Friday, January 31, 2014

EU Zone waves a fond farewell .

Andre Willers
31 Jan 2014

Synopsis :
EU Zone prospects poor .

Stock markets are circling the plughole .

The Amazing Greek and Spanish Zombie Banks are back . Can the Italians be far behind ?
They learned nothing . 

Grasping all , they lose all .

Combined with Ukraine troubles , general market corrections and the Bundesbank's call for capital taxes of 10% , the EU zone will be hard-pressed to survive .

If the EU collapses , another general war in the region can be expected within 5 years , or next winter , whichever is soonest .

What delicious irony !
Capitalist Russia and Eastern Ukraine , 
Marxist Greece , Italy ,Spain , Western Ukraine



Thursday, January 30, 2014

Plunge Protectors

Plunge Protectors

Andre Willers
30 Jan 2014
Plunge Protector Teams work by utilizing the zero-sum nature of markets .
Discussion :
1.Zero sum means that every winner must have corresponding losers .
2.But the Wealth of the society grows by about 4% (Baseline) a year for at least 200 years .
3.The Plunge Team uses techniques like hedging , futures , shorts , longs , derivatives , etc .
All the chartisms , Elliot waves , etc , etc are used simply to get a null result .
Much easier than trying to make a profit above baseline . A simple spoiler play .

4.Because they need not make a profit or loss , they are not accountable . But in a delicious paradox , they cannot help but make a profit .
5.They do make a profit of 4% pa (baseline) if they do their job properly .
6.This has become a major source of income to the US Fiscus . About 4% of $17trillion pa ~ $600 bn . An indirect tax , to the detriment of higher growth .
7.Unintended consequences :
7.1 Growth rate decreases . The upward and downward spikes decrease , especially downward ones . More inefficient systems survive . General growth rate goes down .
7.2 Members of the Plunge Team defect . See Appendix B.
They know exactly how to use the system for personal profit . This happened in July 2013 .
The system then destabilizes , as the two or more parties go into stabilization-antistabilization loops .
7.3 Getting inside the decision loops :
This war has quietly been going for years , but has now intensified . See Appendix A .
8.Needless to say , some weird things are now happening .
Especially regarding Log-periodic frequencies .
9.Will Greed or Social Responsibility win ?
Watch the next thrilling episode as they play Casino Monopoly with your money .
“Monitor , monitor on the Wall
Whose computer is fastest of them all ?”

Appendix A

The OODA loop has become an important concept in litigation,[1] business[2] and military strategy. According to Boyd, decision-making occurs in a recurring cycle of observe-orient-decide-act. An entity (whether an individual or an organization) that can process this cycle quickly, observing and reacting to unfolding events more rapidly than an opponent, can thereby "get inside" the opponent's decision cycle and gain the advantage. Frans Osinga argues that Boyd's own views on the OODA loop are much deeper, richer, and more comprehensive than the common interpretation of the 'rapid OODA loop' idea.[3]

Appendix B

Former Head Of Plunge Protection Team Lands At DE Shaw
Tyler Durden's picture
Submitted by Tyler Durden on 03/07/2013 12:08 -0400

Brian Sack, he who held the fattest finger on the Fed's green buy button until Simon Potter and his young protege Kevin Henry stepped into those prodigious shoes, has landed a role at mega quant fund D.E.Shaw. As Reuters reports, the former head of the Fed's Market Group will be the co-Director of Global Economics. The fund, with its reputation for mathematical modeling and computer-driven trading over short-term horizons will, we are sure, benefit from Sack's empirical ability to stomp on the throat of the VIX and tinker with VWAPs, though we hope he lasts longer than Larry Summers did. Of course, this almost guarantees that former-D.E.Shaw alum Jeff Bezos' share price will continue to surge as its fundamental performance plunges. The Plunge Protection Team, it appears, is in strong demand, though we hope someone explains that maybe D.E.Shaw does have a MtM policy (and not unlimited balance sheet).
Via Reuters,
D.E. Shaw & Co, a $28 billion hedge fund firm, known for its quantitative modeling, has hired a former top official from the Federal Reserve Bank and an economist from a rival hedge fund, to work in its macro investing unit, the firm said on Thursday.

