## Wednesday, February 29, 2012

### Crumpling paper and Space-Time

Crumpling Paper and Space-Time
Andre Willers
23 Feb 2012

“The moving finger writes , and having writ , crumples it in random ruins.”
With apologies to Omar Khayyam .

Synopsis:
Crumpled paper gives a good approximation of spacetime as a membrane with clumpy masses .
“Empty” spaces not occupied by the membrane gives an impression of dark matter .
We derive an expression to give this ratio using Infinite Descent and Beth(0) Random Walk .

Discussion :
1.The Crumpled paper :
Consider a paper disk of radius r and thickness d .
It's volume is then Vp=pi * r^2 * d
Draw a line from the center to the edge , in steps of length d , over the edge , then back to the center Let nu=r/d , a measure of the thickness of the paper . Note that it is a pure number .

The number of steps in the line is then n0=(2r/d)+1
But the number of steps to the edge of the original paper disk is n1=r/d=(n0-1)/2
r=d*(n0-1)/2
n0=2*nu+1

Vp=(pi*d^3*(n0-1)^2 )/4

Crumple it up in a way that is as random as flipping a coin (ie Beth(0) )

The Trick : The line we have drawn up above breaks up into random vectors by rotating through a third dimension = crumpling into a ball .

We thus have a continuous line of random steps of known number of steps .
In 3 dimensions , the mean square distance from the center then is known
R = d * (n0)^0.5 …. See true for all dimensions as long as all are of Beth(0) order of randomness.

Volume of crumpled ball Vb=4/3*pi*R^3
The Ratio Vb/Vp = mu then gives the ratio of crumpled ball space to volume of paper mass .

Mu={4/3*pi*d^3 *n0^(3/2)} / (pi*d^3*(n0-1)^2 )/4
Notice the d^3 term and pi cancels out . This has profound physical implications .
This simplifies to

Mu=4*4/3*(n0^3/2/(n0-1)^2)
Expressed as thickness of paper , nu , which is a pure number independent of metric chosen .
mu=4*4/3(2*nu+1)^3/2 / (2*nu)^2
mu=4/3*(2nu+1)^3/2 / nu^2
This gives a quartic equation in nu , which can be solved exactly algebraically .
(mu)^2*(nu)*4 – 2^7/3^2 *(nu)^3 – 2^6/3^2 (nu)^2 – 2^5/3^2 * (nu)^1 - 2^4/3^2 =0

Test it on A4 paper:
A4 paper has thickness d~0,1 mm and r~150 mm
nu=150/0,1
nu=1500
mu=4/3*(3001^3/2)/(1500^2)
mu=0.097421589
mu= 1- 0.90257841
This means that the crumpled A4 paper ball encloses about 90% empty space .
This agrees with experimental results . See NewScientist.

Note that the force applied does not matter . As long as the paper is untorn , mu will be the same .

How many times can it be folded ?
Solving the above (see below) gives mu=1 for about nu=14.7 to 14.8 .
This means there are no empty spaces left to fold into .

This can get complicated , so I will keep it simple .
Take a piece of paper and fold it . You then have a new piece of paper .The test-circle of same r will have double the thickness .
Ie , nu will double .
Between 7 and 8 folds , nu will hit the ceiling of mu=1 , regardless of the starting value of nu .
This is the maximum number of paper folds , as confirmed from other sources .

Physical interpretations :
Take an m-dimensional space . Randomness of order Beth(0) applies equally to all . The underlying equalizer . Collapse it to three dimensions and let the third one approach single Planck lengths .
Then we can use the above paper approximation . Notice how d cancels out except for an addition of 1 in final ratio .

What does it mean ?
See the physical universe as a brane (ie sheet of paper) in a multiverse . Crumpling it means it has mass and singularities . Both are aspects of the same thing .
An estimate of the number of singularities can be made from edges and points in crumpled paper .

Can we crumple the paper to a ball that is just paper ?
That is a particle .

Such crumpling means that mu=1 (no empty space in any dimension )
This gives an quartic equation in nu that solves to four values , other dimensions than three denoted by i=(-1)^0.5

See http://www.1728.org/quartic.htm for a calculator
nu1= 14.722181 (this makes the physical particle universe possible . Mass .
Nu2= - 0.004167 + i*0.49558 (Rotation :Spin :charge and magnetism)
nu3 = - 0.004167 - i*0.49558 (Rotation :Spin :charge and magnetism) notice the minus sign .
Nu4= - 0.49164542 (quantum effects as the particles dither. Inertia?)

What does a negative nu mean ?
nu=r/d . A negative nu means one of r or d must be negative .
1.If r is negative , it can be interpreted as curled up dimensions , inside the “outside” dimensions as defined by i . See http:andreswhy.blogspot.com “ The inside of zero” Aug 2009
2.If d is negative , it can be interpreted as quantum effects . A particle does not “occupy” all the space . Likes hopscotch .
3.But notice the the two are interrelated .The notorious observer effect . Where we place the minus sign between r or d .

There should be relationships between nu2 , nu3 and nu4 . Various rotations between macro- and micro dimensions .
This means the contraption is not symmetrical But we already know that ,

Physical constants :
Things like charge , mass , etc should be derivable from these basics . Hint:use lots of crumpled paper .

There is hope . The fact that it is quartic equation , which is always solvable , means that the Universe can be understood . Complicated and perverse , but as long as you stick to Beth(0) randomness , it can be understood . For higher orders of randomness , good luck .

Dark Matter :
I nearly forgot . Using Planck units , we can define the ratio of thickness of the brane as
nu=c*PlanckTime/(1*Planck Time)
nu=c = 3*10^8
This gives a
Mu=4/3*(2c+1)^3/2 / c^2
Simplifying (c is very large) . This gives the approximation
mu=4/3* 2^1.5 / c^0.5
mu=2.1773242 * 10^ (-4)
mu = 1-0.999783357
This means that 99.9783357 % of the universe can be interpreted as being “Dark Matter”.
Ie with attractive and repulsive qualities . Basically empty space .
May you have joy of that .

An interesting aside :Creative artists .
How many pieces of paper does an artist need to crumple up and throw away before he finds something acceptable ?
Something acceptable would translate to mu=1 . Thus , we can say 7-8 truly random foldings should give a result .
The same holds for cryptanalysis or any attempt to find an unknown .
Algorithm :
Try 8 times , crumple , then put it aside and try again later .
There is a quantum connection , strange as it might seem .

And what about a nice little Crumpling App for smartphones ?
But the randomness should be from truly random tables , not pseudo-random generators .

Randomly yours.
Andre
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## Thursday, February 23, 2012

### Potatoes II

Potatoes II
Andre Willers
24 Feb 2012

Synopsis:
Bubonic plague was transmitted from Europe pre-Columbian .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “ Cahokia . Amazonia and the BlackDeath” Feb 2011
See Appendix II

Discussion:

http://www.sunnyway.com/runes/americanstones.html
“During the 14th century many of the educated scribes died of the bubonic plague. Less educated writers introduced vernacular into the legal documents during that period.Download his 74-page article in PDF format.
Thomas Reiersgord, author of The Kensington Rune Stone: Its Place in History, believes that the "10 men red with blood", were not killed by Indians, but were victims of the bubonic plague, carried in its incubation period from Europe, by one or more carriers in the group. In its pneumatic form the plague spreads and kills rapidly, the victims vomiting blood as well as covered with bloody pustules.”
Bubonic plague can and did cross the Atlantic ,repeatedly .
The lack of native American pandemics is due to the potato . But only in areas growing potatoes , of course .

Interesting speculation :
Is eating fish a promotor of bubonic plague ?
Note that Greenland inhabitants did not eat fish , even when they were starving . This was considered irrational . But what if it was very rational ?
Fish do target CCR5 mechanisms via memory structures .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Anchovies and the fall of empires” Jul 2011. Repeated in Appendix I for your ease .
Note the spread of Black Death . It followed the fishy routes .This was seen as trade route effect , but now seems more likely that people eating a lot of fish were more vulnerable on the CCR5 front .
Fish and chips
A staple diet of the North Sea . But old-style chips , with eyes in them .
You know , that glassy bit .
Trust humans to find the most nutritious bit and excise it .
Now you have a poor substitute in curry , mainly curcumin + yoghurt .
Cheese and potatoes .
Both work by stimulating stem-cell production like in a youngling .

Vikings died out because lack of cheese . Mostly of plague , activated by withdrawal of lactose-related epigenetic factors .

Boiled eyed potatoes in cream .Yummy .Also zaps most known diseases .
Never mind the apples .comfort me with potatoes .
Andre
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Appendix I
Anchovies and the Fall of Empires.
Andre Willers
2 Jul 2011

"Civilizations simply forgot civilization .":

Synopsis :
Domoic acid (a powerful neurotoxin causing loss of short term memory) is concentrated in anchovies during periods of environmental degradation . This gets into the human food chain via sauces such as Roman Garum and South-East Asian fish sauces such as nuoc mam .
This caused hippocampus damage , resulting in memory loss . Poor impulse control results . Essentially , infantilism .
Nero was not mad . He just forgot .

Discussion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domoic_acid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anchovy

1.Why eat it in the first place ?
Fish sauces were and are vital to supply essential omega fatty acids . These are really essential for brain development . Inland communities in history went through extraordinary convolutions to obtain them .

