Tuesday, November 14, 2006

Dopamine and Preparedness

Dopamine and Preparedness.

Andre Willers
14 Nov 2006

Sources : see at the end.

Dopamine acts as a proximal reward . ie a Pleasure system
An organism anticipating a distal reward ( far off in time ) secretes dopamine as a proximal and immediate reward to bring all its systems into a state of preparedness . The greater the uncertainty , the greater the activation of preparedness needed .

The classical experiment :
A light flashes . The rat presses a lever and is rewarded . The dopamine levels are measured during the whole process .

The results showed that after the rat learned the response after a few passes . On the next pass , dopamine levels peaked before the lever was pressed , then peaked again higher after the lever was pressed and before the reward was given . In other words , the anticipation triggered the dopamine release .

If the reward was given on random basis , the release of dopamine peaked even higher when the probability of reward was 50% . In other words , when the uncertainty of the reward-state was at a maximum .

Ie if no reward is given 60% of the time , the rat is certain that he getting no reward 60% of the time . The uncertainty is then 40% . The maximum the uncertainty can be is 50% . The rat trains on the highest percentage .

This also means that the organism must be at it’s most prepared when the uncertainty of the reward is at its maximum . If the reward is going to fall into his mouth with no effort , no preparation is necessary . Likewise if there is going to be no reward . In between , it must be prepared , and the maximum preparedness is needed at 50% uncertainty .

Hence the maximum dopamine levels are at a maximum when the reward percentage in an on-off system is 50% .

In queuing theory this would be the equivalent of how the queue is ordered , since the most prepared would usually have the first place in any queue .

The proximal pleasure argument should hold in any species that is subject to evolutionary pressures . So any aliens even vaguely like us will have similar activation responses , (and similar drugs like cocaine , etc.) . They will also gamble and flirt .

The relevance to human systems .

The fact that intermittent rewards leads to higher dopamine levels (pleasure) than straight rewards has major implications for gambling , personal goals , depression , sports or any competitive endeavour .

Flirting is an extremely good example . It is an essential activity in any species with more than one sex . Some human societies even have professional flirts ( called marriage brokers or marriage makers ) .
It optimizes genetic mixes . A single female can keep large number of males on a personal string , thereby dramatically enhancing the probability of success of her offspring once she makes a choice .

The above argument seems to species independent .

Flirting in self-aware species with three , four or more sexes should be fascinating . Humans with two sexes are complex enough , but the mind boggles if there are more sexes . Though , since this process is one of the driving forces of evolving intelligence , one would expect humans to be evolving more than two sexes : see “The Sexes of Man” in http://andreswhy.blogspot.com

Reward scale:
There is a complicating factor , namely that the scale of reward might play a role in dopamine release . But the nervous system evolved as an on-off system and is notoriously bad at estimating scales . Eg gamblers will bet on anything , regardless of scale . Risk-reward odds are ignored or poorly done .

A Simple visual Dopamine stimulator .
(For a human)

In the classic Experiment above , just retain the anticipation (ie the flashing light . ) Tell the subject he can expect a reward after the light flashes . Flash the light at around double Beta-brainwave frequencies ( 30 – 60 Hz) , with a 50% chance that the flash will show on the screen . On average the screen will show half the rate ( ie Beta-frequencies) .

Intended consequences:
This should flood the system with dopamines in the active , awake state .
It entrains the system at these frequencies , since the frequency of stimulation of the pleasure systems are associated with a particular brain-wave frequency .

The frequency of the flashes might have to be adjusted upwards (as sequential non-flash sequences of 8 to 10 are probable in 300 random runs , thereby bringing down the frequency in a sequence . The effect of this is unknown , but thought to be natural in a human system .)

This should kick-start an athlete before an effort . Depressives , alcoholics or cocaine-withdrawals should benefit . Natural child-birth mothers should benefit . a nice little pick-me-up on your screen-saver .

In general a good thing in moderation .
If the frequency is adjusted to (say) theta , the pleasure-entrainment will keep the subject unconscious (pain , etc)

Abuse .

This is a cheap high , but with a small half-life . A healthy system will quickly become habituated and adjust . The half-life is unknown , but the best estimate is about 1/e (about 33%) of other dopamine opiates .

Long-term abuse will lead to a half-life of 50%
(s= 1/3+(1.3)^2 + (1/3)^3 +…

Problems might arise in initial reward-stimulation .

Rull-type visual entrainment is at least 2 generations of thin-skin materials away .