Brian Sack, had been an advisor to the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and prior to that headed the bank'sMarkets Group.


"Our macro team casts a wide net in terms of asset class and geography, and having these two talented individuals' insights strengthens our capabilities in several dimensions as we source and analyze trades in global markets,"


Founded in 1988 by David Shaw, a computer scientist, the firm now ranks as one of the world's most powerful hedge funds and relies heavily on mathematicians and scientists to create its investment strategies. For a time, the firm employed Lawrence Summers, a former Treasury Secretary, Harvard University President and economist, as an adviser.

As much as mathematical models are critical to the firm's success, less than half of its assets are now managed under computer-driven models with short time horizons. Last year, for example, Stone discussed that one of the big bets in its macro strategy centered around Japan and that these types of bets often take a long time to play out.


Saturday, January 25, 2014

Replay of 1929?

Andre Willers
25 Jan 2014 Saturday 20h24 UT

A friendly warning .

Hi ,
The market correction seems to have started on Thu 23 Jan 2014 (-1%) , Fri 24 Jan 2014(-1.96%)
DOW down 3.5% for week , all on last two days . DOW futures down 1.07%

Monday 27 Jan 2014 should be interesting . The scenario's from some fairly objective commentators see a correction of 50% - 67% .

Health warning :
There seems to be some severe liquidity strains .
I strongly suggest that you move any funds held by them (if you can).
They refused withdrawals of even modest sums over 3000 pounds in UK .
See link below .

"Following research last week suggesting that HSBC has a major capital shortfall, the fact that several farmer's co-ops were unable to pay back depositors in China, and, of course, the liquidity crisis in China itselfnews from The BBC that HSBC is imposing restrictions on large cash withdrawals raising a number of red flags. The BBC reports that some HSBC customers have been prevented from withdrawing large amounts of cash because they could not provide evidence of why they wanted it. HSBC admitted it has not informed customers of the change in policy, which was implemented in November for their own good: "We ask our customers about the purpose of large cash withdrawals when they are unusual... the reason being we have an obligation to protect our customers, and to minimise the opportunity for financial crime." As one customer responded: "you shouldn't have to explain to your bank why you want that money. It's not theirs, it's yours."

Activate your 2008 protocols . There might be another credit shutdown .

Hoping I am wrong


Friday, January 24, 2014

Baalbek Megaliths

Baalbek Megaliths

Andre Willers
24 Jan 2014
Synopsis :
How they did it : by copper and by ice .
Discussion :
1.The Cutting :
The rock was sawed by very big bow-saws , with copper strands as the sawing edge .
See Appendix A

2.First , the top was sawn straight .
3.Then , the sides were excavated and sawn . The striation marks of the saws can be seen clearly .
4.Then the underside was sawn .
5.The whole mass was supported by tightly packed layers of gravel (like a Roman Road) . Topped by a layer of hygroscopic  clay .
6.The region has sub-zero nights when water freezes .
7.When it was ready to be moved , extra water was injected . This froze during cold nights .
8.Knocking away the props at dawn pushes the whole weight down on the ice , forming a thin , slippery water layer (like ice-skating) .
9.And off it goes . Easily towed as well . The friction coefficient is very low . The large surface area makes it more efficient .
10 .The larger the block , the easier . Like hovercraft .
11. Time : They didn’t worry about how long it took . Or how many workers .
12. But it would take surprisingly few workers . They let gravity and ice do the slippery work .
The coefficient of friction of rock over melted ice (moving) is about 0.01
To move 1 000 tons of rock over ice would require 0.01*1000 = 10 tons of force .
Every fit human weighing about 150 lbs can exert about 200/2000 = 1/10 tons of force just to stand upright .
About 100 humans can then easily tow a 1 000 ton megalith over a level ice surface .