Anchovies are especially favoured because of the snout contains a unique rostral organ, believed to be sensory in nature . It is a bioelectric organ , harbouring some unique biochemicals , lusted after by predatory brains .

This organ enables anchovies to flourish in troubled waters , where pollution due to mud or chemicals is high . Another organism shares this ecological niche , namely some phytoplankton like red algae . These produce domoic acid as a biochemical weapon .

Anchovies have evolved defences , which means they concentrate it (so does some other species like shellfish) .

2.The Cycle :
When the waters are clear , nothing much happens .
But when the human land-empire becomes more successful , more land is cultivated . The pollution of the coasts increases drastically around landlocked seas like the Med or complicated island and canal nets of southeast asia .

Anchovies first explode in numbers , then humans , then pollution in a feedback loop .
At some stage phytoplankton production of domoic acid kicks in (presumably a quorum mechanism to inhibit high densities of anchovies  that eat plankton.)
A forgetty poison .

3.This works equally well on Humans .
Fish sauces , which were essential to human health , suddenly became actively deletrious , causing loss of short term memory . You need short term memory to get to long term memory in a purely biochemical sense .

Civilizations simply forgot civilization .

This why you no longer get Garum . It became a poison .

It would start with the top levels of societies , those who could afford the best Garum or Nuoc Mam , and work its way down . Note that the barbarians in the interior , or fishing communities on the Atlantic would be little affected .

5.The end of Rome and Angkor Wat  .
Forgotten .

Not even a whimper . Just a "What?"

I suspect the same in Meso-america  or Polynesia . Everywhere where they just walk away .

6.Bronze-age civilization ? (circa 3400 years ago)
A possibility . If they kept eating anchovies after the volcanic turbitity , severe memory loss would result . Especially since the memory systems at the time were mainly verbal , not written down . This might have stimulated the evolution of written systems .

7.End of the Ice Age (about 10 000 years ago)
Massive floods and turbidity would have polluted seas (North Sea , Bay of Biscay , Med  , Sediment Floods from North America .
The last is interesting . The light , freshwater floods after the breaking of the ice-dams on North-America was supposed to stop the Gulf stream .
It did not . The heavy , cold , finely-ground sediment swept in suspension along the seafloor to turn the west coast of Europe into a murk . Algal blooms resulted . Fish like anchovies bloomed . Humans ate them and turned into forgetties . There was little symbological language . The referents were forgotten .

There were high human civilizations . They simply forgot them .
All we have left are rocks with symbols like spirals , circles , etc . The referents are forgotten .

8.Domoic Acid and the Immune System .
The secondary level of the Immune System is a Short-term memory system .
I do not know if domoic acid interferes with this , but have a horrible feeling that it does .

Evolutionary systems tend to be very conservative . Higher level short term memory systems will tend to follow from older memory systems . So something affecting the hippocampus will also affect the immune system . In other words , domoic acid will degrade immune systems . This means more plagues .
Note the Roman plagues .A Perfect Storm scenario
And things like HIV in our times .

(Note the feedback between West-African fishery turbidity due to massive netfishing and bush-meat . Some anchovies from the turbid , polluted areas still made it through , degrading immune systems and exposing them to new infectious agents .)

9.And our Civilization ?
I'm afraid the same thing is happening .
The system has learned to some extent , in as much that fish sauces are not as prevalent . But nutritional supplements are . And fish-oil supplements are not tested for domoic acid .
In any case , Gaia has more of these feedback loops up her sleeve .

Have you noticed how more infantile the better-fed elements of the society are ?
That is because their memory is going .

Memory-loss begets infantilism .

10. Gaia likes a flashy big spender
(since She owns the only Casino in town)
She might even comp you a few extra million years  in cushy comfort .
Gaia does not see spreading high-energy molecules like plastics or oil around as pollution. These are opportunities ,

The alert reader will have noticed that most of the plastics in ocean gyres are being broken down by bacteria . Oils spills (like Gulf of Mexico) has vanished . We are still awaiting ripple effects .

11.Humans and Gaia
Humans are supposed to be the conscious component of Gaia .
Cutting down on pollution can be far more dangerous than the pollution itself .
Systems will protect themselves , even if it destroys themselves .

Humans need to start really worrying if they cut down on pollution without understanding what they are doing .

Having trouble with your memory ?
Pizza with extra anchovies , anyone ?

andre
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Appemdix II
Cahokia , Amazonia and the Black Death .
Andre Willers
12 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
Maddened refugees from the European Black Death (circa 1348-1350 CE ) took desperate flight towards known refuges across the Atlantic (Vinland) . Some unfortunately made it within 38 days (about 4 miles per day) to riverine ports on the Mississppi and Amazon . (Most perished on hostile shores or seas : risks they would never have taken if not maddened ) .
The local populations and civilizations were then destroyed .
The Black Death was nearly 100% lethal in closely tied river civilizations .

Discussion :

Cahokia :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippian_culture
A riverine agricultural society . Traders from the Great Lakes to the mouth of the Mississippi .

Chunkey
They were besotted with "Chunkey" .
A type of bowls .
But this like saying that present American Football is also a type of bowls .

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chunkey
This required large plazas of hardpacked pavement , with pavilions for the rich and famous with a good view (flat topped mounds) , and enclosures to keep the non-paying dead-beats out .
And there you have a Cahokia center . Not a city , but more a sports complex , complete with bookies , priests , etc .

About 1050 AD this really took off as discretionary income rose due to favourable climatic conditions and certain threshold population densities being passed .
The sports centers provided agglutinive cores .
Cf present roving Olympic Game sites .

The normal vicissitudes of overpopulation , environmental degradation , warfare ,etc followed . But nothing capable of stopping the civilization in its tracks . Remember , the Mississippi drained half a continent , arising from glaciers . There was always water . More steadfast than the Nile .

Then the Black Death refugees arrived , probably somewhere around St Louis .
Out of the hundreds that must have arrived , some were still biologically active .
The Black Death spread like wildfire (it's cousin , bubonic Plague , had crossed over from Asia with the first colonists and had hosts) .

The American Bottom became a death zone  . By the time Columbus arrived , it was known as the Vacant Quarter . The locals shunned it , with good reason . For a long time , anybody who went in there died within 40 days .
See National Geographic Jan 2011 , p127 "Cahokia"

The death rate would have been higher than Europe , since the centers were all connected via fast and easy riverways .

They were slowly recovering when the Spaniards arrived . Smallpox , measles , whooping cough , flu etc then completed the destruction .

Ironically , smallpox , which would have given some measure of protection against the Black Death (since they both compete for receptor site CCR5) , arrived too late .
(Though this might have happened to the Natchez by chance .)

Amazonia .
These were extensive riverine agricultural civilizations on the banks of Amazonian rivers .
These have been recently discovered and described .
All vanished circa 1350 – 1400 CE (ie pre-columbian)
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marajoara_culture for the one at the mouth of the Amazon , where the infection probably started .

Why did MesoAmerica escape ?
Most likely because there was no fast river transport .
By the time transport was organized , carriers were dead . Also , the pneumonic form of Black Death was the main carrier . Fast , lethal . but not persistent .

Proofs :
Genetic:
The genetic structure of the Black Death in Europe has been sequenced .
Finding it in pre-Columbian corpses should be indicative . The same for bubonic plague in rat or other carriers in pre-Columbian carrier corpses .

Documents :
There might be written accounts mouldering away somewhere . The refugees would have been wealthy and literate . Most likely to have been found and brought back to Spain , and there promptly buried for political reasons . (The Black Death was an extremely touch subject in the 1400's and 1500's . The Vatican probably has copies .)

It is still touchy today , 500 years later .
The Spaniards would be absolved of most of the genocides , while the countries of origin of the Black Death refugees (Dutch , English , Irish , maybe some Swedish) could face class-actions claims in the World Court in the Hague .

The Natchez would stand a good chance of success , especially since they have deep enough pockets to fund such a process .

Not to mention the survivors of Amazonia , now savages in the jungle .
Rehabilitation would be a least requirement .

Substantial amounts of moral and monetary capital are involved .

Compensation for accidental or unintential death or injury is one of the bedrocks of any judicial system . The interesting point will be whether a civilization has a statute of limitations .

Chunkey , Western Style , anyone ?

Andre
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## Wednesday, February 22, 2012

### Spandex and Fat

Spandex and Fat
Andre Willers
22 Feb 2012

Synopsis:
Elastic Bands at small pressure reduces lactate concentrates faster , as well as persuading the body to store fats elsewhere.

Discussion :
Evidence:
Lovell of University of Queensland , AU , “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research”
DOI:10.1519/ISC.0b013031821764f8.
NewScientist 21 Jan 2012 p14

Briefly:
They measured lactate levels in the muscles of athletes after fixed exercise . Those with Spandex had significantly lower levels of lactate .
In other words , they were not as fatigued.

What is going on ?
From a purely mechanical viewpoint , pressure would reduce bloodflow , thereby reducing lactate reduction . The opposite is happening . Why ?

The “Feel-Good” Factor .
Endorphin catalysis.
We know from experience that moderate biceps enlargement induces a positive-feedback .
The pressure triggers are on the insides of the upper arm and torso .
Even 20 moderate weight-lifts engenders a feel-good endorphin reaction , and can be sensed on the upper arms .

