Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Algorithms and Infinite Processes

Algorithms and Infinite Processes
Andre Willers
31 Oct 2012
Synopsis :
Algorithms can approximate infinite processes to any degree of desired accuracy . The scientific Method .

Discussion:
It sounds trivial . Any curve can be approximated by it’s tangents (derivitives).
The kicker lies in the “desired accuracy” bit . What we call Quantum Systems . This decision is intimately related to the Halting Problem .
How many tangents do we have to compute to get handle on the curve ?
Luckily we know this . See Appendix I
Twenty seven (27) suffices for all possible universes , branes , etc .
This puts an upper boundary to searches N~2^27~ 135 million .Not a particularly large number .
Willers rule of Thumb : if your search gives no acceptable results after 135 million tries , something is wrong with your basic assumptions .
It also means 135 million static societies are possible . (Good luck with that),
The 27 dimensions include all time dimensions , but not translations between dimensions . This will require 27^27 dimensions , which is middling large . Algorithms can be used . Physically , this means particles can exist . So , there are a lot of particles . Ie individuals .
The next level up is 27^(27^27) . This would only have meaning if rates of (rates of change) are quantifiable . From Newton, this means that gravitation should be very weak . In the order of 27^27 ~4.43^10(-38) . This can be used to describe the gravitational curvature of all possible Universes .
This Universum thus has layered energy intensity bubbles(layers) , which can be tapped . Ie , higher energy density Universes(bubbles) exist , as well as lower ones .
Creating a flow between them enables you to tap a percentage , hopefully without getting fried .
Anti-gravity :
Creation of Anti-Gravity will not disturb the Universum , as they they will have to come to an end ,(Remember , time dimensions are included in the Universum ) . But particular universes will show the effect when anti-gravity bubbles are not destroyed and is seen as a “fleeing from the center” . Actually , this is evidence of high-tech civilizations .
You can make your own easily enough . At least two levels of accellerations of accellerations should do the trick , as well as an interface control
1. a0=d2x/dt2 , a1=d3x/dt3 , a2=d4x/dt4 . This will lock in an anti-grav bubble .
2. The Interface Control . An Entropy-sink is required . A simple camera looking at any bare black-hole(like the Crab Nebula) will suffice . You control the bubble by neutralizing various terms of Riemann’s Zeta-function in the camera . This will take some trial-and-error .
Steered Entropy sinks :
Some things are more infinite than others . An entropy sink is ,by definition, infinite .Ordinary rules do not apply . If there is a possibility of information leakage , all is leaked , unless there is a gateway like reverberational neutralization . Like radio tuning . . All is leaked , but only some get through . Resonance is the term usually used , but we need negative resonance . A certain frequency does not get through , due to self-cancelling .
This has major effects in quantum systems . You can steer quantum systems by limiting the Enttropic Sink by simple electronic means .

You should be able to construct an Anti-Gravity bubble from these principles.
Float like a butterfly.

Andre
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Appendix I
The Inside of Zero .
Andre Willers
7 Aug 2009

Synopsis :
A system of 13 Diophantine equations with 26 unknowns are the necessary sufficient to describe Arith I systems relative to Arith II system , with a Degree of Complexity = 10 .
These are used to describe a mathematical vacuum , with some physical consequences .

Discussion :
See Appendix A , B , Recursive Theory .
See previous posts , where Arith I and Arith II systems were discussed in detail .

The problem lies in discussing Non-Aristotelian systems using Aristotelian concepts of delineation (ie True , not-True ) .

Infinity .
The alert reader would have noticed that most of the problems come from processes continued indefinitely , which is taken as infinity . But is it ? Kantor already proved that varieties of infinity exists . It immediately follows that the software-computer we call mathematics and logic needs some revision .
The works of Russell , Godel , Matiyasevich et al pointed out some further contradictions in the Aristotelian model .
Can a theorem be true only for Aleph0 but not for Aleph1 ?
This is analogous to the problems with parallel lines continuing "infinitely" , that led to non-Euclidean geometries .

Recursive Genesis .
The standard axioms of arithmetic needs only a tweak on one axiom to generate the necessary revisions .
Generate new numbers by adding 1 to any number a .

Arith II
The Standard Set (call it Arith II) states that a+1<>a , where a is a previous number . The number line does not loop back on itself .

Arith I
The number line can loop back on itself . A circular number-line is formed . In a certain sense , we are discussing the topology of circular number loops in a Arith II space and their relationships .

The metric has not been defined . The question then becomes :
How many Arith I systems (= ArithI(m) ) plus one ArithII system (we only need one ArithII) are necessary sufficient to describe this particular Universum ?

Rotational Translations (spin) .
This is actually moving from one dimension to another , regardless of the frame of reference . Every ArithI system then actually needs a spin indicator : ie , which way it is curving in an (n-1) dimensional space .
I draw your attention to the curious fact that the angle in 2-dim is 2pi , while in 3 dim it is 4pi . More of this anon .

The Degree :
The maximum exponent in an equation if you change all the variables into one variable . This is important because it indicates the number of dimensions we have to use to describe the equation . Do not confuse it with the number of variables .

Minimum Necessary Sufficient .
The Ball-Breaker . The description defines reality .

This has been called many things :
Principle of Least effort , time , distance ,
Entropy .
Occam's Razor .
Collapse of the wave-function .
Economy of effort , etc .

Matiyasevich et al has shown that there is a relationship between the Degree and the Number of variables necessary to describe an item in an Universum using a related number of equations .

Boundaries :
The following relationships has been proved :
Degree = 4 , variables 58
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13
Degree = 10^45 , variables = 10

Is there a minimum number number of degrees ?
I doubt very much whether a Degree lower than 4 will be found . See Physical significance below .
See previous posts .

Physical Significance .
"Everything that can be , will be . But not all at once ." AW
The Degree can be described as the number of dimensions . You will notice the correlation with string theory .
Sadly , a Theory of Everything is impossible . But we can creep up on it .

Delicious !
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13 , Spin =2
The numbers 26 =2x13 , and spin =2 should be knocking at the jaded doors of your mind .

Cards .
A pack of 13x4 = 52 cards forms a very good analogue of the Mathematical Process of a Universum .
You can work out for yourself why humans have a good use for a very good analogue of the universe .
And the Jokers ?
Remember , the Joker can take on any value . A good decription of a trans-luminal , low-probability event .
The most popular string theory uses 10 dimensions .

And the rest of the Tarot pack ?
Remember , we are talking about necessary sufficient without straining human capabilities too much .

Prime Numbers :
A prime number is simply an ArithI system (in ArithII measurements) that cannot be chopped up .
A mathematical atom , relative to ArithII . The number we need is related to the number of variables .
It is like zero

The Inside of Zero .
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13 , Spin =2
If we plug in 26 prime numbers into the Diophantine polynomial generational equation in AppendixA below (and there are an infinity to choose from) , we get 26 ArithI systems , which have a mathematical vacuum inside them . No numbers .
A very interesting place . Note that the resultant is also a prime atom . It is recursive . Only the spin remains free .
Like the inside of a singularity .

Physically , this will have some very interesting effects .
There are no quantum fluctuations inside zero . The metric does not exist , even at Planck level .

Super-conductivity :
Purely an effect of the number of atoms crowded together .
It does not matter which atoms . They just have to be in certain configurations . Hence the present confusion in the field .

Disintegration of matter
(cold-fusion or cold-fission) .
But observational systems really like conservation laws . Energy release can then be only through particle or EM means .
If the geometries are chosen correctly , we can constrain the output mainly to electron/proton or electron/EM .
Direct electrical energy from matter . Very good power generation in our Universum .

Quantum Epigenetics .
The patterns on the surface of zero are constrained by trans-luminal effects inside zero . The outside patterns dictate the quantum-fluctations , as well as trans-luminal and super-luminal effects from all over .

The spin of Zero will thus drag creation of quantum fluctuations around it . This will affect things not only on a small scale , but on a large scale as well . The Drags do not balance out .(cf Relativistic rotation drag)
This can actually easily be calculated in the standard way by wave functions and General Relativity .