12.3 Pyramids :
Average mass of a block about 2.5 tons . This would require 2.5*.01 = 0.025 tons of force  over ice .
We would then require 0.25 humans to haul a 2.5 ton block over a level ice surface .
Incline the surface at 30 degrees . Sin(30)= 0.5 . You will then need a minimum of 0.5  humans to haul the block .
In reality , this translates into 3 haulers and one overseer .
13. This was well-known technology . If it got cold at night , you could move very large masses easily .Used all over .
14. Plants like cucumbers were used to push the freezing point up.
Look for Cucumber DNA in layers directly below megaliths that have already been moved .
Or the blocks in the pyramids , for that matter .

15.If you have ice and copper , you have megalithic buildings .
Neolithics liked their drinks on the rocks .
Appendix A
Ancient Egyptian Technology
Andre Willers
27 Jan 2008

How did they shape and transport large stone masses using copper and wood ?

Discussion :

Shaping hard stone :
They sawed it .
Copper is a soft metal . Hard silica grit (sand or quartz) gets impregnated and fixed in the soft copper saw and these hard bits cut the rock .

How they did it :
From jewelry we know that they knew how to draw copper wire .
A tensioned copper wire is sufficient to form a cutting edge . The tension was supplied by a bow-type saw .
The economic trick : the copper was recycled . The metal was very expensive , but it is an element .
They could recover nearly every particle of copper abraded away .Simple smelting would suffice .
The cutting wire is sluiced continuously by a cooling liquid , which is collected and reprocessed . The sides of cut is also later brushed down . The workers were washed down as well . Really high efficiencies of recycling can be obtained (99%) , especially if a slightly sticky liquid is used .

Evidence :

The Narmer Tablet (google it) . Very old (at least 5 000 yrs before present)
On the front and back at the top left and right of the tablet are stylized bow-saws .

Figure : connect BACGH and JEDFI .

- -
A- - G F - - E
- - H I - -

BACGH is one horn fixed to beam BJ . H is the point of the left horn .
JEDFI is another horn fixed to beam BJ. I is the point of the right horn .

The horns are tensioned by sinews wound tight between BAC and CGH for the left , and likewise between JED and DFI for the right .
(If you examine the front left top horns of the Narmer Tablet , faint lines can still be seen showing the sinews .)

The copper wires strung between the left horn CGH and the right horn DFI are thus placed under an even elastic tension . Many wires are strung (looking like a harp) . Faint traces of these can be seen on the top front left bow of the Narmer Tablet

Note that the horns are curved much more than is natural because of the tensioning . See the bottom back of the tablet for a natural depiction of a bull . The horns are very different .

The length of the copper wire is not limited by the limitations of how long a wire can be drawn , as shorter lengths can knot-welded together . Indeed , some photos of the Narmer saws show thin lumps like splices or welds . This would not affect the sawing action , as this is dependant on abrasion .

So quite big blocks of stone can be sawed .

The user starts with a full harp of wires . As one wears away and breaks , they simply continue with the next wire . When all wires are used up , the bow is restrung .The shavings recycles continuously into copper wire .
A sawayer team can saw all day if they have the necessary backup team .

These would all be skilled professionals .

An intriguing note are the “ears” on the tablet bows . Close examination shows that they look more like leaves . The actual bull on the reverse does not show the same ears . One speculates that this might be the plant that is the source of the stickiness in the lubricating fluid .

Wire-drawing , chisels , drills and lathes .
The middle figure on top of both sides of the tablet schematically shows these .

The “catfish” represents the wire-drawing apparatus . It seem like a plate-type wire drawing process . The “whiskers” are the wires . Google wire-drawing .

The chisel is the Y shaped squiggle in the centre . Usually bronze or copper edged . This is a generally agreed interpretation .

Next to it on both sides are what looks like two cricket-wickets . One “cricket-wicket” is a drill . The center is drill-stave , tipped by an abrasive soft-copper bit (the same principle as the stone-saw) .
The two staves on the sides are guides to keep the drill in place and to guide the bowstring that powers the drill . (Drill-bows are a stone-age technology .)

With this , long straight holes can be drilled through rock .
Or gemstones . This is still the technology used in jewelry manufacture . A sticky drillbit coated with an abrasive is drilled into the target .

Two drills rotating around an axis while drilling is a primitive lathe . Good for making columns , pillars ,etc . Hence the two “cricket-wicket” drills on the tablet .