These trigger points have long been identified by trial and error :
Watch any action movie .
The heroes have bands on the upper arms , upper thighs , mid-torso , upper-forehead .
These essentially reduce muscle fatigue .

Elastic Bands :
Since the trigger is pressure sensors in the skin , a mild elasticity would be more effective than a simple band . The emphasis is on mild . The band should not be too tight . Tighten it every day using velcro .

The effect :
Enhanced endorphin release . The body wants more at a cellular level . Local fat reserves are shifted elsewhere (or used) . There is some evidence that the endorphins act as catalysts in fat release and utilization .

Historically :
Garters spring to mind . Slimming upper thighs .
Upper arm bracelets . Gone out of fashion after the disarming of the common people .
Belts : wide corset belts have shrunk for the same reason .
Hats , berets , etc used to fill the function of headbands . Still does in the military.

Putting it all together :
How to get rid of the flab on upper arms , thighs and belly , while increasing endurance .

1.Headband : an elastic beret is socially acceptable . If you want to make a statement , wear an elastic headband with a suitable slogan . Beret or cap .Works on the frontalis muscles-group .

2.A wide elastic band on the upper arm . Widely available . Worn inside or outside of shirts .
Immediate endorphin feedback .

3.Garters on the upper thighs . For males , spandex underpants would probably be most acceptable . Unless you are a Knight of the Garter .

4.Belts : a mild elastic belt about 3 inches wide worn just below the navel . Tighten as needed .
This is not meant as a support or a corset . Merely a argument to convince the body to move the fat cells elsewhere .

There are other surfaces , but you get the drift .

You will note that I did not tell you to exercise . The endorphin release will take care of that .

Synergistic effect:
The sum is much larger than the parts . Try it .

The Spandex Bonsai Strikes Again !

Andre

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## Tuesday, February 21, 2012

### Potatoes and Bubonic Plague

Potatoes and Bubonic Plague
Andre Willers
21 Feb 2012

Synopsis :
Potato eyes contain chaperone molecules that lock the human CCR5 receptor site .
Bubonic plague pandemics accordingly decreased with potato usage .

Discussion:
Note that Bubonic Plague was the one single pestilence that did not hit the Native American populations post-Columbus .

How does it work ?
High-altitude plants are subject to significantly higher mutation rates due to higher radiation .
They counter by putting sensitive stem cells under ground (shielding) , and surrounding them with chaperones (DNA editors and portal blockers)

CCR5 is one of the major entry-ports into the cell , and has been hijacked by numerous diseases .
It still persists because it plays a major role in fertility (ie allowing entry to strange genetic material during fertilization) . We thus have an intriguing combination of factors: the actual fertilization rate in humans drop as potato consumption increases , but the number of surviving children increases due to better health and food . A population spurt , followed by a decline . The pattern observed everywhere after the potato was introduced on a large scale .

Mongolia :
Bubonic plague central .
Potatoes are now the second staple foodstuff . Their birthrate is very sustainable .
The old high death rate due to plague has been offset by fertility control by the potato.

China :
China is now the largest potato producer in the world (by a factor of 4) .
Note the single-child policy . This is mostly a result of the introduction of potatoes .

But what is in it for the plant?
Remember , humans and potatoes co-evolved during this process of domestication . The arable areas were small mountain valleys . Over-production of either humans or potatoes were not desired . Variety was and disease resistance was .

Sigh .
Nary an eye in sight . I doubt if the chaperones would survive frying .
But they have been engineered to survive boiling , especially at lower altitudes (ie 90C)

Spanish Flu in 1918
To increase efficiency , varieties of potato were bred without eyes . These were fed to the troops and populace . Rendering them extremely vulnerable to an opportunistic CCR5 predator.
We still have them today Correlate the incidences of things like bird-flu , H1N1 , etc with eye-potato intake .

Optimizing :
How to lock your CCR5 receptors .
1.Take a potato with eyes that has not begun to germinate . Make sure it is not green .
Dig out the eyes (3-5 eyes) . Pour a bit of 90C water over them .
(Boil the water and wait a bit)
2.Squeeze a garlic clove over it and drink immediately .
The allicin in garlic decreases opportunistic bacteria trying to achieve a quorum to hijack the CCR5 receptor site .

Why 90C water and not raw ?
Co-evolved plants can only recognize their partners by an action that is unique . Boiling water is unique to humans . It also tells the plant partner to switch off defensive systems . Note teas , etc .

Allergies
If you don't do that , the plant defensive systems trigger allergies , especially in subterranean seeds like peanuts . Note refined (ie heat-treated) peanut oil is not allergenic , even to sensitized individuals .

Coffee
The plants have evolved at high altitudes , where the boiling point is lower .This tells the enzymes involved to uncoil in a precise way . Note the Coffee effect , especially with high-altitude Arabica .(Optimal temperature is about 92-98 C depending on altitude .)

Mongolian Potatoes
Batu (circa 1279 AD) loved meat and potatoes in butter .
After translation , this is horse-milk butter and the potatoes were taro's . Taro was a tuber like a potato , but it only grew in hot , humid climates . Ideal for a potentate to show off a really expensive dish in the Arctic .

If China or the Mongols had potatoes in the 13th century , the whole history of the world would have been different . We would most probably be talking a pidgin of Mongolian-Chinese , instead of the present pidgin of French-German. (Your beloved English .)

It is interesting that sweet-potatoes made it from South-America to the East via the Pacific Islands long before potatoes colonized Asia .

Why did the potato originate in south-America ?
Because the Andes run North-South .
Similar evolutionary conditions prevailed in Tibet , but the mountain ranges run East-West .
See Jared Diamond's arguments about climate effects of latitude-longtitude .

But , we should be able to find interesting tubers in the Rockies , Altai , Urals , Alleghenies.
High diversity biologicals more valuable than that of a rather uniform Amazon .
The Alleghenies should be particularly valuable . Biological pockets older than most mountain ranges on Earth .

Look and you shall find .

Andre

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Appendix I
Some interesting Tibetan Biologicals
Major ones include tuber of elevated gastrodiae, safflower, bulb of fritillary, pseudo-ginseng, rhubarb, root of hairy asiabell, large-leaved gentian, root of red-rooted salvia, glossy ganoderma and reticulate millettia. These medicinal herbs are so high in production that, after satisfying the needs of the Tibetan-inhabited areas, there is still a surplus to be exported to other parts of China. Some are even sold overseas.
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Appendix II
The Champ
Later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species proved a single origin for potatoes in the area of present-day southern Peru (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex), where they were domesticated 7,000–10,000 years ago

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## Thursday, February 16, 2012

### Nerve Repair and Augmentation.

Nerve Repair and Augmentation .
Andre Willers
16 Feb 2012

Synopsis:
A simple , fast way to repair , graft , split , multiply-rejoin and add interfaces to nerves .
Essential for the Post-Human .

Discussion :
The source:
Work done by Bittner and Thayer of the University of Texas , Austin .
See :
1.”Journal of Neuroscience Research” DOI:10.1002/jnr.23022 and DOI:10.1002/jnr.23023
2.”NewScientist” 11 Feb 2012 P8 “Nerve damage healed in weeks”

A brief description of how it works:

0.A nerve is severed

1.Block normal repair by stopping the vesicles forming which normally form to seal the severd nerve-ends .
This is done by bathing the nerve ends in a calcium-free salty solution which contains methylene blue . This stops oxidation and calcium presence , which are requirements for vesicle formation .

2.Graft and Glue .
The unsealed nerve-ends are glued together using polyethylene glycol (PEF) , which bonds the outer insulating nerve-sheaths .

3.Restart normal healing .
Inject a calcium rich salty solution without methylene blue . Natural nerve function resumes within weeks .

4.Use Growth factors to speed things up .

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Consequences :
Mind-boggling , to say the least .
I deliberately used the “graft” terminology above , to suggest that the whole toolbox of plant-grafting can be transposed and used as a template .

Eg , growing a nerve in vitro , splicing , bifurcations , etc .

Applications:
1.Nerve repair .The most immediate . Even long-damaged nerves can be repaired by splicing in a graft .
2.Interfaces can be spliced in .
The old mind-computer interface.
The easiest would be a Blue-tooth interface with an auditory nerve.
3.Amygdala repair via artificial synapses . Artificial amygdalas around artificially grown brains (on the chakra points)
4.Immune system enhancement . Programmable dentritic immune cells .
5.Reflex enhancement . Another quicky .A parallel effector-affector nervous system using wires or wireless for military or sports . A bit of training will be required , but well within human parameters
6.Vision . Another quicky . Most of the nerves are clearly delineated , and their function well understood . A really immersive game is then possible .
7.Alzheimer and Parkinson repairs are a snap .
8.Intelligence enhancement .A bit trickier .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “The Skull Trap” 4 Feb 2012
Even intra-skull enhancement by various brain structures and layers work at sub-optimal levels .
Adding extra-skull layers and nodes amplifies the problems .
In other words , instead of increasing intelligence , the contraption fissions into various semi-autonomous units , each of lower intelligence . Then we have to use something like sleep to get them back into synch . A super-intelligent being that can only stay awake a few seconds seems less than optimal , especially since we would be subject to it's nightmares .