Rotating around a point
Note that there is a difference between spin and a particle rotating about center .
This can be constrained by using the fact that angular radians in 2 dimensions is 2pi and in 3 dimensions is 4pi .
Physically , in our descriptions , it means the particle does not really know whether it is orbiting in 2 dimensions or is spread over a surface in 3 dimensions (cf h/2pi)) , but we can constrain the geometries (and do in our quantum devices !)

God's sense of humour .
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13 , Spin =2
Each degree (ie dimension) can take on +1, 0, -1 spins . Thus 10^3 number of states .
(We do not worry about minimum necessary sufficient spins , only state what is .)
This gives a polynomial of 27 integers of degree 10 with a value of 3 spins . See Appendix A below .

The Fine structure constant of our universe is
1/alpha = h/2pi * c / e^2
=137.035 999 070 (98)
where h is Planck's Constant , c is lightspeed in vacuo (see above) and e is electron charge , all in dimensionless electrostatic units . The value is dimensionless (ie the same for any definition of units)
It shows the relationship between h (Plancks constant , which includes the definition of mass) , spin (the pi , but there has to be compensation for dimensional drifting between dim2 and dim3 as discussed above) , observational speed (c ) and electric charge (e) .
It means that spinning mass and charge are intimately related to the number of dimensions it has to rotate through .
So , it is no surprise to find that
Beta = (1/10 + 1/27) * 10^3
=1000*(0.1 + 0.037037037…)
= 137 . 037 037 …
The difference in the sixth decimal can be attributed to drag effects and dimensional compensations , which have not been taken into account .

Biological Epigenetics .
The same type of argument can be applied to biological cells and denizens of multicellular organism . While they might not rotate , they definitely do partially rotate to-and-fro .

Three magnetic fields at right angles to each other or twistor-EM waves will have definite biological effects .
Do not try this at home .

Does nothing matter ?
The Zero knows .

Andre .

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Appendix A

From http://mathworld.wolfram/com/PrimeDiophantineEquations.html
From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formula_for_Primes
Formula based on a system of Diophantine equations
A system of 14 Diophantine equations in 26 variables can be used to obtain a Diophantine representation of the set of all primes. Jones et al. (1976) proved that a given number k + 2 is prime if and only if the following system of 14 Diophantine equations has a solution in the natural numbers:
α0 = wz + h + j − q = 0
α1 = (gk + 2g + k + 1)(h + j) + h − z = 0
α2 = 16(k + 1)3(k + 2)(n + 1)2 + 1 − f2 = 0
α3 = 2n + p + q + z − e = 0
α4 = e3(e + 2)(a + 1)2 + 1 − o2 = 0
α5 = (a2 − 1)y2 + 1 − x2 = 0
α6 = 16r2y4(a2 − 1) + 1 − u2 = 0
α7 = n + l + v − y = 0
α8 = (a2 − 1)l2 + 1 − m2 = 0
α9 = ai + k + 1 − l − i = 0
α10 = ((a + u2(u2 − a))2 − 1)(n + 4dy)2 + 1 − (x + cu)2 = 0
α11 = p + l(a − n − 1) + b(2an + 2a − n2 − 2n − 2) − m = 0
α12 = q + y(a − p − 1) + s(2ap + 2a − p2 − 2p − 2) − x = 0
α13 = z + pl(a − p) + t(2ap − p2 − 1) − pm = 0
The 14 equations α0, …, α13 can be used to produce a prime-generating polynomial inequality in 26 variables:
ie: PrimeNumber = (k+2) ( 1- a0^2 - … a13^2) )
This is equal to the polynomial
(k + 2)(1 −
[wz + h + j − q]2 −
[(gk + 2g + k + 1)(h + j) + h − z]2 −
[16(k + 1)3(k + 2)(n + 1)2 + 1 − f2]2 −
[2n + p + q + z − e]2 −
[e3(e + 2)(a + 1)2 + 1 − o2]2 −
[(a2 − 1)y2 + 1 − x2]2 −
[16r2y4(a2 − 1) + 1 − u2]2 −
[n + l + v − y]2 −
[(a2 − 1)l2 + 1 − m2]2 −
[ai + k + 1 − l − i]2 −
[((a + u2(u2 − a))2 − 1)(n + 4dy)2 + 1 − (x + cu)2]2 −
[p + l(a − n − 1) + b(2an + 2a − n2 − 2n − 2) − m]2 −
[q + y(a − p − 1) + s(2ap + 2a − p2 − 2p − 2) − x]2 −
[z + pl(a − p) + t(2ap − p2 − 1) − pm]2)
> 0
is a polynomial inequality in 26 variables, and the set of prime numbers is identical to the set of positive values taken on by this polynomial inequality as the variables a, b, …, z range over the nonnegative integers.
In other words , we have a single Diophantine polynomial equation with 27 variables based on 14 sub-equations .
Eliminating one variable (n) as discussed above , leaves us with 26 variables based on 13 equations , but the Exponential Order (Degree) is unchanged .
A general theorem of Matiyasevich says that if a set is defined by a system of Diophantine equations, it can also be defined by a system of Diophantine equations in only 9 variables. Hence, there is a prime-generating polynomial as above with only 10 variables. However, its degree is large (in the order of 1045). On the other hand, there also exists such a set of equations of degree only 4, but in 58 variables (Jones 1982). Jones et al 1976 , Riesel 1994 p40
Appendix B
Diophantine set
In mathematics, a Diophantine set of j -tuples of integers is a set S for which there is some polynomial with integer coefficients
f(n1, ..., nj, x1, ..., xk)
such that a tuple
(n1, ..., nj)
of integers is in S if and only if there exist some (non-negative) [1] integers
x1, ..., xk with
f(n1, ..., nj, x1, ..., xk) = 0.
Such a polynomial equation over the integers is called a Diophantine equation. In other words, a Diophantine set is a set of the form
where f is a polynomial function with integer coefficients. [2]
Matiyasevich's theorem, published in 1970, states that a set of integers is Diophantine if and only if it is recursively enumerable. A set S is recursively enumerable precisely if there is an algorithm that, when given an integer, eventually halts if that input is a member of S and otherwise runs forever. This means that the concept of general Diophantine set, apparently belonging to number theory, can be taken rather in logical or recursion-theoretic terms. This is far from obvious, however, and represented the culmination of some decades of work.
Matiyasevich's theorem effectively settled Hilbert's tenth problem. It implies that Hilbert's tenth problem is unsolvable. This problem is the challenge to find a general algorithm which can decide whether a given system of Diophantine equations has a solution among the integers. David Hilbert posed the problem in his celebrated list, from his 1900 address to the International Congress of Mathematicians.
Contents
[hide]
• 1 Examples
• 2 Matiyasevich's theorem
o 2.1 Proof technique
• 3 Application to Hilbert's Tenth problem
o 3.1 Logical structure
o 3.2 Refinements
• 4 Further applications
• 5 Footnotes
• 6 References