Pillips P et al :” Subsecond dopamine release promotes cocaine seeking” Nature 422(2003)

Fiorillo C et al “Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty in dopamine neurons” Science 299(2003)
Sapolsky M “Monkeyluv : The pleasure and (pain) of Maybe”
ISBN 0 224 07365 6

Sunday, November 12, 2006

Colitis , Dermititus , Emphysema , Hairloss

Andre Willers
12 Nov 2006

What to do : see below after you have read “Background”

All these problems involve mechanical robustness of the cells concerned . The scaffolding of every cell requires , absolutely and without any qualification , some sulfur atoms .

The above problems arise or are exacerbated by a shortage of bio-available sulfur . Through about 2 billion years of evolution , organisms have learned to handle short lived periods of decrease in the availability of sulfur .

Since it is needed everywhere , it is stored everywhere when abundant . Mechanisms evolved to recycle sulfur from non-essential organs in times of scarcity . The organs where sulfur is being withdrawn suffer consequent loss of function .

Examples of some organs:

Skin : Hide needs to be robust , strong and impenetrable . As sulfur is withdrawn , the tempo of skin-cell replenishment is reduced . The skin becomes thinner and more vulnerable to opportunistic infections . Quorum-sensing bacteria switch on lethality-genes . Dermititus occurs
Skin can also be read as cell-wall , but this would only occur much later (the organism would probably have died of other causes before this).

In the leather trade , animals whose skins are to be used for leather products are fed extra sulfur-containing feeds .

Hair (fur) : This needs a lot of sulfur , as it is continually abraded . A family history of early fur-loss might indicate a genetic problem with sulfur-fixation , or simply a lack of sulfur-fixing symbiotic bacteria , or more likely , both .

In the fur trade , animals whose skins are to be used for fur products are fed extra sulfur-containing feeds . Wool farmers ( like Vos ) do the same to get a more curly , higher quality wool .

Lungs and Intestines : Both are functionally similar in as they involve fingers (villi) sticking out to increase the absorbtion area . These fingers need to be exceptionally robust in the intestines , as liquids and semi-liquids are much more abrasive than air . Note that once liquids have gathered in the lungs (emphysema) , the same robustness is required .

It is not only the robustness of the villi , but also the rate at which they can be replaced that is important . If the body does not have enough sulfur to keep the villi robust , it won’t have enough to replace them fast enough .
The body’s absorbtion rate of nutrients also decreases as the number of villi decreases . A negative feedback cycle . Collapse can occur quite rapidly .

Also , critically , the intestine skin is also degraded by this same friction . Like with dermititus , opportunistic infections take advantage of the degradation of the intestine skin . There are a lot of these organisms . If they reach quorum stage , the organism is in serious trouble .

The lungs have an added complication , as the clearance of liquids and obstacles from the lung passages is done by small hairs . You have seen what happens to hairs above . (Birds’ lungs are much more elegant)

Anywhere where a tight seal is required .
Joints , eyes ,ears .

Joints : If you think of the seals around elbows , knees , etc as modified skin , then you can see what will happen to them as an essential building-block is withdrawn and shunted elsewhere . They grow thin and brittle , then break into small pieces .The immune system is bombarded with the breakdown cell-fragments which it identifies as from joint seals and very properly mounts an immune attack , because this is how an infection attack will appear .

Ears : The hairs in the ear canals are essential for hearing and balance .
The same argument applies .

Eyes :
This is an interesting one . Crohn’s disease frequently has infections around the eyes . This is because the seals around the eye become brittle and breaks down and opportunistic infections take hold . An auto-immune response may follow .
There is an added complication within the eyeball : readers’ eyeballs jitter as they read . This accellerates the retina . The gelid mass inside the eyeball has some ligaments , but it’s inertia means it still moves relative to the retina . So the retina has friction with this mass . If it is robust , no problem . Both the retina and the gelid mass suffer abrasion . Readers and computer users take note.

Immune System:
Impairment of the immune system .
This system works on precise physical fits of molecules . But it is itself partially composed of cells that uses sulfur . A general lack of sulfur means coarsening of the immune response . It is less precise .
Like any degraded evolutionary system , it fights a reargard action .
It loses IFF function by degrees .
“Friendly” damage is treated as hostile (Auto-immune diseases). It loses discrimination between hostile and friendly cell-prolifirations (cancer).

Needless to say , it is not only lack of sulfur that causes this , but it certainly exacerbates the situation .