Moving large stones .
This problem has been solved by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities during their excavations of the workers’ quarters near the Pyramids . They found toy quarter-circles in childrens’ graves . They were mimicking in play what their parents did .

Strap four wooden quarter-circles to square and you have a circle . The stone blocks were not dragged , they were rolled . (This has been done in actual reconstruction with pyramid blocks) . Really large blocks (thousands of tonnes) can be moved by this method . The only limitation is the strength of wood and the strength of the surface over which it must roll . It can easily be calculated , but even cursory examination shows that it must be very large (cf mass capacity of wooden , wheeled cart)

Ancient Egyptian Wheelbarrow .
Since a large percentage of the pyramids is large fill-in rubble , they must have had an efficient way of transporting smaller , irregularly shaped rocks . It is speculated that nets filled with packed rubble were fitted with circle-segment strap-ons and rolled . Like our wheelbarrow , except that the wheel goes around the load .

Some Speculations :
Compound Bows :
The Egyptians probably invented compound-bow technology in their efforts to increase the efficiency of the bow-saw as described above . It then percolated back north via the mercenaries (like the alphabet) .
Nomads cannot even make a good compound bow . The reason is that the layers of glue between the strips of horn must be kept absolutely still for months to set properly. A really good bow around 1200 AD (Mongols) took about a year to make . The factories were around the edges of the steppes and were not nomadic . Places for artificers , pregnant woman , children , wounded convalescents and old people . About a third of the Mongol population resided here .

No nomad population could develop a compound bow . The development process would have involved long trial-and-error with different glues , thicknesses and types of horn , curing pressures and rates , temperatures , record keeping and lots of time in a stable environment . Only the Egyptians qualify .

But once the recipe was known , duplication was fairly easy .

Both the Egyptians and Middle Easterners like Assyrians used compound bows , but it came into its own with the horse . The Parthian shot is proverbial .

What amuses me is that the single weapon that killed more people than any other was developed as a better saw .

Resin coated strings impregnated with obsidian or quartz flakes will slice through stone . Cheap and easy to make . But not as easily guided . Look at the wavering joins at Sacsahuamen .
How did they join them ?
First , bring two rough blocks together using the strap-on roller technique . Then use parallel sawing strings repeatedly till the edges fit tightly . Then roll them into place .

What about the wheel ? Note that they were aware of the wheel . We know that from their childrens’ toys . Note that the evidence for the Egyptian technique was also found in childrens’ toys .

Sigh .
No anti-gravity . No advanced Ancient Civilizations with Mysterious Knowledge .
Just a bunch of priest-kings out for number one , a large number of suckers and lots of elbow-grease .

And so it goes .


Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Fall of Aksum

Fall of Aksum

Andre Willers
23 Jan 2014
Synopsis :
The disruption of gold from Mapungubwe in South Africa (circa 520 CE) led to military adventurism in Arabia . This destroyed Aksum .
Discussion :


Chronology at Mapungubwe
·         AD 350-450, first occupation
·         AD 450-900, Early Iron Age (mostly a hiatus at the site)

This is archaeological shorthand for one tribe conquering another . About 520 CE gold supplies from Mapungubwe were disrupted.

2.Aksum .

Lack of gold from Mapungubwe debased Aksumite coins . They mistakenly embarked on a conquest policy in the ruins of the Roman Empire .

I dislike this sort of co-incidence . How does the decline of the Western Roman Empire affect events in Southern Africa ?

Pirates in the Red Sea ? Withdrawal of Indian Dravidian merchants due to collapse of trade-demand ?
The whole spice-trade in the middle-east collapsed when Roman demand vanished .

Archeological evidence reveals that the quality of the Aksumite coins — both in terms of their metal content and sharpness of production — declined markedly during this period.[24] It's a clear sign that in addition to having abandoned centuries of largely nonpartisan policies, the Aksumites had also, in the process, reneged on their commitment to a sound currency in favor of inflationary war finance.[25]

Aksum was a Trading Empire . Debasing their currency through the lack of gold forced them into ill-considered wars of aggression .