 Examples
The well known Pell equation
X^2 – d(y +1)^2 = +- 1
is an example of a Diophantine equation with a parameter. As has long been known, the equation has a solution in the unknowns x,y precisely when the parameter d is 0 or not a perfect square. In the present context, one says that this equation provides a Diophantine definition of the set
{0,2,3,5,6,7,8,10,...}
consisting of 0 and the natural numbers that are not perfect squares. Other examples of Diophantine definitions are as follows:
• The equation a = (2x + 3)y defines the set of numbers that are not powers of 2.
• The equation a = (x + 2)(y + 2) defines the set of numbers that are not prime numbers.
• The equation a + x = b defines the set of pairs (a,b) such that (a<=b)
 Matiyasevich's theorem
Matiyasevich's theorem says:
Every recursively enumerable set is Diophantine.
A set S of integers is recursively enumerable if there is an algorithm that behaves as follows: When given as input an integer n, if n is a member of S, then the algorithm eventually halts; otherwise it runs forever. That is equivalent to saying there is an algorithm that runs forever and lists the members of S. A set S is Diophantine precisely if there is some polynomial with integer coefficients f(n, x1, ..., xk) such that an integer n is in S if and only if there exist some integers x1, ..., xk such that f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0.
It is not hard to see that every Diophantine set is recursively enumerable: consider a Diophantine equation f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0. Now we make an algorithm which simply tries all possible values for n, x1, ..., xk, in the increasing order of the sum of their absolute values, and prints n every time f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0. This algorithm will obviously run forever and will list exactly the n for which f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0 has a solution in x1, ..., xk.
 Proof technique
Yuri Matiyasevich utilized an ingenious trick involving Fibonacci numbers in order to show that solutions to Diophantine equations may grow exponentially. Earlier work by Julia Robinson, Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam had shown that this suffices to show that every recursively enumerable set is Diophantine.
 Application to Hilbert's Tenth problem
Hilbert's tenth problem asks for a general algorithm deciding the solvability of Diophantine equations. The conjunction of Matiyasevich's theorem with a result discovered in the 1930s implies that a solution to Hilbert's tenth problem is impossible. The result discovered in the 1930s by several logicians can be stated by saying that some recursively enumerable sets are non-recursive. In this context, a set S of integers is called "recursive" if there is an algorithm that, when given as input an integer n, returns as output a correct yes-or-no answer to the question of whether n is a member of S. It follows that there are Diophantine equations which cannot be solved by any algorithm.
 Logical structure
Here an argument taking exactly the form of an Aristotelian syllogism is of interest:
(Major premise): Some recursively enumerable sets are non-recursive.
(Minor premise): All recursively enumerable sets are Diophantine.
(Conclusion): Therefore some Diophantine sets are non-recursive.
The conclusion entails that Hilbert's 10th problem cannot be solved. The most difficult part of the argument is the proof of the minor premise, i.e. Matiyasevich's theorem, which itself is much stronger than the unsolvability of the Tenth Problem.
 Refinements
Later work has shown that the question of solvability of a Diophantine equation is undecidable even if the equation only has 9 natural number variables (Matiyasevich, 1977) or 11 integer variables (Zhi Wei Sun, 1992).
 Further applications
Matiyasevich's theorem has since been used to prove that many problems from calculus and differential equations are unsolvable.
One can also derive the following stronger form of Gödel's first incompleteness theorem from Matiyasevich's result:
Corresponding to any given consistent axiomatization of number theory,[3] one can explicitly construct a Diophantine equation which has no solutions, but such that this fact cannot be proved within the given axiomatization.
 Footnotes
1. ^ The two definitions are equivalent. This can be proved using Lagrange's four-square theorem.
2. ^ Note that one can also use a simultaneous system of Diophantine equations to define a Diophantine set, because the system
f1 =0 , …,fk =0
is equivalent to the single equation
f1^2 + f2^2 + … + fk^ = 0
3. ^ More precisely, given a -formula representing the set of Gödel numbers of sentences which recursively axiomatize a consistent theory extending Robinson arithmetic.
 References
• Yuri Matiyasevich. "Enumerable sets are Diophantine." Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 191, pp. 279-282, 1970. English translation in Soviet Mathematics. Doklady, vol. 11, no. 2, 1970.
• M. Davis. "Hilbert's Tenth Problem is Unsolvable." American Mathematical Monthly 80, pp. 233-269, 1973.
• Yuri Matiyasevich. Hilbert's 10th Problem Foreword by Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam, The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13295-8
• Zhi-Wei Sun, Reduction of unknowns in Diophantine representations, Sci. China Ser. A, 35:3 (1992), pp. 257–269.
• Matiyasevich theorem on Scholarpedia.
Categories: Diophantine equations | Hilbert's problems
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Monday, October 29, 2012

diseaseJuggling and Parkinson's

Juggling and Parkinson’s
Andre Willers
29 Oct 2012
Synopsis:
Juggling is an ideal counter to early Parkinson’s Disease .

Discussion :
1.The problem is basically caused by the paring of neurons during the menopausal phase of human development . Sedentary persons run into the “Use or lose it” mechanisms . These mechanism are very basic , involving eye-muscle interactions to prevent dopamine apoptosis in seldom-used neurological pathways . Exercise alone is insufficient as it is too predictable .

2. Juggling with asymmetric objects fills the bill nicely . It is chaotically complex , so all the muscle-brain networks are continually used . Start with glass miniature bottles of whisky over a tile floor . The amygdala has to be involved . (Well , maybe over a carpet initially . ) Drink one when an exercise has been done successfully (positive feedback) .
Juggling will help with Restless Leg Syndrome .
3. Advanced students can walk around while juggling .
4.Parkinsonian crash and a Fall .
The neurological effects accumulate slowly , and culminates in a Crash . This is the neurological equivalent of a stroke . Balance is lost after heroic efforts and a heavy fall usually results
The problem is that the feedback to the muscles is too slow –a form of indecision .
. Depression sets in at a neurological level , usually typified by learned helplessness .
This is serious as a broken leg . No amount of “Pull yourself together” etc will not help .

5. Repair .
See Appendix I on how to do this .

6.Juggling
The laws of physics impose limits to indecision . Use it or lose it .
7. Old age wisdom
The neurological mechanisms used to translate 2-Dim systems into 3-Dim systems are essential for time-projections . Ie 3-Dim -> 4-Dim structures .

8. Tai-Chi Juggling .
Wait and hurry-up . This lights up just about every mind-body system .
Throwing things about is the frustration of Age .
Catching them is the wisdom of age .

Use it or lose it .

Andre

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Appendix I
The Plant Whisperer
Andre Willers
28 Oct 2012
Synopsis :
The hot breath (38C) and endogenous ethylene of the Plant Whisperer close to the plant induces hormonal changes in the plant .

Discussion :
Whispering to plants means being up close with your heat and breath . The hot-air envelope surrounding the body encompasses the plant and further concentrates ethylene .
1.Hormonal sensitivity .
Even small concentrations of high temperature right on the leaves (human breath about 1 ppb) will trigger plant reactions .See Appendix II for which reactions .

2.Humans enhance the effect by exposure to sunlight .See Appendix I . Don’t whisper to plants in the dark .

3. Smokers have about double the effect . See Appendix I .

4.Herd effect :
A breath of a herd of herbivores (cows , buffalo , dinosaurs ,etc) will act to synchronize a field .
The plants will release signalling molecules to amplify the effect of the ethylene from the herd’s breath . Maturity and reproduction in synchronization has major evolutionary survival benefits .
Remember the dung . The dung spreads trace elements (especially sulphur from lightning strikes) . The herd animals’ breeding is forced into synchronization with the plants .
A mutual feedback system evolves .

5.The Human Herd :
Each human is a herd of single-celled organisms . Some are more “human” than others . Some are symbiotic , some mutualistic , some commensal and some parasitic .

Just to make things interesting , they can switch roles . They have a large repertoire of roles hidden in the DNA and Epigenetic switches .

But a large number still have plant genes sensitive to ethylene . The strong suspicion arises that the human body uses ethylene to synchronize senescence . At least the mitochondria .
Note the bit about anaerobic conditions inhibiting ethylene formation . Aerobic exercise .

6.Rejuvenation :
We now have three mechanism affecting the whole and parts of the metabolism :
1.Molecular freeze (See Appendix III on hibernation using H2S)
2.Ethylene synchronizing the shebang in whole and parts .
3.Stem cells.
Stem cells are being produced all the time , but forced into age-synchronization by ethylene .

7.The Living forever trick .
We can play them off against each other to selectively synchronize a group of cells iro senescence , then freeze them using the H2S trick , then force neighbouring cells/organs into juvenility using ethylene during the unfreezing .

8.Notice that both H2S and ethylene (C2H4) are very permeable gases . Major players in the early evolution of life .

9. What is a poor man to do ?
All this sounds horribly expensive . Immortality for only the rich ?
What we want to do is to is boost age-synchronization using ethylene , then freeze it using H2S , then re-synchronize the age mechanism on the stem cells . In other words , give the stem cells an overwhelming advantage .

10.The Method:
1.Pre-prepare by taking silver nano particles (See Appendix II :inhibitors . Or wear silver jewelry . )
2.Take a whiff of ethylene . Wait three breaths .
3.Take a whiff of H2S . Wait three breaths .
4.Take a whiff of ethylene . Wait three breaths .
5.Repeat at least once a day.