Evolutionary speaking , enough such temporary losing battles had to fought long enough that the survivors had offspring . Otherwise we
would have prompt collapse instead of drawn-out degradation of ability .

Old age

These symptoms appear disturbingly like age . This is to be expected in anything that degrades cell-function .

The difference is that we can actively do something about bio-sulfur availability . It should help considerably .

What to do.

Fifty gram of each of various varieties of unpasteurized cheese plus MSM should do the trick .

See below .

Take MSM . This is a bio-active form of sulfur , available at any pharmacy or health shop .

If you have any of the above symptoms , you probably have a huge deficit in sulfur to make up . There seems to no upper dose : extra gets washed out , but consult your physician if in doubt about large dosages .

I take about 3 gm a day(for about 7 years).
A rule of thumb is to take large doses until your bog stinks of H2S (that rotten egg smell that you don’t find anymore. It means that your body can’t use any more sulfur at the moment .) . Then throttle down to just above that .

Just taking MSM is not sufficient . The efficient fixators of sulfur in your body is the symbiotic bacteria in your gut .

Unfortunately , these have been taking a bit of a hammering in the last 150 years .
The major culprit is , of course , anti-biotics. They kill all sorts of bacteria , including the benign ones . Probiotics might be taken to restore some bacteria , but the restorations are mono-cultures .

The other culprit is pasteurization .
Humans have co-evolved with the bacteria found in raw cow or goat milk for at least 10 000 years , long enough for mutual adaptation . The rennit in their stomachs was used for fermentation in the cheese , yoghurt , curds ,etc processes . Thus bacteria from anaerobic stomachs (ie sulfur fixators) evolved into benign forms for humans .

Pasteurization kills these benign bacteria , as well as the bad ones . The trick is to isolate the benign ones and take them , without killing yourself with malign bacteria .

An interesting aside : plot the incidence of asthma against pasteurization and you find a direct correlation . Farm kids are well-known for their low incidence of asthma , and all sorts of fancy reasons have been advanced (including by me) . It seems much more reasonable to suppose that they were exposed to raw milk for long enough at certain critical ages . The benign bacteria had already been through a selection process ( 10 000 years ) that they are benign , but sufficiently different for the immune system to have bone or three to chew on (like Cerebrus).

Luckily we have a large commercial system that is eager to supply you with this : The Organic Produce system..

The trick is to get a variety of unpasteurized cheeses , yoghurt or milk . Don’t try the milk unless you know the supplier . The cheese is the safest. Unpasteurized cheese is expensive , but you don’t need a lot . You only need the cell cultures.
Fifty gram of each of various varieties of unpasteurized cheese plus MSM should do the trick

WARNING: do not do this unless you are taking MSM . Since the new sulfur-fixers are more efficient than those already in your gut , your intake of dietary sulfur might decrease . You will be making things worse , not better .

Why is there a shortage of bio-sulfur in the human food-chain?

A limited resource (bio-sulfur)is spread over an increasing number of humans and animals , but is not recycled . A lessening of concentration is inevitable.

We know for a fact that animals do not get sufficient sulfur . Why ? Otherwise it would not be necessary for leather and fur breeders to pay good money to feed these animals extra . And feed they do . Google “MSM” and “animal feed” and you will see that you can buy trainloads of animal quality MSM . They do it to make their quality of hide or fur saleable . Otherwise they would not spend a cent .

Ironically , the meat-animals , which form the basis of the human sulfur food-chain , are not fed anything extra (there is no extra pay for that like there is for fur or hide) , are stall-fed from crops that have very low sulfur content . Their excrement is not recycled over the fields . Their carcases are eaten by humans , but the human excrement ( with all the precious elements like sulfur) are not recycled onto land but dumped at sea . Human corpses ( each with at least 15 kg of sulfur) are sequestered into biological enclaves of cemeteries .

A “normal” human or animal diet at present time does not give sufficient sulfur for a healthy beastie .

The Sulfur-Oxygen Metabolism of Earth

This is an ancient evolutionary heritage from the origins of life , when the atmosphere had no oxygen and was sulfur-rich .

However , with the advent of an oxygen atmosphere , the number of avenues for an aerobic organism to fix sulfur became limited . The preferred path was symbiosis , even down to the gene level . (Gene symbionts ) Sulfur bacteria survived below the chemocline in the oceans or in the guts of animals . Sulfur-handling genes survived in the cells and mitochondria .

Below the chemocline there is no oxygen . Anaerobic bacteria thrive (as we speak) . The ancien regime is still alive and waiting for a comeback .