A possible resolution of the autonomy-hierarchy problem has been found by Ostrum .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “The Ostrum Game” Oct 2011 : repeated in Appendix I for your convenience .
This is important . It is a way out of the Inner and Outer Skull traps .
A way out of the tyrannies of synaptic democracy and structural hierarchies .
Besides which , you won't become really smart without it , no matter how many dongles you add on

This is a truly world-changing technology .
The paralysed will walk , the blind see , the deaf hear .

What a nerve !

Andre

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Appendix I
The Ostrum Game
Andre Willers
30 Oct 2011

“One Game shall bind them all .” , ( with apologies to Tolkien)
“This time , we know for sure the grass is greener somewhere”
“A Revolution , any Revolution.”

Synopsis :
A Game for Grown-ups .
The Eight Ostrum Design Principles are Meta-rules that generate self-consistent sets of rules that encompasses competition , co-operation , catastrophe , hierarchies and other systems undreamt of , all between discrete , interacting , self-organising systems .
Your avatar can go from SecondLife to Simworld , to War Worlds , to any desired locale .
Reality becomes a subset .

Discussion :
1.An incredible amount of money can be made .While money still has some meaning .
Without too much work . See Para 8 in Appendix A
Each Game Company is a base nested institution .
They bind easily together , releasing a lot of energy and money .
Explosive Feedback Synergism .
A run-up to the Singularity .

2.Feedback between Games and Reality :
The Meta-rules make no differentiation between Game-characters and Real-characters .
Indeed , many Real-characters have been spun into Game-characters , and vice-versa .
Think Sherlock Holmes , MacGyver , Gauss , young Werther etc
See “mirror-neuron networks” , any soap opera , etc .

Real-life problems get treated the same way as Game problems . The more diverse and sophisticated the Game interactions become , the more effect on any real or Game system .
Eventually , they become undistinguishable as technology progresses .

3.The Grass is provably greener somewhere .
Long known as a wishful thinking fallacy , until Ostrum published the Design Principles in 1990 .
This was the trigger event of under-the-surface knowledge about Ostrum Rules building up .
Suddenly , it became possible .

A Phase-change in the noosphere occurred .

It meant that a Disaster of the Commons or an Empire was not inevitable . Grandchildren could survive .

WE CAN MAKE THE GRASS GREENER , EVEN IF WE HAVE TO PAINT IT ONE BLADE AT A TIME .

Enormous tensions began surfacing . These effects are still playing out now .
A really , really major Hysterical Focus started forming , and is still intensifying .

Now , are you surprised that 1990 was the year of huge revolutions , when the USSR collapsed ?

The Ostrum Game beat the Ring of Power .

And you have not seen anything yet .

The pace of Revolutions is intensifying .
A good thing , if Homo wishes to escape extinction .

4.Automating Ostrum Rules :
They might be Meta-rules , but they are still rules .
We can certainly write programs that can serve to guide past most of the pitfalls and suggest alternatives .

5.Multicellular Bodies as Commons :
We can certainly analyze bodies in terms of Commons . The Dear Reader will find many interesting things if he does that .
Note the emphasis on communication .
Talk to your body . Aloud . And listen in the silences in between .
Create a virtual body and note the interactions .
Use the Ostrum Design principles .

6.Singularity :
It is immediately obvious that humans are then not limited to Real biochemical definitions of personality . The emphasis on communication means that personalities are distributed across Real and Game spaces . The Game space personality segments are only limited by internal non-contradictory rules . That can be done via Ostrum Design principles .

Not exactly instantaneous , but I can intuit that the time can be calculated . It would be less than real time .
The putative developing system would have ethical constraints on abandoning Real-part personalities under Ostrum Rules .
Told you it would be kindler , gentler .

7.Phase Change :
The system has already undergone an irrevocable phase change in 1990 .
You can fast-forward the rest .

8.Did Ostrum know what she was unleashing ?
The Revolutionary aspects , nearly certainly .
In her quiet way , she is one of the greatest Revolutionaries in Homo Sapiens history . Worthy of being called a Matriarch .

The Singularity aspect is more uncertain . She certainly knew that she unleashed major fairness , but the phase-change in the Noosphere I do not know .
Still , a tour-de-force .

How do feel like being a pet of your avatar ?

Andre .

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Appendix A
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elinor_Ostrom
To quote from Wiki : (comments in brackets are my own ).

“ Ostrom identifies eight "design principles" of stable local common pool resource management:[10]
1. Clearly defined boundaries (effective exclusion of external un-entitled parties;
2. Rules regarding the appropriation and provision of common resources that are adapted to local conditions; (Equal sharing of debts and rewards)
3. Collective-choice arrangements that allow most resource appropriators to participate in the decision-making process; (Consensus decisions-no leveraged hierarchies)
4. Effective monitoring by monitors who are part of or accountable to the appropriators; (Policing)
5. A scale of graduated sanctions for resource appropriators who violate community rules; (Opportunity to learn from mistakes )
6. Mechanisms of conflict resolution that are cheap and of easy access; (Fair and Fast Justice . See how Inquisitorial Justice systems like Chinese , French or Sharia does it.)
7. Self-determination of the community recognized by higher-level authorities; (Autonomy within clearly defined levels . Something like a Federation.)
8. In the case of larger common-pool resources,organization in the form of multiple layers of nested enterprises, with small local CPRs at the base level. (Clear and quick relations with others. A potential sticky point with states.)
Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action Ostrom, Elinor, Cambridge University Press, 1990 “

The most important book in the Twentieth Century .

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## Monday, February 06, 2012

### Superfast Athletes II

Superfast Athletes II
Andre Willers
6 Feb 2012

“Hamda , hamda , riba , riba! “ Speedy Gonzales .

Synopsis :
Really fasts fast-twitch muscles (ie bat sound muscles) have a constant energy supply , but a variable output .The incremental surplus is dumped into fat cells . These use the hormone Irisin to burn away unneeded energy as heat . Lack of the hormone limits fast-twitch muscles .

Discussion :
See NewScientist 14 Jan 2012 p11 “Hormone can mimic the effects of a good workout.”
Briefly , the hormone Irisin (named for the Ancient Greek messenger goddess Iris ) stimulates the the conversion of white fat cells into brown fat cells . Brown fat cells burn energy to produce heat .
This reduces the upper limitations on fast-twitch muscles
See Appendix I below for your convenience

Dermal cooling :
Non-hairy skin of mammals are rich in expansible blood vessels (palms , soles , genitals , lips)
The palms have been used (USA patented) via a low-pressure refrigerated cuff to rapidly cool football player's temperatures within 5 minutes . (LA team)

More interestingly , this should stimulate fast-twitch muscle growth and concomitant brown cell fat concentrations . Ie , faster reflexes . Bigger appetites . Cold showers will help .

Note the speed of cold-adapted animals . (ie bears)

The Neanderthals would have been blindingly fast compared to Homo Saps .

An interesting thought :
There is another surface of skin without hair : the intestinal tract .

Horribillisimus!
Drinking iced water will make you fat .
It will also initiate insulin resistance , eventually diabetes II .
The body produces more brown fat cells and fast twitch muscles , but can't get rid of the heat fast enough . Negative feedback processes cascade backwards . Carbohydrate intake is curtailed (insulin resistance) . Appetite for proteins and fats decreases , but not for more carbs (brain mechanism)

Reprogramming the system :
Run cool water for about twenty seven breaths over the hands after eating carbs or drinking anything cold .
Can the genetic programming be reversed ?
I do not know . But I am certainly going to try .
There is some evidence that epigenetic activation between various twitch-speed muscle cells is possible , using simple temperature pulses .

Hot drinks or food will not reverse the system , but will inhibit it .The long-term effect was a loss of the cold adapdation , until humans cleverly invented refrigeration .

Fast-twitch and intelligence :
Fast-twitch muscles require fast nerve services . This translates into a type of higher intelligence (solving problems quicker)

This has obvious relevance to various disorders of the myeloid sheaths .

A parfait surprise !

Andre

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Appendix I
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Superfast Athletes “ Oct 2011

Superfast Athletes -The Chirp Effect .
Andre Willers
25 Oct 2011

“We can do it , because it has been done.”

Synopsis :
The terminal buzz .
Chirp Focus .
A peak of up to 200 contractions and relaxations per second of the bat's sonic muscles vs 40 Hz for hummingbird wings . It has been done with mammalian muscles .

Discussion :
All mammals can sense this crescendo (ie chirp)
The muscle cycles is timed to the sensory system .
The boundaries for sustained activity is not energy supply (this is more than sufficient – see previous posts on mitochondria) , but the removal of wastes , particularly those that govern the fat storage mechanism (ie the garbage system)

This means that a good athlete will be fatter after strenuous exercise .

Let's go batshit .
Guano , to be more precise .
This contains some genes , amino acids , what you will , that breaks down fat cells (ie takes out the garbage) better than anything we have at present . Probably a symbiote in the guano .
Bats need a closed space like a cave to accumulate a sufficient density of the symbiote to generate high enough muscle contractions (200 Hz) to hunt .