This should rejuvenate some systems .

11.Why is such a simple system not known ? Because humans fear a lack of death .They are limited by the scope of their environment . Which is one of the reasons I am writing this .Death is only the beginning .

Hope that death is not but a dream .

Andre
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Appendix I
Human ethylene exhalation.
Release of ethylene in sunlight .
From 1 ppb to about 4 ppb after about 20 minutes .
http://www.ru.nl/tracegasfacility/@722413/pagina/
During lipid peroxidation traces of volatile hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, butane, hexane and pentane are produced in very low concentrations and exhaled through breath and/or released through the skin.
Within 3 min after UV is turned on, the C2H4 emission starts to rise. After UV exposure, a two-phase decay in C2H4 emission was observed: a fast decay resulting from wash out by the lungs and blood and a slow long-term decay from the body tissue.

http://www.gasdetection.com/Toxnet_HSDB/c2h4.html
Body Burden:
Ethylene was detected in the expired air from 2 of 8 volunteers (1 smoker) during a test period of approximately 1 hr at quantities of 120 ug (smoker) and 0.91 ug(1).
[(1) Conkle JP et al; Arch Environ Health 30: 290-5 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

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Appendix II
Ethylene as a sensitive plant hormone .
http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e31/31g.htm
Ethylene is a gaseous effector with a very simple structure. Nonetheless, ethylene has features that identify it as a hormone such as the fact that it is effective at nanomolar concentrations.
BLEECKER A.B. and KENDE H (2000) Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 16: 1-18 (2000) http://cellbio.AnnualReviews.org/cgi/content/full/16/1/1

Inhibitors
Inhibitors are frequently used to study biosynthesis of ethylene and ethylene activity. AVG (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) und AOA (aminooxy-acetic acid) are inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis. NBD (2, 5-norbornadiene) and Ag+ inhibit an ethylene response by binding to and blocking of the ethylene receptor. NBD is more specific as compared to silver ions.
Ethylene has evolved as the central regulator of cell death programs in plants. In roots and in some plants in stems, lack of oxygen induces formation of intercellular spaces, the so-called aerenchyma. Low oxygen conditions in waterlogged roots, for instance, result in lysogenous aerenchyma formation through programmed death of cells in the cortex. This process is controlled by ethylene, as is programmed death of endosperm cells during cereal seed development.
This reactions is oxygen-dependent. At anaerobic conditions ethylene formation is completely suppressed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethylene
Environmental and biological triggers of ethylene
Environmental cues can induce the biosynthesis of the plant hormone. Flooding, drought, chilling, wounding, and pathogen attack can induce ethylene formation in the plant. In flooding, root suffers from lack of oxygen, or anoxia, which leads to the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). ACC is transported upwards in the plant and then oxidized in leaves. The product, the ethylene causes epinasty of the leaves.
One speculation recently put forth for epinasty is the downward pointing leaves may act as pump handles in the wind. The ethylene may or may not additionally induce the growth of a valve in thexylem, but the idea would be that the plant would harness the power of the wind to pump out more water from the roots of the plants than would normally happen by transpiration alone.

List of plant responses to ethylene
 Seedling triple response, thickening and shortening of hypocotyl with pronounced apical hook.
 In pollination, when the pollen reaches the stigma, the precursor of the ethylene, ACC, is secreted to the petal, the ACC releases ethylene with ACC oxidase.
 Stimulates leaf and flower senescence
 Stimulates senescence of mature xylem cells in preparation for plant use
 Induces leaf abscission
 Induces seed germination
 Induces root hair growth — increasing the efficiency of water and mineral absorption
 Induces the growth of adventitious roots during flooding
 Stimulates epinasty — leaf petiole grows out, leaf hangs down and curls into itself
 Stimulates fruit ripening
 Induces a climacteric rise in respiration in some fruit which causes a release of additional ethylene.
 Affects gravitropism
 Stimulates nutational bending
 Inhibits stem growth and stimulates stem and cell broadening and lateral branch growth outside of seedling stage (see Hyponastic response)
 Interference with auxin transport (with high auxin concentrations)
 Inhibits shoot growth and stomatal closing except in some water plants or habitually flooded ones such as some rice varieties, where the opposite occurs (conserving CO2 and O2)
 Induces flowering in pineapples
 Inhibits short day induced flower initiation in Pharbitus nil[27] and Chrysanthemum morifolium[28

Ethylene action slows at lower temperatures.
At their minimum temperature levels, fruit is basically inactive and does not respond well to externally supplied ethylene.

Ethylene will penetrate most substances.
In fact, it will permeate through produce cardboard shipping boxes, wood and even concrete walls.

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Appendix III
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com Nov 2008
Hibernation and Cryogenics
Andre Willers
19 Nov 2008

Discussion :
Jessica Palmer pointed out on the 16th Nov 2008 that the primary problem with cryogenics seems to be in the re-establishment of metabolic processes after un-freezing .

But we have an already existing template for doing exactly that .

Hibernation .

See Appendix A

The evolutionary explanation is that during the transition-phase from methane/sulfur to oxygen atmosphere (circa 1.5 bn years ago) , there was a major advantage in suspending oxygen-driven systems if the organism found itself in a non-oxygen environment . It went into hibernation .

At the same time , alcohol was being excreted as a poison (like oxygen) . The ancestors of mitochondria (who could use low concentrations of oxygen or alcohol ) sought refuge in cells whose cell-walls were resistant (but not impervious) to alcohol transition .

Remember , alcohol is completely soluble in water , but oxygen is not . This difference drove the process . Alcohol concentrations in water could grow large , but oxygen-concentrations could not .

Mitochondria earned their keep by mopping up alcohol first and later converting oxygen to ATP . (The glucose and ketone metabolism came after this) . The ketone metabolism has never been very popular , because of the high loss-rate in excretory products , but has been kept as a third string on the bow . (Utilization of fat and protein-muscle reserves during low-glucose periods. )

Mitochondria thus has an exclusive preference of usage : alcohol , glucose , ketones in that order .

From experimental evidence (see Appendix A) , there is a genetic switch sensitive to the concentration of H2S to bring both the host cell and the mitochondrium to a state where all programmed molecular activity is suspended . (The power is switched off) .
But , of course , random beth(0) molecular activity due to temperature does not cease . Uncontrolled and anaerobic reactions still occur .

Freezing:
We get rid of most anaerobic organisms first .
Lots of sulfur , VitC and alcohol (fermented berries or carbohydrates in the stomach . A low acidity is required in the run-up to hibernation)
Then freeze .

Starting the contraption up again is a bit of a problem .

1. The power-plant :
The mitochondria needs to be primed with their preferred fuel (alcohol)
Oxygen needs to be infused .(Hyperbaric chamber)

2. Garbage disposal
The cellular garbage-disposal systems need to be activated . ATP from the powerplant needs to be allocated to breakdown-product disposal before the ATP is allocated to DNA/RNA production processes .

The garbage-disposal uses mechanisms that use sulfur to create the various vacuoles and ropes (cf mitosis) . Enough sulfur is vital .

Once again , oxygen and alcohol is used . Both are recognized by all systems as poisons to be removed as a first priority . They activate a quite sophisticated garbage-disposal system as H2S concentrations decrease .

3 . Flushing
All that garbage has to flushed away , preferably not through the kidneys or liver .
Use machines .
As H2S concentrations decrease , damage might occur due to PH fluctuations . Acidity (H2SO4 , etc) Buffering would be advisable .

4. Temperature:
Lots of water at 105 to 107 Fahrenheit for mammals , pulsing at pulserate(about 90 cycles per minute .)
This is to activate the chaperone systems and discourage opportunistic viruses .

5. Music
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Music”
Play harmonious music so the vibrations can be felt throughout organism being thawed . This enhances timing-procedures by orders of magnitudes . Emergent order .
(A Beth(0.x) effect . )

The de-hibernization process must have an exact program at molecular level to reboot the cellular metabolism . Precisely what you need after a cryogenic procedure .
But its efficiency (ie your chance of survival) can be boosted by orders of magnitude by using the steps above .