At periodic intervals (when the planetary temperature became warm enough ) at roughly the equivalent of 1000 ppm of CO2 , the oceans became so warm that the solubility of oxygen in seawater decreased to such an extent that not enough oxygen could dissolve to prevent the chemocline from reaching the surface . H2S is directly released into the atmosphere over large areas of the ocean . Oxygen organisms in the vicinity take refuge in the H2S triggered freeze (hibernation) . As the wind blows or the winter comes , they pop back and repopulate and make oxygen . And so it goes , until one day the temperature never goes down low enough . Venus , here we come .(Remember , the Sun is continually getting warmer.)


Friday, November 10, 2006

The Roman Empire and the Nazis

Hitler was keen reader of history . So was Napoleon , Stalin and Mao . Only the tyrants seem to be determined to learn from the past and not to repeat the same mistakes .

Hitler deliberately set out to recreate elements of the Roman Empire .

He plundered the past for memes that had been proven to work . He let his subordinates take the credit , but his fingerprints were all over the most effective mind-changers .

1. The Salute : the Nazi salute is a straight copy of the Roman salute .
2. The Nazi “Heil” means the same as the Roman “Ave”. (Refer Anglo-Saxon “Hail” )
3. “Fuehrer” and “Imperator” means exactly the same : Commander.

Forcing everybody to address and salute him as Commander seems to have played as an important part in the last-ditch loyalty of the Third Reich as it did in the longevity of the later stages of the Western Roman Empire . The ease whereby later kings accepted being subservient to an Emperor shows how well the meme survived in Western Europe . Hitler tapped into this .

The continual reinforcement of the top hierarchical structure seems to lock humans into an obedience pattern . This is partly equivalent to the continual saluting required by military organizations , as well as the continual genuflecting and bowing in Roman catholic and Muslim religions .

This conditioning really does work . It ties into the deep need to belong to a pack . Like dogs , humans would rather accept the bottom order in a pack than not to belong .

Who doesn’t it work for ?
The optimizors . The survival specialists . You don’t find them at the top or the bottom , or at the 50% mark .
It is like choosing the best option in a time-dependant series (ie the groom has to choose a bride out of 10 sequential girls , but he can’t go back . The optimal probability is 1/e=~0 .37 : a long proven theorem .)
Doing the same analysis for a society means that the real opinion-makers are clustered around 37% between the bottom and top of any question .

In Germany this point was , and still is , occupied by the verreine . The Nazis simply established control of these .

The joker is that this point is not even the maximal population point (which would be around 50% by definition) or that beloved fiction , the opinion-makers (usually defined as the top 5% ) .

Hitler understood this thoroughly .

4. Caesar and Hitler
Hitler deliberately tried to transform his surname into a generic term for ruler . Caesar became “Kaiser” or “Tsar” , for instance . Hence “Heil Hitler” and not “ Heil Adolf “ or the more logical “Heil Fuehrer” . He partly succeeded . Most tyrants are called by their first names (Napoleon , Joe (Stalin) , Mao ) , but Hitler is never called Adolf .

5. The SS was the Praetorian guard.
6. The Nuremburg and other rallies were the equivalent of Roman Triumphs .
7. The Nazi banners were a straight copy of the Roman Legion’s Signifer’s banners .
8. The concentration camps “ Work to death” policies were copies of the Roman mines and other equivalents where recalcitrant slaves (those that could not be tamed ) were worked to death on a deliberate subexistence diet .
9. Genocide as policy . This was standard in Roman times . For instance , Caesar bragged about treacherously massacring about 500 000 Germans crossing the Rhine .
10. Gauleiters were straight copies of Roman provincial governors
Even the territories were the same .
11. The architecture : Forum Romanum to the n’th.
12. Religion: the Roman Catholic church knew exactly what he was doing. They were hoping to outlast him . If he had won , we would have been right back in the Emperor-gods of the late roman empire.


Andre Willers
12 nov 2006

The Universum.

The Universum.

Andre Willers
10 Nov 2006

See “Conspiracies” , “Lies” , et al in http://andreswhy.blogspot.com/

After some discussion with Eben Swart , it seems that I have not clarified the concept of the Universum sufficiently .

The Universum is everything .
It includes all possible delineated things , but also the non-delineated things .

The problem is to represent non-delineated things in terms that a brain built from delineated blocks ( atoms and molecules) can understand .