 And in 520 CE, the Aksumite king Kaleb broke with centuries of tradition to pursue a course of action that would forever seal the kingdom's fate.

Upon receiving reports that across the Red Sea, the Jewish king Yusuf Asar was persecuting Christians, the Kingdom of Aksum launched a military invasion of Asar's territory in South Arabia. Asar's forces were defeated and an Aksumite client government installed under a viceroy, Sumfaya Ashwa.[22] But, as these things often go, within half a decade the puppet Ashwa was overthrown by Aksumite troops who had remained garrisoned in South Arabia after the initial invasion, raising Abreha, a Persian-leaning figure, to the throne. This triggered a second Aksumite invasion: this force defected and pledged loyalty to Abreha. Infuriated, Kaleb sent a third invasion force, which was summarily decimated. It was, in all, a disastrous affair accompanied by "over-expenditure in money and man-power, and a loss of prestige."[23]
3.Islam   c. 570 – c. 8 June 632
The Jewish tribes in Saudia Arabia converted to Islam because of this invasion .
See Appendix AA
Interesting times .
Could you do better ?
Appendix AA
Friday, October 09, 2009
Ansari Gens.
Ansari Gens.
Andre Willers
9 Oct 2009

Synopsis :
The Ansari Gens , as personified in the Ansari Prizes , is an attempt of the moderate Islamic world to rejoin humanity in the run-up to the singularity .

Discussion :

The Catastrophe :
The collapse of the Bronze age civilization , partially caused by overpopulation and accompanied by severe droughts and climatic disturbances (circa 3000 to 1000 BC) caused severe population disturbances in Egypt (Sea Peoples , abandonment of Sinai mines) , Middle East depopulation , Arabian Peninsula (depopulation) , Iran (invasion of Aryans) , India (Aryan invasion , displacement of South Indian civilizations to Yemen , and subsequent displacements to Africa . Abandonment of Zimbabwean colonies (see : Makgadigadi Sea" . )

Refugee populations from Southern India moved upward from Yemen into depopulated areas on the Red Sea coast of Arabian Peninsula . There they ran into the refugee herders and slaves from Egypt (ur-Hebrews) and survivors of the Egyptian mines in the Sinai (the Kenites) . Note that the Kenites were coppersmiths and metalworkers , reduced to nomadism as Egyptian support structures collapsed . Moses married the daughter of one during the Sinai wanderings .

It must have been desperate time for a bunch of pampered clients from the flesh-pots of Egypt .

The Ur-Aryan root word "banu" , meaning "junior offspring" still survives .
The morph:
Banu -> Ben -> Gen

Google "banu"

All three terms are still in general usage , meaning the same thing .
See Appendices B-D for Banu , Ben in Hebrew and Gen as in Roman genesis .
As expected , the Roman word would show the greatest mutation rate .

Genetic traces :
Alcohol :
Most of the Sinai metalworkers probably were descendant from South India
Ref Zimbabwe , Sheba .
Like most orientals , they lacked certain genes to handle alcohol breakdown products (note even present proneness to high blood pressure and diabetesII . )
See Appendix B about alcohol tolerance .

The Roman Empire .
The Arabian peninsula built up some capital during the empire . With the collapse of the western trade routes in the Empire around 500 AD , the huge over-production of wine in the Italian peninsula was routed to the Middle East at cut-throat prices . Concerned leaders and merchants were desperate . Hence the Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) 's proscription on the fruit of the vine .
That Kenite weakness for alcohol had come back to bite them . Jewish social systems (twice-weekly schull monitoring also check for this)

Islam :
As can be seen , the Hebrew tribes from Sinai and the Arabian peninsula predate the irruption into what is today Israel as the climatic systems slowly recovered . By about 600 AD the Arabian peninsula was populated by an amalgam of South Indian and Egyptian populations , organized into Banu's (Ben's , Gen's) .
Very aggressively mercantile . Yankee trader or Viking .

Mohamed did incorporate the Jewish tribes in the Arabian peninsula (see Appendix C and D , the "Treaty of Medina" ) and tried hard to get the Sanhedrin on board.. But , after 132 AD (Second Jewish Revolt), the Sanhedrin was just a rubber stamp for the Romans or Byzantines . So , we sit with the mess today .

