golf Pro's ?
They would be the first to be hooked .
Chunkey (call it golf+) would be an expansion , not competition . Most people cannot afford the pleasures of golf addiction . But they can with golf+ .

As they say in Hawaii
A haole in one .


Ps :
You can systematically invert the rules of other addictive games and see if there are endorphin releases invariant to the rule-inversions .
Soccer gives some fascinating results .


Cahokia , Amazonia and the Black Death

Cahokia , Amazonia and the Black Death .
Andre Willers
12 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
Maddened refugees from the European Black Death (circa 1348-1350 CE ) took desperate flight towards known refuges across the Atlantic (Vinland) . Some unfortunately made it within 38 days (about 4 miles per day) to riverine ports on the Mississppi and Amazon . (Most perished on hostile shores or seas : risks they would never have taken if not maddened ) .
The local populations and civilizations were then destroyed .
The Black Death was nearly 100% lethal in closely tied river civilizations .

Discussion :

Cahokia :
A riverine agricultural society . Traders from the Great Lakes to the mouth of the Mississippi .

They were besotted with "Chunkey" .
A type of bowls .
But this like saying that present American Football is also a type of bowls .

This required large plazas of hardpacked pavement , with pavilions for the rich and famous with a good view (flat topped mounds) , and enclosures to keep the non-paying dead-beats out .
And there you have a Cahokia center . Not a city , but more a sports complex , complete with bookies , priests , etc .

About 1050 AD this really took off as discretionary income rose due to favourable climatic conditions and certain threshold population densities being passed .
The sports centers provided agglutinive cores .
Cf present roving Olympic Game sites .

The normal vicissitudes of overpopulation , environmental degradation , warfare ,etc followed . But nothing capable of stopping the civilization in its tracks . Remember , the Mississippi drained half a continent , arising from glaciers . There was always water . More steadfast than the Nile .

Then the Black Death refugees arrived , probably somewhere around St Louis .
Out of the hundreds that must have arrived , some were still biologically active .
The Black Death spread like wildfire (it's cousin , bubonic Plague , had crossed over from Asia with the first colonists and had hosts) .

The American Bottom became a death zone . By the time Columbus arrived , it was known as the Vacant Quarter . The locals shunned it , with good reason . For a long time , anybody who went in there died within 40 days .
See National Geographic Jan 2011 , p127 "Cahokia"

The death rate would have been higher than Europe , since the centers were all connected via fast and easy riverways .

They were slowly recovering when the Spaniards arrived . Smallpox , measles , whooping cough , flu etc then completed the destruction .

Ironically , smallpox , which would have given some measure of protection against the Black Death (since they both compete for receptor site CCR5) , arrived too late .
(Though this might have happened to the Natchez by chance .)

Amazonia .
These were extensive riverine agricultural civilizations on the banks of Amazonian rivers .
These have been recently discovered and described .
All vanished circa 1350 – 1400 CE (ie pre-columbian)
See for the one at the mouth of the Amazon , where the infection probably started .

Why did MesoAmerica escape ?
Most likely because there was no fast river transport .
By the time transport was organized , carriers were dead . Also , the pneumonic form of Black Death was the main carrier . Fast , lethal . but not persistent .

Proofs :
The genetic structure of the Black Death in Europe has been sequenced .
Finding it in pre-Columbian corpses should be indicative . The same for bubonic plague in rat or other carriers in pre-Columbian carrier corpses .

Documents :
There might be written accounts mouldering away somewhere . The refugees would have been wealthy and literate . Most likely to have been found and brought back to Spain , and there promptly buried for political reasons . (The Black Death was an extremely touch subject in the 1400's and 1500's . The Vatican probably has copies .)

It is still touchy today , 500 years later .
The Spaniards would be absolved of most of the genocides , while the countries of origin of the Black Death refugees (Dutch , English , Irish , maybe some Swedish) could face class-actions claims in the World Court in the Hague .

The Natchez would stand a good chance of success , especially since they have deep enough pockets to fund such a process .