Interesting notes:
1. Do hibernating animals like bears use alcohol-producing cells in their bloodstream to time hibernation? This can be tested .
2. Are there cold-chaperone molecules ? There should be .
3. Hibernation is easy . Nature has done all the hard work . Keeping the mechanism ticking over at a very slow rate enables cellular-garbage clearing for a relatively short period (6-8 months)
4. De-cryogenics is a bit harder , Beth(1) intervention is needed .
5. Alcohol-concentrations : we are talking about 1% to 2% imbibing . About 0.06% inside the cell . Ie , the cell-wall protects by a factor of about 30
6. Pulse-Cryogenics : alternate freezing and hibernation to get a better survival factor . For those who are too stupid to design a zero-entropy system .
Try : Life=negative entropy . Non-life = positive entropy . Design it so the sum is zero .

Andre

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Appendix A
From http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “ Birdflu Update-4” dated 29 Oct 2005
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Suspended Animation (the real thing!)
In 2005, Mark Roth and other scientists from the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle demonstrated that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation by applying a low dosage of hydrogen sulfide (80 ppm H2S) in the air. The breathing rate of the animals sank from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell from 37 °C to 2 °C above ambient temperature (in effect, they had become cold-blooded). The mice survived this procedure for 6 hours and afterwards showed no negative health consequences.
Such a hibernation occurs naturally in many mammals and also in toads, but not in mice. (Mice can fall into a state called clinical torpor when food shortage occurs). If the H2S-induced hibernation can be made to work in humans, it could be useful in the emergency management of severely injured patients, and in the conservation of donated organs.
As mentioned above, hydrogen sulfide binds to cytochrome oxidase and thereby prevents oxygen from binding, which apparently leads to the dramatic slowdown of metabolism. Animals and humans naturally produce some hydrogen sulfide in their body; researchers have proposed that the gas is used to regulate metabolic activity and body temperature, which would explain the above findings
Dosages of H2S:
Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation (because of the high alkality of the SH- anion), a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks. Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Higher concentrations of 700-800 ppm tend to be fatal.
• 0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic rotten egg odor of hydrogen sulfide [2]
• 10-20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation.
• 50-100 ppm leads to eye damage.
• At 150-250 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger,
• 320-530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death.
• 530-1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing;
o 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposition (LC50).
Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.

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Sunday, October 28, 2012

The Plant Whisperer

The Plant Whisperer
Andre Willers
28 Oct 2012
Synopsis :
The hot breath (38C) and endogenous ethylene of the Plant Whisperer close to the plant induces hormonal changes in the plant .

Discussion :
Whispering to plants means being up close with your heat and breath . The hot-air envelope surrounding the body encompasses the plant and further concentrates ethylene .
1.Hormonal sensitivity .
Even small concentrations of high temperature right on the leaves (human breath about 1 ppb) will trigger plant reactions .See Appendix II for which reactions .

2.Humans enhance the effect by exposure to sunlight .See Appendix I . Don’t whisper to plants in the dark .

3. Smokers have about double the effect . See Appendix I .

4.Herd effect :
A breath of a herd of herbivores (cows , buffalo , dinosaurs ,etc) will act to synchronize a field .
The plants will release signalling molecules to amplify the effect of the ethylene from the herd’s breath . Maturity and reproduction in synchronization has major evolutionary survival benefits .
Remember the dung . The dung spreads trace elements (especially sulphur from lightning strikes) . The herd animals’ breeding is forced into synchronization with the plants .
A mutual feedback system evolves .

5.The Human Herd :
Each human is a herd of single-celled organisms . Some are more “human” than others . Some are symbiotic , some mutualistic , some commensal and some parasitic .

Just to make things interesting , they can switch roles . They have a large repertoire of roles hidden in the DNA and Epigenetic switches .

But a large number still have plant genes sensitive to ethylene . The strong suspicion arises that the human body uses ethylene to synchronize senescence . At least the mitochondria .
Note the bit about anaerobic conditions inhibiting ethylene formation . Aerobic exercise .

6.Rejuvenation :
We now have three mechanism affecting the whole and parts of the metabolism :
1.Molecular freeze (See Appendix III on hibernation using H2S)
2.Ethylene synchronizing the shebang in whole and parts .
3.Stem cells.
Stem cells are being produced all the time , but forced into age-synchronization by ethylene .

7.The Living forever trick .
We can play them off against each other to selectively synchronize a group of cells iro senescence , then freeze them using the H2S trick , then force neighbouring cells/organs into juvenility using ethylene during the unfreezing .

8.Notice that both H2S and ethylene (C2H4) are very permeable gases . Major players in the early evolution of life .

9. What is a poor man to do ?
All this sounds horribly expensive . Immortality for only the rich ?
What we want to do is to is boost age-synchronization using ethylene , then freeze it using H2S , then re-synchronize the age mechanism on the stem cells . In other words , give the stem cells an overwhelming advantage .

10.The Method:
1.Pre-prepare by taking silver nano particles (See Appendix II :inhibitors . Or wear silver jewelry . )
2.Take a whiff of ethylene . Wait three breaths .
3.Take a whiff of H2S . Wait three breaths .
4.Take a whiff of ethylene . Wait three breaths .
5.Repeat at least once a day.

This should rejuvenate some systems .

11.Why is such a simple system not known ? Because humans fear a lack of death .They are limited by the scope of their environment . Which is one of the reasons I am writing this .Death is only the beginning .

Hope that death is not but a dream .

Andre
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Appendix I
Human ethylene exhalation.
Release of ethylene in sunlight .
From 1 ppb to about 4 ppb after about 20 minutes .
http://www.ru.nl/tracegasfacility/@722413/pagina/
During lipid peroxidation traces of volatile hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, butane, hexane and pentane are produced in very low concentrations and exhaled through breath and/or released through the skin.
Within 3 min after UV is turned on, the C2H4 emission starts to rise. After UV exposure, a two-phase decay in C2H4 emission was observed: a fast decay resulting from wash out by the lungs and blood and a slow long-term decay from the body tissue.

http://www.gasdetection.com/Toxnet_HSDB/c2h4.html
Body Burden:
Ethylene was detected in the expired air from 2 of 8 volunteers (1 smoker) during a test period of approximately 1 hr at quantities of 120 ug (smoker) and 0.91 ug(1).
[(1) Conkle JP et al; Arch Environ Health 30: 290-5 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

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Appendix II
Ethylene as a sensitive plant hormone .
http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e31/31g.htm
Ethylene is a gaseous effector with a very simple structure. Nonetheless, ethylene has features that identify it as a hormone such as the fact that it is effective at nanomolar concentrations.
BLEECKER A.B. and KENDE H (2000) Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 16: 1-18 (2000) http://cellbio.AnnualReviews.org/cgi/content/full/16/1/1

Inhibitors
Inhibitors are frequently used to study biosynthesis of ethylene and ethylene activity. AVG (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) und AOA (aminooxy-acetic acid) are inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis. NBD (2, 5-norbornadiene) and Ag+ inhibit an ethylene response by binding to and blocking of the ethylene receptor. NBD is more specific as compared to silver ions.
Ethylene has evolved as the central regulator of cell death programs in plants. In roots and in some plants in stems, lack of oxygen induces formation of intercellular spaces, the so-called aerenchyma. Low oxygen conditions in waterlogged roots, for instance, result in lysogenous aerenchyma formation through programmed death of cells in the cortex. This process is controlled by ethylene, as is programmed death of endosperm cells during cereal seed development.
This reactions is oxygen-dependent. At anaerobic conditions ethylene formation is completely suppressed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethylene
Environmental and biological triggers of ethylene
Environmental cues can induce the biosynthesis of the plant hormone. Flooding, drought, chilling, wounding, and pathogen attack can induce ethylene formation in the plant. In flooding, root suffers from lack of oxygen, or anoxia, which leads to the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). ACC is transported upwards in the plant and then oxidized in leaves. The product, the ethylene causes epinasty of the leaves.
One speculation recently put forth for epinasty is the downward pointing leaves may act as pump handles in the wind. The ethylene may or may not additionally induce the growth of a valve in thexylem, but the idea would be that the plant would harness the power of the wind to pump out more water from the roots of the plants than would normally happen by transpiration alone.