Mongols , Crusaders and the Church .

Both Mongols and Crusaders saw the Islamic empire as a nice juicy nut for heavy armoured cavalry . The Military-Industrial Complex of the time (monastries) sent observers . A nice job .

The Mongols did the most damage , destroying the heartland of the nascent Islamic civilization and technology . They did it by switching horses and armour .

Each Mongol had at least 20 horses . Carrying different things . Armour , food , etc .A Mongol could change from a light cavalry to heavy armoured cavalry , or even very heavy armoured infantry at will .
Even a small force could punch at varying weights .

A matter of logistics . Eisenhower would have approved .

There were church observers like fleas on a hound-dog . Mostly from vertically-integrated companies like monasteries .Hence the explosion of specially bred horses , donkeys and especially mules to enhance the efficiency of a multi-purpose military force .
Mules and Monsanto go together .

The Crusaders of the time were very limited . Not only was their technology not up to it , but they were severely limited by logistics .

So why don't we speak mongol ?
Ho-Ho-ho !
Low birthrate . Caused by saddles and stirrups . The lack of a split groove ! Stirrups!
The balls and vas is positioned directly above the maximum thumps .

The invention of stirrups caused a big drop in the birthrate of the equites .

This is not at all obvious .

Too stupid to make a little pocket for their balls and tubes . Although , I have to say , it took a century for bicycle-riders to invent a split saddle . Not to mention chairs .
Still not general .
Humans .
Note that the Roman saddle-horns cannot center the testes as well as stirrups .

Shit . It does change just about any human interaction with technology in history .
Back to the drawing board .

Stirrup-riders without split saddles seem to stabilize populations . The Mongol population remained stable at 700 000 from 1000 Ad to 1800 AD.

Epigenetic effects
The stirrup effect can last for generations . It is a wonder we have any aristocracy left.
The birth figures do looked very skewed

I have had about enough of humans .

The rest is yours .



Appendix A
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kenites (or Cinites) were a nomadic clan in the ancient Levant, sent under Jethro a priest in the land of Midian.[1] They played an important role in the history of ancient Israel. The Kenites were coppersmiths and metalworkers.[1] Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, was a shepherd and a priest in the land of the Kenites and some accuse him of being a Kenite.[1] The Kenites apparently assimilated into the Israelite population,[2] though the Kenites descended from Rechab maintained a distinct, nomadic lifestyle for some time.
Moses apparently identified Jethro's concept of god, El Shaddai, with Yahweh, the Israelites' god.[1] According to hypothesis, Yahweh was originally the tribal god of Jethro, borrowed and adapted by the Hebrews.[1][3]


Appendix B
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Rechabites - the descendants of Rechab through Jonadab or Jehonadab. They belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the children of Israel into the holy land, and dwelt among them. Moses married a Kenite wife,[1] and Jael was the wife of "Heber the Kenite".[2] Saul also showed kindness to the Kenites.[3] The main body of the Kenites dwelt in cities, and adopted settled habits of life;[4] but Jehonadab forbade his descendants to drink wine or to live in cities.[5] They were commanded to lead always a nomad life. They adhered to the law laid down by Jonadab, and were noted for their fidelity to the old-established custom of their family in the days of Jeremiah (35); and this feature of their character is referred to by God for the purpose of giving point to his message to Judah.[6][7]
In 1839 the Reverend Joseph Wolff, who later went to Bokhara to attempt to save Lieutenant Colonel Charles Stoddart and Captain Arthur Conolly, found in Yemen, near Sanaa, a tribe claiming to be descendants of Jehonadab; and in the late nineteenth century a Bedouin tribe was found near the Dead Sea who also professed to be descendants of Jehonadab.[8]
The term Rechabites also refers to a religious order, similar in some ways to the Nazarites, and are mentioned by Eusebius of Emesa.[9]
In more recent times, the name has been used by Christian groups keen to promote total abstinence from alcohol, such as the Independent Order of Rechabites.