Dinosaurs and bats
Finding this x-factor seems difficult , until we remember that dinosaurs could not afford to get tired . A requirement for being large , Inversely , dinosaurs did not get tired . This is a plus in an energy rich environment , but a minus in an energy poor environment

See http://andreswhy.blogspot/com “The Flower , the Dinosaur and Puff” Dec 2008

Bats utilized some genes from the skin ecology of dinosaurs to get these high frequencies .

A Fat cure for Humans
This is trivial . Trawl through the guano and find DNA sequences not common to bats .
Chirp in from there . Craig Venter could do it an afternoon . But the consequences ….

Fungi death of bats , bees , etc
This is trivial . You have been warned against this in previous posts . Disturbance of Gaia's Reserves on non-angiosperm systems have been noted . Mammals, never mind Humans , are an amusing experiment on Gaia's part . If core reserves are touched , swift consequences follow .

Kindly look at planetary biomasses , especially the inversions in the ocean systems .
Humans might think they are the cat's whiskers , but they are actually teetering on the edge of extinction at the present moment .

Never mind .As a mammal you are entitled to get tired of this crap .
Andre .

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## Saturday, February 04, 2012

### Multiple Amygdalas

Multiple Amygdalas
Andre Willers
5 Feb 2012

“The pain passes , but the beauty remains.” Renoir .

Synopsis :
Fractal transcendance via heuristic stochastic resonance .

Discussion :
A nice mouthful , but what does it mean ?
Another way of putting it , is that nothing ever goes according to Plan if you want to succeed .

But why ?
1.Fractal : needs delineated centers
2.Transcendance : transcending paradoxes generated by centers.
3.Heuristic: The Universum is always larger . No Theory of Everything possible .Try and try again .
4.Stochastic : directed chance . See Beth(x)
5.Resonance : a resultant effect from the above . Note that no time dimension has been postulated

Putting it all together :
The minimum necessary , sufficient number of delineated centers to describe any multiverse is 27 .
This follows from the delineation axiom . 27 variables are required for a description of all prime numbers .Regardless of how they are distributed .

There is that pesky non-delineated item , but we can bundle that into one (the Joker)

How does this work ?
The centers generate paradoxes , which are resolved by trial-and-error methods by large number of units .(That's us) . The contraption bootstraps up .

At present moment , we are at seven chakras . Another twenty to go . Sigh .

Self-assembly :
There is a theoretical self-assembly point .
When the reserve of 27 dimensions are reached .
This would be 1/3 of 27 = 9
Nine chakras would lead to self-assembly into a trannscendant being .

We can create as many chakras as we can handle .

The candidates for humans are obvious :
The feet and the hands ,
The fingertips and the toetips .
The palms and the instep .

Do not neglect the bacteria :
The intestinal tract , at the veriform appendix .
They are your fly-wheel . Stability center .

The thing gets slivered up into Riemann quantum orbitals

Love is a many-splendored thing .

Andre
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### TOR

TOR
Andre Willers
4 Feb 2012

Synopsis :
A phene-level metacontrol of cellular maturity definition .

Discussion :
TOR : Target Of Rapamycin
Rapamycin : a chemical isolated from the soil of Easter Island (Rapa Nui) in 1972 as a growth inhibitor for fungi and mammals .
Genes : TOR1 , TOR2 , etc . Genes that encode for TOR in the form of
TORC1 , TORC2 , etc , which are complexes of molecules .

These have meta-control functions :
TORC1 , for instance , monitors nutrient availability and regulates insulin , growth factors , autophagy . Neat work for a protein .
See Scientific American , Jan 2012 p22 or online .

Too neat . The decision trees are too large for a single protein .
It is much more likely that some sort of quorum mechanism is at work , defining the maturity point .
Located on the cell-walls : see Phene Systems in Appendix I repeated below for your convenience .

The argument is that a very old mechanism (pre-yeast) can and does regulate DNA and mitochondria mechanisms (autophagy) . But the critical point is the definition at biochemical level of maturity.
And it is not a point , but a fuzzy locus , that can be extended in any direction .

But maturity points would be a fairly recent invention , in evolutionary terms .
We can see it's effects in early sexual maturity and dwarfism .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Chitter Goo” Feb 2012

What does this mean to you and me ?
1.Eat mature mushrooms with garlic butter .
Cooking temperature not to exceed 30C .
This will elongate fuzzy maturity locus towards the old age direction .(Activates mTORC1)
2.Take MSM and various micro-nutrients to prevent bottlenecks .
3.Smoke , drink . (Deactivates mTORC1) .
Use APS and activate other amygdala's (chakras) .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Why radiation nauseates” Feb 2012

For the Conspiracy Theorists :
Why was Rapamycin found on Easter Island ?
Because it was the furthest remove from human quorum effects .
Their population explosion due to longevity was due to their remoteness .
Will the same be true of space colonies ?

The top-knots of the Easter Island statues were originally anti-agathic suppositories , revamped by a committee of politicians .

Andre .

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Appendix I
Phene Systems II
Andre Willers
4 Feb 2011

Synopsis :
Cellular meta-control mechanisms (Phenes) situated on the cell- and nucleus wall are expanded on in more depth .

Discussion :

The article "The Inner life of the Genome" by Tom Miseli in the Feb 2011 Scientific American (p46) pulled together a number threads previously discussed in this blog .

Briefly , he found that DNA is organized in the following physical arrangements in a working cell-nucleus :
DNA -> Wound around Histone Spools -> Histone Spools fold to form Chromatin strings -> Heterochromatin strings (a very tightly folded Chromatin strings) (see para 6 below)

Heterochromatin is so tightly wound that the DNA is inaccessible to transcription factors (ie inert , switched off) . They are found mostly near the nucleus wall . The Chromatin strings form delineated tangles , with preferred positions in the nucleus space .

Near the center are volumes called Transcription factories .
This is where the rubber hits the tar .
Volumes rich in aggregations of cellular components , polymerase enzymes and transcription factors . How did they get there ? See point 4 below about Chaperones and Self-organization .

Genes on the outer Heterochromatin string , on activation from the Phene system , unwinds to make the DNA accessible . The chromatin string simultaneously also migrates inward to a transcription factory (presumably triggered by the phene signal) and gets expressed .
This has been described as the Histone Code forming the epigenetic system

From evolutionary considerations , meta-control systems on cell-level and nucleus level are taken to be related .
Not only are they descended from the same ur-mechanisms , but if they were not related , that would add another expensive translation layer between cell-wall and nucleus-wall , with concomitant chances of error .
Evolutionary pressures would have elided any such mutation .

(Sounds logical , but is it true ? I suspect it is usually true , but exceptions will be found .
The perversity of animate matter exceeds that of inanimate matter by orders of magnitude)

The Histone System can then be seen as an important subset of the Epigenetic System
But the epigenetic system can have signals that are not relevant to cells .
See "Tunneling nanotubes"

See the following main threads :
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Rife and the Histone Code" Jan 2011
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Phene System" Nov 2009 (reproduced in Appendix A below for convenience .)
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "ATP as a neurotransmitter" Jan 2010
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Tunneling nanotubes" Nov 2010
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Coffee foam" Aug 2009
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Intralipid II" Feb 2011
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Chaperones , Unpacking and Asthma" Aug 2008

Points to note :
1; "Distributed viruses" as theorized in "ATP as a Neurotransmitter" can be better described as pleomorphic organisms as set out in "Rife and the Histone code"

2;Intralipid is important because of its ability to hide epigenetic triggers . Notice the importance of phosphatydilserine (see "Phene Systems") . What would be the effect of  phosphatydilserine with Intralipid-type mechanisms ?

3; Switching off genes near the cell-wall is a typical evolutionary fail-safe control .
(A process is inhibited , unless that inhibition is inhibited in turn)

4; When a gene in the outer-tangle of Heterochromatin strings is activated , the loop it is in drops in nearer to a Transcription factory .
How does it know where to go ?
One theorizes that initially it is self-organizing (ie a hit-or-miss affair) . But various Beth levels will force an evolution of chaperones (see http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Chaperones , Unpacking and Asthma" Aug 2008 )
So , one envisages a mixture of chaperones(2/3) and self-organization (1/3) (http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "NewTools reserves" Nov 2008 . Error arguments.)

5; Chromosome abnormalities (like cancer) . Without a chaperone the dangling loop is vulnerable to breaking and then joining up with an unsuitable partner . Like in any bad marriage , the children suffer .

6.Stem Cells :
The above description is for a mature , functioning differentiated cell .
Things are different just before and after divisions .
In Embryonic stem-cells , there are no Heterochromatin strings .
All the genes are active , but the shebang is not very robust .

On receiving a phene-signal to differentiate the cell , lamin proteins are formed and fold Chromatin strings -> Heterochromatin strings and also tether them to the nucleus wall . The nucleus becomes much more robust .
Lamin proteins can then be classified as chaperones .
But notice how easily nearly any cell can be turned back into a pluripotent cell .
The body does this all the time (lately , stem cells have been created out of cells found in  urine .This is very unlikely for a storage mechanism .)

From Wikipedia :
"The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. Thelamin family of proteins make up the matrix and are highly conserved in evolution. During mitosis, the lamina matrix is reversibly disassembled as the lamin proteins are phosphorylated. Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression."