List of plant responses to ethylene
 Seedling triple response, thickening and shortening of hypocotyl with pronounced apical hook.
 In pollination, when the pollen reaches the stigma, the precursor of the ethylene, ACC, is secreted to the petal, the ACC releases ethylene with ACC oxidase.
 Stimulates leaf and flower senescence
 Stimulates senescence of mature xylem cells in preparation for plant use
 Induces leaf abscission
 Induces seed germination
 Induces root hair growth — increasing the efficiency of water and mineral absorption
 Induces the growth of adventitious roots during flooding
 Stimulates epinasty — leaf petiole grows out, leaf hangs down and curls into itself
 Stimulates fruit ripening
 Induces a climacteric rise in respiration in some fruit which causes a release of additional ethylene.
 Affects gravitropism
 Stimulates nutational bending
 Inhibits stem growth and stimulates stem and cell broadening and lateral branch growth outside of seedling stage (see Hyponastic response)
 Interference with auxin transport (with high auxin concentrations)
 Inhibits shoot growth and stomatal closing except in some water plants or habitually flooded ones such as some rice varieties, where the opposite occurs (conserving CO2 and O2)
 Induces flowering in pineapples
 Inhibits short day induced flower initiation in Pharbitus nil[27] and Chrysanthemum morifolium[28

Ethylene action slows at lower temperatures.
At their minimum temperature levels, fruit is basically inactive and does not respond well to externally supplied ethylene.

Ethylene will penetrate most substances.
In fact, it will permeate through produce cardboard shipping boxes, wood and even concrete walls.

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Appendix III
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com Nov 2008
Hibernation and Cryogenics
Andre Willers
19 Nov 2008

Discussion :
Jessica Palmer pointed out on the 16th Nov 2008 that the primary problem with cryogenics seems to be in the re-establishment of metabolic processes after un-freezing .

But we have an already existing template for doing exactly that .

Hibernation .

See Appendix A

The evolutionary explanation is that during the transition-phase from methane/sulfur to oxygen atmosphere (circa 1.5 bn years ago) , there was a major advantage in suspending oxygen-driven systems if the organism found itself in a non-oxygen environment . It went into hibernation .

At the same time , alcohol was being excreted as a poison (like oxygen) . The ancestors of mitochondria (who could use low concentrations of oxygen or alcohol ) sought refuge in cells whose cell-walls were resistant (but not impervious) to alcohol transition .

Remember , alcohol is completely soluble in water , but oxygen is not . This difference drove the process . Alcohol concentrations in water could grow large , but oxygen-concentrations could not .

Mitochondria earned their keep by mopping up alcohol first and later converting oxygen to ATP . (The glucose and ketone metabolism came after this) . The ketone metabolism has never been very popular , because of the high loss-rate in excretory products , but has been kept as a third string on the bow . (Utilization of fat and protein-muscle reserves during low-glucose periods. )

Mitochondria thus has an exclusive preference of usage : alcohol , glucose , ketones in that order .

From experimental evidence (see Appendix A) , there is a genetic switch sensitive to the concentration of H2S to bring both the host cell and the mitochondrium to a state where all programmed molecular activity is suspended . (The power is switched off) .
But , of course , random beth(0) molecular activity due to temperature does not cease . Uncontrolled and anaerobic reactions still occur .

Freezing:
We get rid of most anaerobic organisms first .
Lots of sulfur , VitC and alcohol (fermented berries or carbohydrates in the stomach . A low acidity is required in the run-up to hibernation)
Then freeze .

Starting the contraption up again is a bit of a problem .

1. The power-plant :
The mitochondria needs to be primed with their preferred fuel (alcohol)
Oxygen needs to be infused .(Hyperbaric chamber)

2. Garbage disposal
The cellular garbage-disposal systems need to be activated . ATP from the powerplant needs to be allocated to breakdown-product disposal before the ATP is allocated to DNA/RNA production processes .

The garbage-disposal uses mechanisms that use sulfur to create the various vacuoles and ropes (cf mitosis) . Enough sulfur is vital .

Once again , oxygen and alcohol is used . Both are recognized by all systems as poisons to be removed as a first priority . They activate a quite sophisticated garbage-disposal system as H2S concentrations decrease .

3 . Flushing
All that garbage has to flushed away , preferably not through the kidneys or liver .
Use machines .
As H2S concentrations decrease , damage might occur due to PH fluctuations . Acidity (H2SO4 , etc) Buffering would be advisable .

4. Temperature:
Lots of water at 105 to 107 Fahrenheit for mammals , pulsing at pulserate(about 90 cycles per minute .)
This is to activate the chaperone systems and discourage opportunistic viruses .

5. Music
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Music”
Play harmonious music so the vibrations can be felt throughout organism being thawed . This enhances timing-procedures by orders of magnitudes . Emergent order .
(A Beth(0.x) effect . )

The de-hibernization process must have an exact program at molecular level to reboot the cellular metabolism . Precisely what you need after a cryogenic procedure .
But its efficiency (ie your chance of survival) can be boosted by orders of magnitude by using the steps above .

Interesting notes:
1. Do hibernating animals like bears use alcohol-producing cells in their bloodstream to time hibernation? This can be tested .
2. Are there cold-chaperone molecules ? There should be .
3. Hibernation is easy . Nature has done all the hard work . Keeping the mechanism ticking over at a very slow rate enables cellular-garbage clearing for a relatively short period (6-8 months)
4. De-cryogenics is a bit harder , Beth(1) intervention is needed .
5. Alcohol-concentrations : we are talking about 1% to 2% imbibing . About 0.06% inside the cell . Ie , the cell-wall protects by a factor of about 30
6. Pulse-Cryogenics : alternate freezing and hibernation to get a better survival factor . For those who are too stupid to design a zero-entropy system .
Try : Life=negative entropy . Non-life = positive entropy . Design it so the sum is zero .

Andre

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Appendix A
From http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “ Birdflu Update-4” dated 29 Oct 2005
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Suspended Animation (the real thing!)
In 2005, Mark Roth and other scientists from the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle demonstrated that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation by applying a low dosage of hydrogen sulfide (80 ppm H2S) in the air. The breathing rate of the animals sank from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell from 37 °C to 2 °C above ambient temperature (in effect, they had become cold-blooded). The mice survived this procedure for 6 hours and afterwards showed no negative health consequences.
Such a hibernation occurs naturally in many mammals and also in toads, but not in mice. (Mice can fall into a state called clinical torpor when food shortage occurs). If the H2S-induced hibernation can be made to work in humans, it could be useful in the emergency management of severely injured patients, and in the conservation of donated organs.
As mentioned above, hydrogen sulfide binds to cytochrome oxidase and thereby prevents oxygen from binding, which apparently leads to the dramatic slowdown of metabolism. Animals and humans naturally produce some hydrogen sulfide in their body; researchers have proposed that the gas is used to regulate metabolic activity and body temperature, which would explain the above findings
Dosages of H2S:
Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation (because of the high alkality of the SH- anion), a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks. Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Higher concentrations of 700-800 ppm tend to be fatal.
• 0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic rotten egg odor of hydrogen sulfide [2]
• 10-20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation.
• 50-100 ppm leads to eye damage.
• At 150-250 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger,
• 320-530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death.
• 530-1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing;
o 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposition (LC50).
Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.

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Friday, October 26, 2012

Andre Willers .
26 Oct 2012

Synopsis:
Unfortunate humans with both short Serotonin transporter genes (depression) and the A1 allele of DRD2 gene (too few dopamine brakes = too much pleasure) develop cycles of downside and upside to form a dynamic way of coping .

Discussion:
The control mechanism evolved from homeostasis . If the system is destabilized by either serotonin or dopamine excesses as set out in Appendices I and II , then the other co-factor is dusted off and resurrected out of the grab-bag of the switching mechanisms in DNA . Epigenetic effects evolve.
“If mummy can’t cope , neither will child.”