Appendix C


The Banu Najjar was one of the Jewish tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era.
They were included in point 31 of the Constitution of Medina as allies to the Muslims, being as "one nation", but retaining their Jewish religion [1].

Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era)
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There were several Tribes of Arabia that interacted with Muhammad.
The most prominent of such Arabian tribes were the Banu Quraish (Arabic for "Sons of Quraish") which were in turn divided into several sub-clans. The Qur'aish sub-clan of Banu Hashim was the clan of Muhammad, while their sister sub-clan, the Banu Abd-Shams became known as his most staunch enemies. After Muhammad, the Muslim nation was ruled exclusively through the Banu Quraish tribe, all the way until the Ottoman Turks came into power.
Other tribes include various ones that were centered on different cities, for example the Banu Thaqif and the Banu Utub.
Notable are the Jewish tribes that had settled in Medina, they would play a prominent part in Muhammad's life, this included the Banu Qurayza, Banu Nadir and the Banu Qainuqa, they participiated in the Battle of Bu'ath,although they had a truce and an agreement with Muslims not to join the opposing armies, but they broke them.
[edit] List
A list includes:
· Banu Quraish — prominent in the city of Mecca
· Banu Hothail —The Brothers of Quraish, and their neighbors in mecca [1]
· Banu Thaqif — the city of Ta'if, Urwah ibn Mas'ud
· Banu Jadhimah — the city of Ta'if
· Banu Utub — the city of Najd
· Banu Ghatafan — east of Yathrib and Khaibar
· Banu Tamim — central Arabia
· Banu Sa'ad
· Banu Amr — Umar and his companions stayed with them during the hijrah from Mecca.
· Banu Daws — south of Mecca, Abu Hurairah
· Banu Abs — Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman
· Banu Bakr ibn Abd Manat
· Banu Jumah
· Banu Kalb
· Banu Khuza'a — between Mecca and Badr
In Yathrib (later Medina)
· Banu Khazraj[2][3]
· Banu Aus (Banu Aws) [2][3]
· Banu Awf
· Banu Najjar
· Banu Harith
· Banu Sa'ida
· Banu Jusham
· Banu Thaalba
· Banu Jaffna
· Banu Shutayba
Jewish tribes:
· Banu Qainuqa the most powerful of all the Jewish tribes of the peninsula before Islam [4].
· The Al-Kahinan — they traced their descent from Aaron.[3]
o Banu Qurayza — sub-clan of the Al-Kahinan, Medina, "principal family"[3]
o Banu Nadir — sub-clan of the Al-Kahinan, Medina, "principal family"[3]


Appendix D

Abu Ayyub Al Ansari
Khalid ibn Zayd ibn Kulayb, known as Abu Ayyub Al Ansari, came from the Banu Najjar, and was a dear and close companion of Prophet Mohamed (PBUH).

He enjoyed a great privilege many of the Ansar in Madinah dreamt of having.

When Prophet Mohamed (PBUH), reached Madinah after the Hijrah from Makkah, the Ansar of Madinah greeted him with great enthusiasm, love and longing. Their hearts betted for him and their eyes surrounded him with great admiration and love. They wanted to receive him with the most hospital reception they could give.

Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) entered Madinah on his camel. The chieftains of Madinah walked next to him, each and every one of them hoping to get the honor of Prophet Mohamed’s stay at his house. They stood in the way of the procession and addressed the Prophet saying " O Messenger of Allah, please do accept our hospitable accommodation, for we are influential people who are great in number and wealth. We can also guarantee your support and protection.”

Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) mildly urged them to get out of the way of the camel, for it was ordered by Allah to stop at a certain place.

The camel stopped at an open space in front of the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. But Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) did not get off the camel. After a few minutes, the camel started moving once again, however, it turned around, retraced its steps and kneeled in the same place where it stopped before. Abu Ayyub’s face shone with joy and satisfaction. He went out to Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) and greeted him with great enthusiasm. He took the Prophet's baggage in his arms and carried them so close to his heart as if he was carrying the most precious treasure in the world.

It was not the first meeting between Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) and Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari. They had met before when the Madinah delegation journeyed to Makkah to take the oath of allegiance to the Prophet (PBUH).