The lamins are thriftily reprocessed during mitosis . This means there is an programmed biological pathway to reverse differentiation (ie create stem cells) . Which why stem cells are so easily created .

The only problem now is why the body does not do it more frequently (ie why grow old?) It seems that the phene system has a memory , and the new cells after mitosis are reprogrammed .

Any helpful suggestions are welcome .
(Old age sucks.)

7; Heat pulses and Timing .
From para 4 above (Self-organization) , random movement due to heat promotes self-organization .
The molecules creating timing mechanisms are evolutionary very old (recent findings) . Heat pulses at harmonics of the diurnal rhythm should entrain the self-organizing process and reduce copying errors quite drastically .
(Remember , a modest 10 degree Celsius rise in temperature doubles chemical activity on a molecular level)

The Tea Ceremony .
An existing and proven technology .

The number of seconds in a day = 3^3 * 2^7 * 5^2 = 86 400
Sipping a very hot liquid every x seconds will pulse with resonances at
X= 2,3,4,5,6, 8,9,10,12.15,16,18,20,24, 25,27,30,… seconds
About 2-3 seconds per sip seems doable . The liquid must be kept hot and the sip rate maintained . This is ok for stomach systems .

We know long-term nerve potentiating is about 10 minutes , so if nervous system is targeted , sip slower (but not longer than 6 seconds between sips) and the tea must be kept at the same temperature . Eg for 6 seconds between 2.5 ml sip , you will drink 10*60/6*2.5 = 250 ml (about one cup .)

Will a Tea Ceremony with iced tea have the same effect ?
If the nervous system is targeted , yes . Entrainment is the goal . So the bigger the temperature difference , more the body will notice . Remember the caffeine .

The maximum effect if you want to target the nervous system (relax, etc) would be then to do the Tea Ceremony and make each alternate sip iced tea and very hot tea as described above . Each in a demi-tasse .

I'm afraid Tea Ceremony purists in Japan and China will not welcome this conclusion

In other cases , you can experiment , but I estimate that hot alone will work .

Bar flies , hot chocolate and hot/iced coffee I leave for enthusiastic students .

Or else you can pulse infrared at these rates and frequencies derived from Rife's work

Or else sit in the sun with a shade that fluctuates (old style Eastern potentate , or rotating sun-umbrella with variable panels)

Or else watch TV . Heat radiation on old cathode-ray TV's will resonate at 25 , 27 ,30 times per second .
Children sitting close will be more susceptible .
Watching TV on CRT's makes them healthier ?  Some independent verification is required here .
Computer screens and games ditto .

That was fun !

Andre

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Appendix A
Phene Systems.
Andre Willers
5 Nov 2009

Synopsis :
Cellular-wall control systems(phenes) of epigenetic and virus systems are becoming known and described .

Discussion :
See NewScientist 8 Aug 2009 p 41 "Kills all known germs" by B Holmes .
Relevant research by Philip Thorpe at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas .

The argument is simple : self-replicating structures started on the walls of bubbles (probably clay : Gecko life) . These developed into the present day epigenetic control structures of processes inside the bubbles (ie cells) .
Viruses are messengers/controls both for intra-cellular and extra-cellular use .
Which is why they are usually wrapped in variants of the cell-wall .

Phosphatidylserine :
From the NewScientist article , this is a molecule mostly found sticking out of the inner lining of the cell-wall . Virus budding entails that this molecule is then found in particular patterns sticking out of the outside the outer cell-wall .

We expect such a mechanism if the cell-wall harbours the meta-controls (ie epigenetics) of the cell and some multicellular activity (ie virus messenger generation).

Humans have created antibodies that inactivate or target-for-destruction the bits of the Phosphatidylserine molecule sticking out of the cell-wall .

This will break the feedback-cycle of a large range of harmful viruses (apparently including HIV , Flu's , some cancers) .
Bavituximab ( a name only a Pharma could love) does exactly this . Expect to see a lot of it .

The question is :
Why are these antibodies not part of the body's normal immune system ?
The virus system is also used for information carrying .

Suppressing the virus system completely will destroy a multicellular organism , and make it revert to a collection of individual cells , even down to elemental chemicals if done properly . (Cf Ebola , SuperEbola ,  etc)

This can be bypassed by shining intense , quantum-entangled infra-red light through the mess (see previous posts) .

The normal system has to play a delicate balancing act between destruction from bad viruses and good,communication viruses .

If the baddies get too big an influence , intervention might be required . This is the duty of the epigenetic system . Why is it falling down on the job ?

The Dendritic Immune sytem
This is the connection between the synapse-type learning systems and the phene-system in the cell walls .

The dendritic immune  system's effectiveness is magnified by at least 3 orders of magnitude by a continuous sharp pressure-differential . The search space is drastically reduced by stochastic resonance . (The proof is either immediately obvious or very long).

Hence modern music and it's prevalence .

Your chances of survival is about 10^3 better if you listen to some semi-random rock.
Hence iPod and others . This is a real effect .

But we can do better than that by internal Click programming .
You know : Clicking the tongue , beak , teeth , exoskelet .

There is no animal with synapses or an immune system that makes no clicks at some stage .
This is actually quite amazing .

Plants:
We would then expect plants to be noisy . And they are , on very low frequencies . This is how desert elephants survive : they hear the bulbous plants growing by the low-frequency pulses sensed through their feet . A patch of bulbs would have a signature low-frequency pulse observable from a long way off . (The bulbs would evolve-learn to spurt growth at the same time . This would lessen the chance of detection and eating by close-by herbivores not as smart as elephants)

Click-talking plants .
Better than just talking to them . But try some castanets . Tap-dancing will work too , but the neighbours will think you're really crazy tap-dancing to the plants . Tojours .

A common complaint , usually explained away as stress . Actually , your teeth are trying to click together . A part of the body's housekeeping routine . Programming the gums and intestinal tract .

Just for the hell of it , click your teeth together 5 times together with 5 double-tongue clicks interspersed as you feel . Count them . You will feel an immediate stress-relief feeling . Blood pressure will drop . Be careful if medication to lower blood pressure is taken .

I just thought of the above , and tried it .
The teeth (molars mostly) must click against each other . You will notice there is a damage-control protocol hardwired in . The teeth will click , but not hard enough to cause damage . This already tells us that this is an old system .

The natural tendency will be for a double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .

Be careful of hypotension of the cardiovascular system . The stress relief is very pronounced . Especially around the neck and upper shoulder muscles .

Teeth-grinding should cease .

But why ?
I did not expect this . But the effect is so pronounced that I cannot ignore it .
The neck and shoulder muscles do not relax through  an effort of will or exercise . They just relax . (Sort of melt) .

Maybe a double bite-bite on empty air signals the end of an aggressive episode , and for expensive fight-or-flight mechanisms to stand down .

This would make this fairly deep-wired , certainly deeper than psychological stress .

Phene effects .
The stand-down is an immediate stand-down , regardless of the number previous stress-generating events . This must be true , since this is the epigenetic programming system . There is no other memory system .

Phene programming of immune-systems , bone-growth , digestion , neural growth etc ,are immediately affected . Genes are switched from crisis to maintenance . Using the carbohydrate-energy mechanism is a short-term crisis mechanism .

Standing down the mechanism should ameliorate conditions like Diabetes II .

Or getting fat .

Want to get thin ?
The algorithm :
Double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .
Repeat  at least ten times a month .
That’s it .

Can it be this simple?
Yes .

Why has nobody thought of it before ?
As far as I am aware , nobody in our recorded history has thought that the click of teeth together can have physiological effects . Prehistoric societies were probably aware of the effect .

Yet it does , as you can find out for yourself .
The same for the simplicity . Simple causes has wide effects , because they are so basic . You must look at the whole argument .

In any case , there is hardly any risk .
I am doing it . Tojours!

Hasta la vista !
Coming or going .

Andre .

### Smart Bullets

Smart Bullets
Andre Willers
4 Feb 2012

Synopsis :
Vernor Vinge's Smart Bullets have stimulated the Real-Time version .

Discussion :
In 1984 Vernor Vinge wrote an extrapolation called “The Peace War” , that featured smart bullets as an aside .

This stimulated fans to create the reality .

http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2399607,00.asp
“Sandia National Laboratories said Monday that the facility has developed a self-guiding bullet, whose accuracy actually improves the longer it flies.
Red Jones and Brian Kast, with help from five others, designed the four-inch-long bullet, which includes an optical sensor, a battery, an 8-bit CPU, and small actuators to guide the flight. The creators estimated that the bullet could strike a target a mile away, with far greater accuracy than a ballistic bullet - within 8 inches of that target, as opposed to 9.8 yards using a conventional bullet.”

RASEF
Reality Amplification by Stimulated Emission from Fantasy .

The bullet with your name on it .
Not only has it your name , but your picture , too .

How it works :
Still fairly primitive .
The shooter sees the target through some electronic scope , downloads the image to the bullet and fires it in the general direction of the target . The bullet does the rest .

Initially , the success rate will be high , but soon counter-measures will take place .

Machine-guns :
Many bullets in the air , but one target . What happens to the superfluous bullets ?