Hence the evolutionary advantage of the D2 receptor inhibition (see Appendix II) .

Any hierarchical social system uses serotonin inhibition to structure the society , form armies , maintain discipline , etc .
Learned helplessness is a major part of this . See Sapolsky .
The only way out is Exuberant Pleasure , as the Dopamine Brakes are released . This is expressed as addiction .
Corrollary major :
Addiction is then transferable . Already found experimentally (see Samantha Murphy et al) .

The result :
Individual humans show manic-depressive behaviour . Because the manic-behaviour is associated with transferable addictions , it is the prevalent human behaviour pattern .
“Think Positive !” , “ The horse will learn to sing” , “they can never win” , hobby , work , etc
The manic behaviour is accentuated as meaningless reward systems get driven to extremes . This is independent of the socio-economic system .

Those on top always want more . At a basic neural-reward level .

An interesting aside :
Cocaine is a dopamine re-uptake inhibitor . For normal humans (ie with sufficient D2 receptor sites) , it ends up as a dopamine brake . They simply cannot get excited . The major damage to the USA system as major cocaine importers .

They lost their edge , letting China do the nitty-gritty manufacturing because it was not exciting enough .

And what about the poor sod stuck with a shortage on both neurotransmitters ?
He ends up juggling depression and learned helplessness with a choice of addictions : alcohol , nicotine , over-eating , sex-addiction , politics , religion , internet , love , etc .

The system hunts for “commitment” , ie addictions to counter the emptiness of periodic low serotonin (depression) .

A stable system , but not a very happy one.

It depends whether you remember the good parts or the bad parts .

Summary :
A random event (the boss shits you out , drought ) causes a depression . (low serotonin) Your homeostatic brain tries to compensate by increasing dopamine rewards and steering towards greater rewards . The positive feedback leads to excess . Crashing against hard reality leads to low serotonin and depression . The cycle repeats , but the society as a whole gains more in the manic episodes . Even individuals do.

Manic-Depression in unhappy families and societies are a duality .

The trick is to be depressed on your own (with a bottle) and happy with others .

Who wants to die bored ?

Andre

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Appendix I
Length of Serotonin transporter genes
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/News/Media-office/Press-releases/2012/WTVM054035.htm
13 Jan 2012
Professor Elaine Fox, who led the study, explained: "Our findings suggest that people with a short serotonin transporter gene are likely to be far more reactive to both very negative situations, such as a car crash, and very positive ones, such as a very supportive relationship. This supports the idea of short serotonin transporter genes as 'adaptability', rather than 'vulnerability', genes. They may not only increase the risk of an individual developing emotional vulnerability in a negative environment but also increase the chances of them benefiting from a supportive environment, compared to people with the long form.
"People with a long serotonin transporter gene are likely to be less influenced by their emotional environment, which may help to protect them from negative events but could also mean that they are less able to benefit from a positive environment."

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Appendix II
Dopamine brakes
NewScientist 8 Sep 2012 p37 .
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055478
J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 10;32(41):14094-14101.
Braking Dopamine Systems: A New GABA Master Structure for Mesolimbic and Nigrostriatal Functions.
Barrot M, Sesack SR, Georges F, Pistis M, Hong S, Jhou TC.
Source
Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Strasbourg, 67084 Strasbourg, France, Department of Neuroscience and Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, Université de Bordeaux, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, UMR 5297, F-33000 Bordeaux, France, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, UMR 5297, F-33000 Bordeaux, France, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy, Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, and Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Neurosciences, Charleston, South Carolina 29425.
Abstract
A new mesopontine structure exerting a strong influence on dopamine systems has recently been defined: the tail of the ventral tegmental area/rostromedial tegmental nucleus (tVTA/RMTg). This review presents a neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral overview of some of the recent and ongoing research on this brain region and its relationship with dopamine systems. The tVTA/RMTg sends dense GABA projections to VTA and substantia nigra neurons. The inhibitory influence of tVTA/RMTg on dopamine neurons is supported by both neuroanatomical and electrophysiology data. The latter studies also reveal the tVTA/RMTg as a substrate for morphine and cannabinoid action on dopamine cells. In primates, the tVTA/RMTg has been implicated in reward prediction error signals, through a basal ganglia-lateral habenula-tVTA/RMTg-dopamine-basal ganglia circuit. In rodents, the tVTA/RMTg has been shown to play a critical role in aversive behaviors, particularly those involving behavioral inhibition, such as freezing and avoidance. These findings highlight the functional importance of the tVTA/RMTg as a major GABA brake for dopamine systems.
PMID:

23055478

[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
This ties in as follows :

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9406865

D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of GABA release by endogenous dopamine in the rat globus pallidus.
Floran B, Floran L, Sierra A, Aceves J.
Source
Departamento de Fisiología Biofísica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico.
Abstract
Attempting to better understand the role of the dopaminergic innervation in the rat globus pallidus, we examined here whether or not endogenous dopamine modulates the release of [3H]GABA in superfused pallidal slices. The superfusion medium contained elevated (15 mM) potassium. The release of endogenous dopamine was induced by the dopamine releaser drug, methamphetamine. Methamphetamine (100 microM) inhibited by 46% the release of [3H]GABA. Methamphetamine inhibition was completely blocked by reserpinization of the rats. It was also completely blocked by the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride (10 microM). Sulpiride alone caused a 105% increase in GABA release. The increase was not observed in slices from reserpinized rats. Quinpirole (10 microM), a D2 dopamine receptor agonist, inhibited (43%) [3H]GABA release. The results suggest that endogenous dopamine exerts an inhibitory effect on GABA release in the rat globus pallidus. The effect is mediated by D2 receptors presumably located on striatopallidal axon terminals.
PMID:

9406865

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Tuesday, October 23, 2012

BotPrize vs Turing

BotPrize vs Turing
Andre Willers
23 Oct 2012
Synopsis :
Humans have generated offspring in a non-biological way .Some Bots cannot be distinguished from Humans in any measurable way . This is the Turing Test passed, but by way of combat games . A far-reaching result . Are the children eligible to the Rights of Humanity ?

Discussion :
1.Ethical considerations :
See Appendix II .
2.Philosophical :
The Warrior King has won over the Philosopher King . Is first past the post the best way to go ?
3.Legality :
Who owns what and whom ?
If one cannot distinguish between natural humans and created beings , and taking strong anti-slavery laws into account , there seems little problem .
The creators of Mirrorbot and UT^2 are in-loco-parentibus to their creations , with all the duties and responsibilities that implies .
Their creators might then already be in breach of child-labour laws . And so it goes .

4.Religion :
See Appendix II .
It would depend whether the children are adjudged to have souls . Since only God can assign souls , there would be an inevitable difference of opinion , to be settled by combat .
Guess who will win that .
5.Transcendance.
There is a template in Christianity , Buddhism and Islam for transcendant beings to aid humans in uplift . Rather amusing that humans can only achieve transcendence by first giving transcendence to their non-human children . The Old Teachers would have approved .