An infinite series is one way of describing non-delineated things . If the series converges , we can talk about e or pi (for example) as if they are delineated entities , but in reality they are fuzzy and non-delineated .
The basic concept is Taking the Limit , the heart of calculus .

The Venn diagram is another tool to show an abstract of the logical elements . Notice the definition of a set : it is by definition comprised of identifiable elements

A Venn diagram can thus be drawn encircling all the delineated systems ,. . The number of delineated systems need not be infinite (see below) but the non-delineated systems lie in an infinity outside . Delineated systems are bounded inside our Venn diagram , but the Universum is not bounded ouside .

In other words , draw a Venn-circle on sheet of paper . Inside the circle represents all the possible delineated universes .

You cannot have a Venn-boundary outside this , since if you could , it means that defineable elements exist outside the circle , which is a contradiction . The sheet of paper stretches to infinity on all sides .

This is the heart of this argument .

We know that we have at least one logical mechanism whereby an entity inside the Venn-boundary can draw in a non-delineated “something” into the delineated boundary : infinite series like e or pi as discussed above .

If one such process is possible , then an infinity of such processes are possible . The proof is easily seen in the proliferation of complexity inside the Venn-diagram boundary as “things” outside the boundary is brought inside . The outside is by definition infinite , so as “things” outside the Venn-boundary is drawn in , the Venn-boundary expands .

The outside of the Venn-boundary still remains infinite . Only if processes inside the boundary goes to infinity do we approach the concept of Singularity .

Time is the simplest thing . (Honours to Clifford Simak)

Anything increasing the complexity of identifiable things inside the Venn-boundary will create time-layers .
ie Venn-inside (at time t) + “outside” = Venn-inside (at time t+1)

The Venn-inside thus changes by virtue of it’s complexity .
It defines the time .

By definition , any time–reversals would require some very complicated operations (only possible when the system inside the Venn-boundary is very complex .)

Time-flow is thus created .

The complexity inside the Venn-boundary increases between an upper boundary of exponential increase and a lower boundary of fibonacci increase .

Time is created by denser layers of delineated things inside the Venn-boundary . (ie “faster”) . Things happen quicker . Events not perceived before become measurable .

An interesting corollary is “pockets” . Over a certain threshold rate of change , the system cannot propagate change fast enough throughout the whole system . Pockets of fast change gallop to the Singularity (ie infinite change) . Other pockets that reject alterations change slower or move into attractor lines that does not lead to Singularity .

The first pocket that goes infinite (ie into the singularity) sets the conditions for all others in same universe . There is thus only one Singularity per universe . We are talking about (Type III +) time traveling civilizations .

Why does non-altruistic civilizations fail?
Successful time-travelling non-altruistic civilizations will set up interference waves with their predecessors in time that will cancel themselves out . If they are not time-travelling , they are not sufficiently deep into the singularity .

Survivors must thus have a high degree of altruism .
But good things in the long-run has this tendency to be horrible in the short-run (ask any school-child).

See Monroe (Google Monroe Institute) to see the result of many Universes of this altruistic type .

The real world.
What this means in the real world if you add a time dimension , is that bootstrapping is possible (as seen in our socio-economic systems) .
You can also mine the non-delineated systems for useful things , thereby bringing them into the Venn-boundary of delineated things .

This is also called quantum-physics .

The complex observer plays an important part in the process .
Actually , the process of observing (ie pulling in “things” from outside the Venn-boundary ) becomes more and more dominant as the singularity is approached .

Why a two-dimensional Venn-diagram instead of other dimensions?

Why can this be represented on a 2-dimensional Venn diagram ?
Because 3 dimensions are the necessary sufficient minimum number of dimensions to have contiguity (I cannot put this simpler : if you cannot see it , too bad.)
(The four-colour theorem in 2 dim is equivalent if you define the difference between colours as a dimension)) . Any such 3-dim system can be mapped onto a 2-dim system . The general expression for people looking for an explanation in delineated terms is x(n) = function of(x1,x2,x3,…,x(r) ..etc , r
A delineated statement is when you talk about something defined as separate from something else . For example integers , points , mother , novels , computer programs , anything that can be expressed as separate . Any axiomatic system has to be delineated . Human information processing utilizing the brain cannot operate except in discrete , delineated terms . Even changing levels in neuro-transmitter concentrations change one molecule at a time .

Aristotelian Systems .

Aristotle postulated that A combined with everything not-A must be the Universum . This looks reasonable , but the hidden axiom is that A must delineated , ie that we can make sense to talk about A separate from anything else .