Abu Ayyub's house had two floors. He prepared the upper floor for Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) to stay in. however Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) preferred to stay on the lower one.

Night came and Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) went to sleep. Abu Ayyub ascended to his room, but when he closed the door, he shook with regret and told his wife:

"Woe to us! What have we done? The messenger of God is below and we are higher than him! Can we walk on top of the messenger of God? Are we standing between him and the Revelation? If so, we are doomed."

They were extremely worried, and had no idea what to do. They got some peace of mind when they moved to the other side of the building where they were not above Prophet Mohamed (PBUH).

In the morning, Abu Ayyub said to the Prophet(PBUH):

"By God, we did not sleep all last night, neither myself nor Umm Ayyub."

"Why not, Abu Ayyub?" asked the Prophet.

Abu Ayyub told him how terrible they felt because he was staying below them.

"Don't worry, Abu Ayyub," said the Prophet. "We prefer the lower floor because we have a lot of visitors.”

"We submitted to the Prophet's wishes," Abu Ayyub related, "until one cold night, the roof was damaged and the water spilled on the upper floor. Umm Ayyub and I stared at the water. We only had one piece of velvet, which we used as a blanket. We used it to wipe the water fearing it would seep through to the Prophet. In the morning I went to him and said, 'I do not like to be above you,' and told him what had happened. He respected my wish and we exchanged floors."

The Prophet (PBUH) stayed in Abu Ayyub's house for about seven months until his mosque and his dwelling were built. Thus, he became the neighbor of Abu Ayyub.

Abu Ayyub loved Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) with all his heart and the Prophet also loved him dearly. There was no formality between them. The Prophet (PBUH) continued to regard Abu Ayyub's house as his own.

These are glimpses of Abu Ayyub's life during peacetime, but ever since the Quraish tribe began to fight against Islam, to raid Al-Madinah, the land of Hijrah, and to instigate tribes and organize armies to eliminate Islam, Abu Ayyub became a professional in warfare. He was in the front rows in Badr, Uhud, Al-Khandaq and the rest of the battles and wars. He devoted himself, his money, and property to Allah.

He did not stay away from any battle the Muslims fought from the time of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) till the time of Mu'awiyah unless he was engaged at the same time in another.

Even after Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) died, Abu Ayyub never turned his back on a battle that the Muslims were destined to fight in.

The slogan that he kept reciting to himself day and night, secretly and openly was that verse of the Qur’an “March forth, whether you are light or heavy”.

He never missed an expedition, except once. He refused to fight in an army, which was lead by a young Muslim assigned by the caliph. Abu Ayyub rejected this choice. This one and only mistake shook his innermost self, and he was always full of regrets as he repeated, “It is none of my concern whoever Ali appoints.” Ever since he made this mistake, he never missed a battle.

It sufficed him to live as a soldier in the Muslim army, fight under its slogan, and defend its sanctity.

The last battle Abu Ayyub took part in was the one prepared by Mu'awiyah and led by his son Yazid against Constantinople. Abu Ayyub at that time was a very old man, almost eighty years old. But that did not prevent him from joining the army and crossing the seas as a graze in the path of God. In this particular battle, he was wounded. The commander of the army went to check on him. He was breathing heavily as if his longing to meet Allah made him impatient with the few minutes left in his life. The commander, Yazid Ibn Mu’aawiyah, asked him, "Do you need anything, Abu Ayyub?"

I wonder if any of you can imagine what Abu Ayyub’s last wish was?

He asked Yazid to carry his body to the furthest point inside the enemy lands and bury him there, then to break through the enemy line until he reached his grave so that Abu Ayyub might hear the sound of the galloping Muslim horses clattering over it and realize that they have achieved victory. Do you think this is poetic verse? No, this not a poetic verse nor a whim of imagination. It really happened. It is a fact that the whole world witnessed one day, and stood there watching and listening, not believing that this could be true. Yazid carried out Abu Ayyub’s will to the fullest extent.

Finally, the body of this great warrior was buried in the heart of Constantinople — Istanbul nowadays.