Cloud bullets :
Given the military mind-set , it seems a pity to waste all those bullets . So , the next step is a cloud of bullets with hierarchies of targets .
If one bullet tells the others that the target has been neutralized , the rest switch to lower-level targets .
The hierarchies being in morphs of the Target Zero face (ie family of the target )

After that , a loiter capability of even seconds will drastically alter the tactical protocols .

Friendly fire :
The battlefield air will be full of smart bullets , running into low-order targets . Also manufactured by the lowest bidder . With Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) , errors will happen .
The target will then be in banded probability zones .

This is reminiscent of Riemann orbitals .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Orders of Randomness 2” Aug 2008

Self-destruct :
Desirable , but difficult . How do you recall a bullet ?

Super-image decoy .
Easier to decoy them past the loiter time .

Theory :
See Fractal Compression and Decompression .
A super-image of any image can be formed , given the recognition parameters .

Gait parameters :
Facial recognition can easily be masked , but gait is difficult . Gait is also easier to recognize by the bullet . Random gait (smart shoes ,etc) brings us right back to Riemann orbitals .

Remember , these are cheap bullets meant to be fired by the million .

You will probably soon have iPhone apps that can give some measure of protection .

Chameleon , ho!

Andre
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### Paper II

Paper II
Andre Willers
4 Feb 2012

Synopsis:
The first of the new generation of paper-applications have just been launched.
In this case , cheap , mass-produced diagnostic biomedical tests .

Discussion :
For the tests , see Popular Science Dec 2011 , p74 and p78
Briefly , the company “Diagnostics for all” manufactures a paper chip the size of a postage stamp .
Cost about 1cent US , 5c US at retail . Put a drop of blood on it , and 15 minutes later it changes color to indicate result of test .
Invented by George M Whitesides of Harvard .
Liver function chips have been delivered to India , with tests for dengue fever , diabetes , anemia , etc , etc to follow .

See Appendix I , repeated below for your convenience .
Also , http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “A4” Oct 2009

Printing technology of about comic-book (Manga) standard required .

Post-office stamps : the Penny Health Service .
The declining postal services can be re-invigorated by the value-added Health Stamp .
Saliva can be used instead of blood for many diseases .
Automated sorting machines at central post offices can then keep a watchful eye on pandemics .
CDC take note .

Reassure your loved ones with the Health Stamp .
A free diagnostic with every stamp .

Best of all , Government subsidies will be available .

Indeed , they will be nuts not to use this tool .

Peanut or coconut ?

Andre

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Appendix I
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Paper” Jan 2009

Paper .
Andre Willers
24 Jan 2009

Definition :
Paper is simply a felt made of matted cellulose fibres derived from plants .

Sources :
1.The definitive source is "Handmade paper today" by Silvie Turner and Birgit Skiold (Lund Humphries , London 1983 SBN 85331 465 x )
2.Internet sources .

History :

1. First came papyrus (about 5 000 years ago)
From http://www.touregypt.net
An article on the Papyrus Museum by Lara Iskander .

Who can resist the name of an author like Lara Iskander ?

The Papyrus Museum
by Lara Iskander
The English word papyrus is derived via Latin, from the Greek, papuros. The Arabic word is ‘Bardy’ or also ‘Warak Bardy’ meaning Papyrus paper.

It is often claimed that Egyptians referred to papyrus as pa-per-aa, literary meaning, ‘that which is of Pharaoh’, apparently indicating that the Egyptian crown owned a monopoly on papyrus production, though no actual ancient text using this term is known.

Papyrus was very important to the ancient Egyptians as it helped transform Egyptian society in many ways. Once the technology of papyrus making was developed, its method of production was a closely guarded secret allowing the Egyptians to have a monopoly on it as it became the lifeblood for ancient Egypt. It was even exported to many locations in the ancient world. The raw material of papyrus paper comes from the plant Cyperus papyrus, a long stemmed plant that grows in damp regions of the Nile Delta in Egypt.
This plant which grew to 4 or 5 meters in height survived in Egypt thanks to the dry climate. The plant is harvested in the fall, (October, November and December) after the flood season. Ancient Egyptians discovered how to make paper from the stems of the plant as early as 3000 B.C.

Despite the fact that the plant was mainly used in the production of paper, it was also a major component in the manufacturing of boats, rope and baskets. The roots of the plant were also burned for fuel, and from dried papyrus mats were made, mattresses, boxes, tables and sandals. On the other hand, the papyrus sheets were the preferred writing materials of the ancient world because they were light, strong, thin, durable, and easy to carry.

The regular format for ancient works of literature was the papyrus roll. It was usual to write on that side of the sheet on which the fibers ran horizontally (recto); the other side (verso) was used only exceptionally. If a sheet of papyrus has writing on both sides but in different hands, it is generally be assumed that the writing on the recto is the earliest.

Right: Illustration of Nefertari on Boat; Left: Illustration of Akhenaton on a Chariot
Eventually, the papyrus plant disappeared from the area of the Nile as the Egyptians gradually abandoned the production and neglected the cultivation of papyrus plantations shortly after the Arabs introduced the pulped paper process in the 10th century, which they had learned from their Chinese prisoners. Pulped paper gained fame for its higher durability, particularly in moist climates, and the fact that it could be manufactured anywhere.

There have been several attempts to revive the manufacture of papyrus during the past 250 years. A Scottish explorer named James Bruce experimented in the late 18th century with papyrus plants from the Sudan. Following that was another attempt, also in the 18th century, by a Sicilian man named ‘Saverio Landolina’ in Syracuse, where papyrus plants had continued to grow in the wild. However, the modern technique of papyrus production used in Egypt today was developed in 1962 by Dr. Hassan Ragab, an Egyptian Engineer who was long fascinated by the mysterious techniques of the ancient Egyptians.
In order to reinvent the art of papyrus-paper making in Egypt, he first obtained the roots of the plant from Sudan and Ethiopia and established what is considered to be one of the largest man papyrus plantations in the world at Jacob Island at Giza, also known as the Pharaonic Village.

Left: A framed Papyrus artwork; Right: Various Displays in the Museum
Despite the lack of information regarding the old manufacturing methods Dr. Ragab was able to redevelop the production process and officially revive the ancient technique and make once again part of the Egyptian Culture. Today both Sicily and Egypt are almost the only places that continue to have centers of papyrus production.

It is also interesting to note that the papyrus plant is found in the rectangular pool in front of the Cairo Antiquity Museum filled also with lotus plants, both are symbolic of Lower and Upper Egypt respectively, hence why they appear frequently in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and art. The lotus or water lily floats is found in the outer rectangle, while the papyrus is in the inner one.

Left: Front of the Papyrus Museum; Right: Various Pharaonic Costumes for Sale
Dr. Hassan Ragab finally opened his Papyrus Institute in 1968 in attempt to re-establish this ancient technique and to show the public how it was done. Today, the Museum is a government approved shop making and selling authentic papyrus in addition to a variety of pharaonic souvenirs and costumes.

The Hassan Ragab Papyrus Institute, also known as the Papyrus Museum, is located on the west bank of the river Nile, between the Cairo Sheraton and the University bridge, ‘Kobry al-Gama’a’, almost one kilometer from the center of Cairo. It occupies the lower level of one of the biggest Nile houseboats and has a fascinating view of Cairo’s Nile-front buildings. The museum contains the largest collection of papyrus reproductions of all the famous paintings of ancient Egypt. During the 1970's & 1980's this Institute was the third most important touristic site in Egypt, after the Pyramids and the Cairo Antiquity Museum.
Following the success of his papyrus revival venture, he started working on the idea of creating a living museum of Egypt's ancient history. In 1974 he converted Jacob's Island into a replica and living exhibit of an Ancient Egyptian community isolating it from the surrounding views of modern Cairo by planting 5,000 trees.

The Papyrus Museum is an excellent place to visit even if you are not interested in buying as there is no entrance fee or purchase required. However, most tourists do end up buying something given the brilliant quality and variety of the exhibited works. The institute provides a very interesting demonstration , available English, on how the papyrus plant was turned into a writing material by the ancient Egyptians that was able to survive for thousands of years.

This Papyrus making process is also demonstrated in the ‘Pharaonic Village’, though in more authentic surroundings, but the museum offers a good substitution if you are unable to arrange a visit to that location.

Special orders are available at the Museum and one can request special paintings or have your names  written in hieroglyphic or Arabic on the papyrus as a souvenir, which of course makes a very nice lasting memory of your visit to Egypt.

Perhaps the prices at the Papyrus Museum may be a just a bit more than those found from street vendors in other tourist destinations and souvenir shops. However, one can rest assured that there products are of higher quality as they are made of the original Cyperus plant and not Banana stalk or sugar cane that may deteriorate rapidly and is frequently the material offered by street vendors.
Dr. Hassan died in 2004 after a life full of achievements and discoveries. The Papyrus Museum and Pharaonic Village, now operated by his family are still major attractions in Cairo.

Papyrus Museum: 121 Al-Nil Street, Giza.
Tel: 336-7212, 348-9035/8676/8177. Open 9am to 9pm. No entrance fee.
The Pharaonic Village: 3 Al-Bahr Al-A'zam St, Giza. Tel: 571- 8675/6/7. Admission fees vary according to programme. Open: 9am-9pm in summer, 9am-6pm in winter.
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Last Updated: 02/03/2006
2. Felt .
Felt is used in every stage of ancient and modern paper manufacture . This is felt made of coarse ,  matted animal hairs or woven . Paper is simply felt made of cellulose fibres derived from plants . The coarse animal felts are used are used to handle the fragile wet paper sheets in the dehydration process , whether pressing or heating .