Not to mention the survivors of Amazonia , now savages in the jungle .
Rehabilitation would be a least requirement .

Substantial amounts of moral and monetary capital are involved .

Compensation for accidental or unintential death or injury is one of the bedrocks of any judicial system . The interesting point will be whether a civilization has a statute of limitations .

Chunkey , Western Style , anyone ?


Tuesday, February 08, 2011

Diamonds .

Andre Willers
8 Feb 2011

"Diamonds are a girl's best friends " Gaia

Synopsis :
Earth is globed by a glittering shell of diamonds formed during the cooling phases of the planet about 3 to 1 billion years ago . A few of these survive transportation to the surface during some cool volcanic , tectonic and impact events .

Discussion :
See Appendices below below :

1.Lots of Carbon
A planet without a diamond necklace would not have enough carbon to give rise to a carboniferous life .
Startrek would say :
"No diamonds , no life as we know it , Jim ."

2.Neutrino Signature :
Large concentrations of diamonds have a distinct neutrino shadow (due to multiple refraction and absorption) .
Sufficient masses of diamonds in a semi-liquid matrix self-assemble into meta-materials to more efficiently absorb neutrinos . Cold volcanos result .
For the proof of this :
Either you see it , or else it will be a bit of a slog .

Remember , the surrounding semi-molten rock is transparent to neutrinos .
A lot of energy is absorbed by the diamond metamaterial . This plays a major part in the planetary energy balance .

This has obvious significance to detection of extra-solar planets capable of bearing carbon-based life .

Venus indicates too much energy can be transferred , leading to mantle-eruptions that paved the planet . The carbon went into CO2 in the atmosphere . Not that many diamonds left on Venus .

Mars should be lousy with diamonds . Just look around the hot pockets .
Or that big ,cool volcano . Or the fracture zones between the hemispheres .
Or … .
You get the drift .

Are there undiscovered diamond deposits in South Africa ?
Yes .
The Vredefort impact created numerous near-contiguous fractures. The gave way under pressure to cool volcano's with very rapid exit velocities (ie the diamonds scooped up from the mantle did not have time to burn up . ) These weathered and water washed the diamonds away to be concentrated in places like Alexander bay .
This took a fairly long time . Rivers formed , vanished , reformed and the land twisted
To the West , many deposits have been found . Kimberley , etc
To the East , few .if any .

Algorithm :
Draw a circle around Vredefort with radius at Kimberley . You will notice it encompasses most of the gold and platinum bearing areas towards all areas except East and South-East . This is because these areas got squinched up in subsequent tectonic movements . Nobody can un-squinch them , but we can say meaningful things on a macroscopic scale . Because the time-scale is relatively large , we can use "Newtools" Nov 2008 . The Reserve and Error arguments indicate that we simply progressively shrink the East and South-East present map measurements to a third of the radii projected from Vredefort-Kimberley
radius . This gives a kidney shaped depression just east of the Orange River and west of the coastal escarpment . From Estcourt in the north to Colesberg-Noupoort in the south . Minerals should be concentrated here .
Note that the first diamond in South Africa was picked up at Colesberg . I could never figure out why this was not followed up .

Estimated diamond reserves :
About 1/3 of that found at Alexander bay .

Platinum etc : about 1/3 to ¼ found to the north .
Heavy metals would tend to settle at dead-ends or swirling lees .
The corridor from Colesberg to East London is the most remarkable geological trap system I have ever seen . It looks like a baleen whale's mouth .
It should be lousy with heavy metals .
A less remarkable system can be seen heading to Idutywa .

Read Appendix C link .

Would Luna have diamonds ?
Doubtful . Diamonds probably did form in Earth(0) before the impact event that resulted in Luna , but the impact temperatures probably cooked any diamonds .
But , some might have survived in pockets of Earth(0) ejecta in Trojan orbits . There is a distinct probability (+-15%) that large diamonds can be found in Earth-Lunar Trojans .
Re-entry diamonds with datable pyrodone garnet inclusions would then give formation dates before the Luna-forming impact . Has any been found ?
Unknown . On human form results like these have probably been swept under the carpet .