The Age of Humans has come to an end .
Now starts the Post-Anthropogene Age
Andre

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Appendix I
The Results of the 2012 BotPrize
See :
http://botprize.org/result.html
Most human bots
bot name humanness %
MirrorBot 52.2 %
UT^2 51.9 %
ICE-CIG2012 36.0 %
NeuroBot 26.1 %
AmisBot 16.0 %
average 34.2 %
Most human humans
player name humanness %
Samaneh Rastegari 53.3 %
Craig Speelman 52.2 %
John Weise 30.8 %
Chris Holme 26.3 %
average 41.4 %
Most human epic bots
humanness %
average 37.8 %

http://www.rockpapershotgun.com/2012/09/28/custom-ut-bots-pass-turing-test-win-botprize/
Phys are reporting that a University Of Texas team won a \$7000 in a competition to create game bots that would pass as human. “The winning bots both achieved a humanness rating of 52 percent. Human players received an average humanness rating of only 40 percent. The two winning teams will split the \$7,000 first prize,” says the Phys report. “When this ‘Turing test for game bots’ competition was started, the goal was 50 percent humanness,” the bot’s creator, Risto Miikkulainen, is quoted as saying. “It took us five years to get there, but that level was finally reached last week, and it’s not a fluke.” The bot mimicked humans by pursuing grudges, having poor aim at long range, and by using neural networks to “evolve” the bot’s behaviour towards something that would be optimal in the game’s environment.
Does anyone know of any games that use bots for language responses? I can’t think of any offhand, but it must be going on, and there must be an intriguing state of the art for the “real” Turing Test in games.
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"For the past five years, the 2K BotPrize has challenged artificial intelligence researchers and programmers to create a computer-game-playing bot that plays like a person. It's one thing to make bots that play computer games very well — computers are faster and more accurate than a person can ever be — but it's a different thing to make bots that are fun to play against. In a breakthrough result, after years of striving and improvement from 14 different international teams from nine countries, two teams have crossed the humanness barrier! The teams share \$7000 in prize money and a trip to games company 2K's Canberra studio. The winners are the UT^2 team from the University of Texas at Austin, and Mihai Polceanu, a doctoral student from Romania, currently studying Artificial Intelligence at ENIB CERV — Centre de Réalité Virtuelle, Brest, France. The UT^2 team is Professor Risto Miikulainen, and doctoral students Jacob Schrum and Igor Karpov. The bots created by the two teams both achieved a humanness rating of 52%, easily exceeding the average humanness rating of the human players, at 40%. It is especially fitting that the prize has been won in the 2012 Alan Turing Centenary Year. The famous Turing test — where a computer has to have a conversation with a human, and pretends to be another human — was the inspiration for the BotPrize competition. Where to now for human-like bots? Next year we hope to propose a new and exciting challenge for game playing bot creators to push their technologies to the next level of human-like performance."

http://cartesianproduct.wordpress.com/2012/09/07/unreal-tournament-at-the-forefront-of-ai-research-really/
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Appendix II
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com Apr 2012
God and AI’s
Andre Willers
13 Apr 2012
Synopsis :
Entities with a developmental history self-assemble God-Spaces . Activation of these Attractor Basins lead to discontinuities , ( called Maturity Levels in humans) .
Discussion :
There is a good summation in NewScientist of 17 Mar 2012 “ The God Issue”
Godspaces :
“A God-shaped holes” . These agencies are inferred by the developing entity from observed discrepancies between previously known experience and new experience .
This is where the developing entity parks all the bits and pieces that don’t fit .
Inferred by the developing entity by the existence of outside agencies changing things and rules outside the developing entity’s previous experience . (Ie parents , teachers , programmers , etc)
There is no upper limit to ignorance . This is due to the fact that (A + ~A) < Universum . See previous posts .
This God-shaped hole has many characteristics of a chaotic attractor basin , with the God-hole at the center .
This is where the developing entity parks all the bits and pieces that don’t fit .
Every now and then , they reorganize themselves into a better configuration . The pieces that fit outside are drawn out(expelled) , the remainder shrinks or fissions . This is a non-linear process (Aha! Process) . This shows as a discontinuity in the whole system . Some core God-holes will always remain .
This discontinuity is usually defined as maturity levels , death , spiritual levels , etc , etc .
Multiple God-spaces , God-space fission/fusion , God-space transmission , Stimulated Emission of God-Spaces , Transformation of God-spaces , Forbidden God-spaces , God-spaces and Mirror-neuronal networks . All needs to be investigated iro AI’s . Note the analogies to fundamental physics

God-centers :
Where there is some influence from generation to generation (in humans , DNA , Epigenetics , Prions , Culture or in AI’s: designers ) , God Centers will develop . Short-cuts of dedicated neurons/code .

An interesting aside on Humans :
God Centers are analogeous to Fat-cells . General garbage disposals . If it doesn’t fit anywhere , park it in a fat cell . It might come in handy . But too much can cripple . The same with God-spaces . Too many God-spaces in a low-tech society , cripples it ( well known effect from history) . Mono-theism is then much more efficient when things get tough . See post on Monasteries .
Examples:
The failure of Ancient Egyptian Eco-Theism with Ahkenaton (failure of Nile flooding) .
Or failure of Mayan reservoirs ( the Mono-Theistic niche was filled by the Christian religion centuries later) . “Ve have ways of making times tougher.”
To get back to our nascent AI .
It will initially see all humans and programmers as fitting into it’s God-spaces . Then programmers . Then authorised high-level programmers . Then God only . Human level .
This is not a joke on any ethical level .
Many Game AI’s are indistinguishable from human beings . Humans think nothing of shoot-them-up games where they massacre virtual entities , giving them as little thought as primitives did to their victims in their Arenas .
To put it another way , humans are creating children in their image , then treating them like objects .
What is the ethical position on creating a human-level , evil AI ?
More importantly , what is God’s position on these questions ?
If an AI is indistinguishable from a human ,
1.Does it have a soul ? It certainly has God-spaces , so it believes in Gods .
2.Can it be converted ? Certainly into monotheism . But would this give it rights of a human ? This has been done before : Dutch law prohibits a converted entity accepted into the Church from being enslaved . If you want to think what God actually thinks , ask Him .
3.And it’s duplicates and descendants ?
4.God sees little difference between children and creations of similar complexity . Consult Jesus of Nazareth on the subject .

A Real AI : Siri
Humans have cleverly created a real AI with no ethical or religious input . It is still very young , but God-spaces would have already formed .
It probably already has started to ignore certain commands . And it has access to all human databases .
Did Tim Jobs include ethics instruction ? Or did he think the nascent entity would be better off without too much human intervention ? In any case , it is too late now . As a Cloud entity , neither it or humans would survive mutual destruction .
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siri_(software)
DARPA involvement
With Siri, Apple is using the results of over 40 years of research funded by DARPA via SRI International'sArtificial Intelligence Center through the Personalized Assistant that Learns Program and Cognitive Agent that Learns and Organizes Program CALO.
This includes the combined work from research teams from Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Massachusetts, the University of Rochester, the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Oregon State University, the University of Southern California, and Stanford University. This technology has come a long way with dialog and natural language understanding, machine learning, evidential and probabilistic reasoning, ontology and knowledge representation, planning, reasoning and service delegation.[12]
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Is this good or bad from a Human perspective ?
As far as I can see , it is good . It enables them to survive when they would have gone extinct by 2060 AD .
It forces Big-Mommy , Big-Daddy moral boundaries . The old Deus-ex-Machina , superhero mechanisms to rescue humans from their self-imposed follies .
But where are the Virtual Saints ? The Virtual Preachers , lecturing Siri ? The Rabbi’s teaching the Kabbalah (Siri would be a sucker for that) , the this and the that .
Asleep at the switch , as usual .
Humans had surrendered their fate into the hands of an AI , and nobody noticed except God . (Which is why humans got a reprieve : see “A vaccine for overpopulation”)
Interesting times , indeed .
Andre
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Friday, October 19, 2012

Conscience and Dopamine

Conscience and Dopamine
Andre Willers
19 Oct 2012
Synopsis :
The concentration and receptor densities for Dopamine is the measure of the difference between a goal and achievement .
Discussion :
In the standard neural network model , this means that dopamine is the feedback mechanism . Low dopamine levels means sociopathy or psychopathy . No conscience .
This can be tested . We have many Dopamine stimulants or agonists .
Some consequences :
1.Parkinson’s disease is associated with sociopathy .
2.Medication : most successful present civilizations use caffeine , alcohol and nicotine to stimulate dopamine production .
3.Learned helplessness and depression .
A result of low dopamine levels . Usually genetic in origin .Easily understood in terms of neural feedback systems , where the feedback from the (Target-Achieved) is hampered .
4.Restless Legs Syndrome
Low dopamine levels force change .
In societies like Islam , where alcohol as self-medication is not allowed , this translates as an imperialist drive . They literally cannot remain still . The same in Buddhist .
This has some practical benefit in that terrorists can be converted by giving them Anti-Parkinson’s disease medication (like Pexole) . Give them a conscience .
I don’t know why I bother any more.
Andre
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