Felt manufacture is thus a necessary pre-condition of making paper . (See below)

See previous posts on the role felt manufacture played in nomad development (essential for light , weatherproof shelters) .

See also previous posts on the development of the recurve horn bow from bow-saws .
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Ancient Egyptian Technology"

The suspicion arises that felt yurts and recurve bows were a package that emanated from Egypt via their mercenaries (Like the alphabet). The idea of paper-making might also have traveled along , resulting in the development of Chinese paper-making using other vegetable fibres than papyrus .(Cultural diffusion)

3. Beating half-stuff .
Not child-abuse .
The techies showed a lamentable lack of imagination in the PR department .

It is the process of preparing rags (made of woven vegetable fibres like flax or cotton) by beating them until the fibres separate to a sufficient degree while suspended in water . (developed in China)
The resulting cellulose fibres (stuff) are then scooped up by a sieve (the mould) and agitated to form a matted layer (the sheet) .(Note : the agitation is a chaotic process : see nano-cellulose . Beth(1) intervention is possible.)

The fragile wet sheet is then put onto the wet , coarse felt . (A tricky process called couching.) It is then pressed and dried to form paper .
The coarse felt allows water to drain . It also imprints it's texture onto the paper as a watermark .

4. Watermarks.
Originally this was  the structure of the moulding board and the felts . Manufacturers learned to use it to give uniqueness to their paper . (Eg bank notes ,etc)
It is important to note that it is built into the structure of the paper during manufacture.
The paper has a built-in three-dimensional structure .

5.Nano-cellulose .
Cellulose manufactured on a nano-scale level gives rise to mats (paper or material) that is about 20% as strong as steel .

6. Gecko-armour .
The trick :
Laminate sheets with interlocking watermarks to give armour hundreds of times stronger than possible at present .
This should be possible even without nano-cellulose . Aligning the cellulose fibres during the matting process onto a watermark (with magnetic or electric fields) should give close enough contact to the micro-fibrils to have a gecko-effect .
Any impact on sheets of this material will cause the sheets to try and slide over each other on a micro-scale . The gecko-effect will counteract this . Even normal watermark interlocking will give a very durable armour .

7. Bio-tests on paper .
See NewScientist 13 Dec p25 "Lifesaving tests on paper"
This example uses a rather elaborate manufacturing process to create a cheap paper equivalent to a large array of testing chemicals to do the same job as an array of biochips .
The same can be printed en-masse by using watermark technology .

You would need only to make a small adjustment to present multi-layer printing techniques . Note the analogy with using ink-jet printers for 3D printing .

8. Stuff and 3D printing .
This brings us to an immediate application :
Stuff (cellulose or any other fibres in a fluid suspension) can be loaded into an Ink-jet printer and commercially available software can then build up a 3D item .
Dehydration can be done traditionally , or simply cooked out via micro-waves and a fan .

The mechanical folding can release electrons to power a low-energy process.

10. Cheap once-off video screens .
Pull the video sheet down , watch the show . Crumple it up and recycle it .

11 . Scrollable sun-power .
Make a watermark with micro-pockets of photo-sensitive material and connect them via channels in the watermark . The channels can be logic-gates(ie transistors) , so the whole app can be printed in one go at less than a cent  . Cheap and reliable .

12. Arses-R-Us
Toilet paper printed with analysis pockets connected by watermark logic-processors , powered by folding . The paper communicates with the household system and gives an update . This would actually sell . (Cf Japanese toilet systems . This would be literally flushable .) Health systems note .

Same for tissue paper ("Sneeze-Easy" )
Funeral homes can have "Woe-R-Us" tissues , measuring the stress hormones and signaling for extra sedatives or the police department .

14. Toxic spills.
See NewScientist 13 Dec p25 "Wipe away that pesky toxic spill"
The analysis paper is sandwiched between absorbent material (other paper) .
Analysis is sent to local network-node .

15 . The Raven paper condom .
A condom can be printed that is durable and make an analysis for any known STD's .
The condom would notify the local node , which would analyse the significance of the pattern of reactive dots on the condom paper .
The feedback would be via the bluetooth or something similar .
Why the Raven ? Ask "No More" .

16 . Ecological consequences.
A cellulose based technology might seem at first to be a Good Thing , since very little CO2 is released into the atmosphere . But global cooling will result .

Also , an explosion of termites and their symbiotic bacteria will result .
Paper libraries will be severely affected .

The shortage of available biologically active sulfur will also become worse .
Lignin production is heavily dependant on free-sulfur availability . It is no accident that large trees only became more common after the development of flowers (see
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Death of the Dinosaurs" et al .)

Present day free-sulfur availability is luckily not part of Gaia's reserve system , otherwise humans would have been extinct by now .Ie the biomass now with all the cultured bio-systems is bigger than what the planet normally supports . Gaia does not mind (has no feedback systems against it) , as long as the Gaia reserves (as discussed) are not affected .

17. Cellulose feedback systems .
This includes humans . If some human scientist splices gymnosperm genes into angiosperms to increase seed production , the size of plants will decrease drastically , while yields increase .
This might have happened already during the so-called green revolutions , where the yield of dwarf-hybrids were increased .

What does this mean ?

Do the sums yourself . Many more plants with bigger seed-bearing whatevers needs stronger support . More lignin is needed . The angiosperm vs gymnosperm balance is then tilted toward gymnosperms . The gymnosperm ecology will become more switched-on gene-wise . This means that chickens and birds become larger . This should be measurable . Ask Kentucky Fried Chicken , who keeps very exact records .
The weight gain of birds is larger than what can be explained by breeding .
It explains the success of the growth of the chicken industry , as well as the toughness of the meat .

Small birds will become a bit larger but much more numerous.
Medium size birds (like pigeons) will also become larger and evolve towards raptors . Large birds like the albatrosses will become too large to fly and become land-bound raptors .
This will happen quite rapidly , as evolutionary factors are not involved . Merely the switching on of genes .

I wonder if Alfred Hitchcock had chickens in mind when he made " The Birds" ?

18 . Bird-borne diseases .
Diseases like H5N1 are now the fashion .If human activity has tilted the eco-balance towards the gymnosperm ecology (ie dinosaurs) , we can expect more diseases targeting the CR5 receptor site . And so it has .

But what is the critical factor ?
This is a very old mechanism , since it affects both dinosaurs and mammals . This makes it easier . It must be planetwide , at a cellular level . It must not be affected by immune evolutionary pressures . An elemental shortage fits the bill , one that grows bigger with the increase in planetary biomass .

19 . Sulfur .
The CR5 receptor site deforms enough due to a shortage of sulfur for the cellular wall that it becomes open to any nasty .
Why?
During the smoking fumarole stage of proto-cellular evolution , if sulfur became scarce , there were enough energy states it could assume to require a portal of variable size . This got hard-wired in at a very basic stage . This portal we know as CR5 . It never got shut down , because the organism needed sulfur for scaffolding .

It has become one of Gaia's little balancing tricks . If organisms become very successful , their biomass increases and the concentration of sulfur decreases . This increases susceptibility to CR5 diseases , as the CR5 portal reconfigures to accept ever more exotic sulfur compounds . This includes sulfur-compound mimics (like a meta-material of viruses .
CR5 viruses can be seen as meta-materials of sulfur particles .The configurations can be exactly calculated .)

If an organism is already infected , both the CR5 portal size and virus-metamaterial has to be neutralized . As a rule of thumb , this will require double the normal sulfur load . VitC in humans encourages sulfur uptake (hence its reputation)

20 .Evidence :
As can be imagined , this is scarce . Hard evidence is available in the number of deaths of munition factory workers in 1918 of the Spanish Flu (which targeted CR5) .

The number of deaths were zero .That's right . No munition worker in the UK died of the Spanish Flu (and there were hundreds of thousands). In true human fashion , this inconvenient truth got swept under the carpet .

From what we know now , and other anecdotal evidence , the critical factor was exposure to large concentrations of sulfur compounds readily worked into biologically active forms .

21. VitC
This is a intestinal bacterial killer . But it seems to be targeted at bacteria responsible for reworking sulfur compounds without absorbing them into body .
Hence the immunity of monkeys to HIV(another CR5 targeter) .

22. Optimal Dosages .
Maintenance
About 3 000 mg MSM and 1 500 mg vitC a day (spread over 3 periods.)

If infected with a suspected CR5 targeter like flu :
About 12 000 mg MSM and 6 000 mg vitC for at least 6 days . If symptoms persist , repeat until they disappear or death , whichever comes first .

23. Eating Paper
And what has the above to do with paper ?
Why , eating cellulose is not only good roughage , but it disrupts most disease causing systems . If you eat a few termites to add to your intestinal fauna , it will also make the little buggers that more uncertain and strengthen your immune system's bargaining hand . And it is bargaining , make no mistake .

The nutritional value of "Mein Kampf" or "A Critique of Pure Reason" has long been neglected .

Barbarians burn books . Civilized people digest them .

And so it goes .

Andre

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