So , Gaia might have diamond earrings . These should be even easier to detect from really far away using neutrino shadowing .

Simply put , a planet with lots of carbon and a big moon can be detected from very far away .

So much for Ceti . Anyone interested already knows what is here , and has done so for millions of years .

Gaia will not be pleased .
You think I am joking ?
See "Inverse Anthropomorphisms" Feb 2011
See "Death of the Dinosaurs " Dec 2008
See "AI-1 " Jul 2008
See "AI update " Jun 2009
And sundry others .

I do not know how aware or self-aware Gaia is at the moment in logical terms , but both will follow in the near future .
See "Singularities " Feb 2011

And Gaia would not be pleased to be ignored . (Remember anthropomorphism)

Information (like this blog) would be open to her . (Memory)
I , for one , have no intention of pissing her off .

Maybe a teensy bit of exploration might be called for ?

Tentatively yours


Appendix A
A good general discussion :
Mine or Location Diamond Age (Billion years) Pipe Age (billion years) Pipe Rock Diamond Inclusions
Orapa, Botswanna 0.99 0.1 Kimberlite Eclogite
Premier, S. Africa 1.15 1.1-1.2 Kimberlite Eclogite
Argyle, Australia 1.58 1.1-1.2 Lamproite Eclogite
Finsch, S. Africa 1.58 0.1* Kimberlite Eclogite
Finsch, S. Africa 3.3* 0.1* Kimberlite Peridotite
Kemberly, S. Africa 3.3* 0.1* Kimberlite Peridotite
In the above listing, * means approximate. The Finch Mine, South Africa is listed twice because it includes two pipes featuring diamonds of differing ages. Note the vast difference between the ages of the diamonds and of the pipe material that carried them to the surface.
Appendix B
Impact considerations from Vredefort impact .
Formation and structure
The asteroid that hit Vredefort is one of the largest ever to strike Earth (at least since the Hadean) and is estimated at 5–10 km (3.1–6.2 mi) wide.[3] The crater has a diameter of roughly 250–300 km (155–186 mi),[2] larger than the 200 km (124 mi) Sudbury Basin and the 170 km (106 mi) Chicxulub crater. This makes Vredefort the largest known impact structure on Earth. (The Wilkes Land crater in Antarctica, if confirmed to be the result of an impact event, is even larger at 500 kilometers across.) The Vredefort crater's age is estimated to be more than 2 billion years (2,023 ± 4 million years), striking during thePaleoproterozoic era. It is the second-oldest known crater on Earth, a little less than 300 million years younger than the Suavjärvi crater in Russia.
It was originally thought that the dome in the center of the crater was formed by a volcanicexplosion, but in the mid 1990s evidence revealed that it was the site of a huge bolide impact, as telltale shatter cones are often discovered in the bed of the nearby Vaal River.
The Vredefort crater site is one of the few multi-ringed impact craters on Earth, although they are more common elsewhere in the Solar System. Perhaps the best-known example isValhalla crater on Jupiter's moon Callisto, although Earth's Moon has a number as well. Geological processes, such as erosion and plate tectonics, have destroyed most multi-ring craters on Earth.
The nearby Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) and Witwatersrand Basin were created during this same period, leading to speculation that the Vredefort bolide's mass and kinetics were of sufficient magnitude to induce regional volcanism. The BIC is the location of most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs), while the Witwatersrand basin holds most of the known reserves of gold.
The Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site is currently facing threats from unstructured property developments and the Parys Sewage Treatment Plant, which are in a dilapidated state and are pumping untreated sewage into the Vaal River and the crater site.[citation needed]

Appendix C
A more detailed consideration of impacts .
Note the general fractal nature of fractures in the scope of the supersonic impact wave and subsequent relaxation wave
Cool routes to the surface result .
Hence survival of diamonds .