In 1906 Russell et al in “Principia Mathematica” proved rigorously that
A and not-A is smaller than the Universum . As you suspect , the crucial point is the definition of delineation .

A crude proof :
Consider a coffee table . A leg of the table is definitely not-the-table . So we wield Occam’s Axe ( Occam’s Razor is for smaller problems) and chop off the leg . But now the table is no longer a table . So , we have an internal contradiction . Purely logically , the leg is both part and non-part of the table .

This was further illustrated in Godel’s theorem . He proved that that any mathematical system incorporating the standard rules of arithmetic has true statements that cannot be derived from the axioms . This is commonly (and mistakenly ) taken as proof that certain things cannot be proven . This as result of the infinity axiom (ie a number plus 1 is never equal to a previous number ).

If the axiom is changed to “number plus 1 is equal to a previous number” , the proof breaks down , but unfortunately it then requires an extra axiom (the number where the system loops back , or equivalent the radius of the number line.) Since the radius of the new number-line can take infinite values , it means that you can prove anything , but you will require at least one extra assumption . And the extra assumption can take on an infinity of values . This is why our Universe is inherently 2-dimensional : from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle to the distribution of primes , the unit seems to be a product . If we try to explain everything by only one factor , we end up having to take into account a concomittant factor which can take a large number of values ( ie a product , whether smooth or discrete )

Experimental proof .

Civilization .
TV’s , computers , phones , all modern electronics operate on quantum systems .

At the heart lies the universum.

Andre Willers

Saturday, November 04, 2006

A simple cure for AI

A simple cure for AIDS

Andre willers
4 Nov 2006

The take-off point is the congruence between neurons and the immune system . Both evolved from a common ancestor . While the mechanism of data-sampling and killing (using an adaptation of the neurotransmitter docking mechanism to inject lethal apoptosis signals or simply bleach ) has been examined in some detail , the sheath of the neuron has been ignored in the study of the antibody cell .

Evolutionary speaking , one would expect that the myelin sheath around the neuron would evolve to a sheath around the immune cell (ie CD4 cell,etc) . Since evolutionary systems work by small twists of existing systems , one would expect that sheathing of the receptor sites on immune cells would be a major immune system , especially for primitive attacks on the immune system .

Direct attacks on the immune system would evolve first .  The reason is that this has the biggest payoff for the attacker (the easiest things get done first) . The easiest defence would then evolve : ie from myelin sheath to sheathing vulnerable receptor sites on the immune system .

Generalised attacks on the immune system would thus evolve first , and the particular , individualised  attacks after that .

So why should we now have a resurgence of something like HIV/AIDS ? It  recapitulates a really primitive period in microbial predator/prey interactions .

A decrease in the sheath of the immune cells springs to mind . Receptor sites normally covered and thus inactivated , are reactivated and give entrance to old enemies long conquered .

The Cure.

Restore the immune cell’s sheath .

We know the major factors that causes the myelin degradation in the nervous system .  Reversing these should reverse the nudity of the immune system , and thus restore the normal immune system .

The major cause :
It is Acrylamide .

See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com  for a detailed analysis .

Acrylamide damage:

In long  neurons : damage is usually biggest in the middle of the neuron. The receptor sites in the brain  have feelings of pain , but do not know where they originate . Signals can still be pushed through with less loss of information than the random signals caused by the damage . The system thus tries to hunt for stability by continual activity of the limbs concerned.
This is perceived as hyperactivity , or wandering limbs .

Short neurons (ie the brain) : The same thing  . Maintenance of signal to noise integrity can only be achieved by continuous signaling . This translates as either hyper-concentration (a form of autism) or at the other extreme , attention deficit disorder .
A switch between the two at uncertain intervals is not unusual .

Ultra-short neurons (immune cells)
Damage to the integrity of the sheath will lead to hyper-activity , hyper-concentration or attention deficit .
AIDS is the neuropathy of the immune system .

Medical Translations:
Hyper-activity : HIV/AIDS types
Hyper-concentration : autoimmune types
Attention deficit : the patient swings up or down to no discernable pattern

The Brute Nitty-Gritty Cure .

  1. Reduce acrylamide ingestion to zero .
This means eating nothing heated over 120 celsius at any stage of preparation . ANYTHING . Tins , powders , braais , etc are verboten ! No bread !
     2 Mega-dosages of EPA and DHA initially . No Mercury                                    
     3 . Maintenance of omega3/omega6 at 1:1 forever after.

Do it !