Friday, December 31, 2010

Rife and the Histone code

Rife and the Histone Code.
Andre Willers
31 Dec 2010

Synopsis :
R.R. Rife developed a trial-and-error method of manipulating the Histone code in the 1930's , but without a theoretical underpinning , repeatability and Establishment acceptance were problems .
He also seems to have developed a meta-material optical microscope .
But meta-materials were totally unknown then .

The establishment duly crushed him .

Discussion :
1.Pleomorphism :
The Histone-code necessitates pleomorphism .
See "Epigenetics and PTSD"
DNA-code expression is controlled by the Histone-code .
Bacteria and viri see themselves as similar expressions of DNA-code , typed by some Histone-code of origin , one of ten .

2.Why ten ?
There are 10 Histone-code generators .
See "Epigenetics and PTSD" Addenda .
Hence 10 pleomorphic organisms : see Appendix A below .

The 10 Histone-code generators can get tacked onto 5 DNA bases . Hence , there are 50 fundamental resonances . These can be calculated from first principles .

Resonances can be used to stimulate or disrupt Histone-codes . Any rhythmic energy pulse will do . Radio , sound , light , tapping , chemical timing pulses , etc .

By using harmonics , precise stimulation can be applied to any particular member of one of the Ten Families at any stage of it’s life .

This is what Rife did .

Unfortunately , it leads to large tables , and hinders basic theory .

4.How many pleomorphic forms in each Family ?
The number of sub-harmonic nodes for each fundamental resonance is independent of the metric . These can be classified by prime and non-prime characteristics . So a first estimate would be the number of primes in a fundamental resonance .
This is what Rife did .
Stimulation at prime or factorised frequencies would have different results .

5.Chirping :
We can chirp frequency intervals around a prime number or factored number at will .

6.Interpretation :
These processes are the resultants of long evolution . Thus , we can apply principles set out in "NewTools Reserves" .
Optimal frequencies are at (1/3)^n of a fundamental frequency .
Chirp around these .

7.Mortality Oscillatory Rates (MOR)
Kills bugs and the disease .
Note the difference . Each of the ten families are still tagged with a harmonic identifier . Stimulating this enough will destruct them (apoptosis ) .
But the cellular system generating them must also be inhibited from creating more . Not apoptosis .Discouragement . Chirping around apoptosis frequency should do the trick .

8. Virtual Metamaterial Optic Microscope (V-Mom)
A magnificent achievement .
Rife used a large number of optic materials (quarts , etc) to create a virtual metamaterial . Twistors, optical delays , interference ,etc were used to create a virtual negative refractive index . This enabled magnifications up to 60 000 X . This was repeatable , but he got seduced by the Light-side .

This can be repeated immediately once it is known to be possible .Any PC can do the calculations .
Hint : reverse metamaterial's optics .

9.Spoilers .
For the conspiracy theorists .
The technology of Rife meant that mortal diseases could be broadcast via radio wave in a virgin field . This was 1939 . The technology was suppressed by the USA until the airways were full of spoiling signals .
The mishmash of electronic signals actually protects the ordinary person .
TV is bad for you .
No TV is even worse .

The USSR spent significant amounts on this technology , only to be defeated by advertising . Notice that most of the present Rife-technology for sale is manufactured in the old USSR states . By the same people who would have used it to zap you .

Of course , you could use an orbital EMP to increase a certain disease incidence , but why bother . If you had that capability , secondary effects would not play a role .
Typical Empire overreach .

And so it goes .
Andre .

Appendix A

Dr. Rife discovered that there were 10 groups of micro organisms. His investigations found that the
members of each group were all pleomorphic forms of the same organism. By changing the substrate they
grew upon, one could cause the organism to adapt and take on a different pleomorphic form. The
classification of the organisms that belong to the 10 groups is unknown. What is known are most of if not
all the members of one of the ten groups. This one group importantly contains the BX and BY virus. Dr.
Rife considered the organism to be a primordial cell and discussed this organism in a paper entitled
“ History of the Development of a Successful Treatment for Cancer and other Virus, Bacteria, and Fungi”
– December 1, 1953.

There are twelve organisms that all belong to the same group and may be considered as different
pleomorphic forms of the same organism. These are: BX virus , BY virus , B. coli rod, B. coli virus,
Streptothrix, B. typhosis rod, B. typhosis virus, Poliomyelitis Virus, Tuberculosis rod, Tuberculosis
Virus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus. There may be other members of this one group, but they are
presently unknown.
Now if these are all different life cycles of the same organism, it might stand to reason that there are CRF
BX – 17033662 and 1604000
Carcinoma 17033662/2127.06 = 8008.07
Staphylococcus 17033662/727 = 23420.07 478000/727.5= 657.04
Streptococcus 17033662/880.02 = 1935.99 720000/880.09=818.09
B. Coli rod 17033662/802 =21238.98 417000/802 = 519.95
B. coli virus 17033662/1552.04 = 10975.01 770000/1552.41=496.00
Sarcoma 17033662/2007.5=8485.01 Unknown
B. Typhosis Rod 17033662/721 = 23625.05 (NT?) 760000/721=1054.09
B Typhosis Virus 17033662/1862 = 9149.06 1445000/1862 = 776.04
Tuberculosis Rod (803) 17033662/830 = 21238.98 541142/830=651.97
Tuberculosis Virus (1600) 17033662/ 1600= 10646.03 Unknown
Streptothrix 784 17033662/784.02 = 21726.05 186554/784= 237.95
Polio Myelitis 17033662/unknown
NT = Numeric Transposition

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Why do they hate Americans ?

Why do they hate Americans ?
Andre Willers .
22 Dec 2010

Synopsis :
Non-Democratic Systems hate Democratic systems .
Why ?
Non-Democratic Systems see Democratic systems as perfidious .
Democratic shifts in interests is seen as betrayals by Non-Democratic systems . Hardwired unfairness memes kick in . Repeated broken promises are seen as belonging to the entire democratic society , instead of just factions .
Americans are just the latest in long series of Democratic systems labeled as treacherous and hated accordingly .

Discussion .
This is an old phenomenon .
Does "Perfidious Albion" ring a bell ?
Old Roman Republic had the same reputation .
Vikings (from whom most modern British institutions derive) had the same reputation for treachery . But , from their viewpoint they were quite law-abiding .
It is just that the laws changed with every Allthing .

1.The Advantage to Democracy :
1.1 Errors can be corrected without too much waste of blood or treasure .
1.2 Flexibility to exploit changes . A human specialty .
See "Megafauna Extinctions"

2.Symbiosis with Technological change .
Democratic societies cause and flourish with technological change , because they can handle the sociological changes . This is a positive feedback system . As seen for the last 400 years .

Democratic systems became dominant .

The Russian experiment in Communism failed .

The verdict is still out on the Chinese experiment . There is an emerging synthesis , but Democracy in this sense means more than just voting with your feet .

Present Democratic societies have at least two parties . What Party A promises is frequently reversed by successor Party B , then reversed again when Party A returns to power . And so forth .
This thoroughly confuses non-democratic systems .
The nation gets a reputation for being perfidious . Betrayal is one of the stronger human memes , fuelled by hardwired fairness concepts .

Sigh .
Most humans would rather be consequent than right .
This sums it up in a nut shell for nuts .

Remember , Non-Democratic Systems is shorthand for a small , dominant population group that can bullshit the majority by manipulating the Unfairness mechanism .

4.Fractal Politics .
New modalities of human interaction bypassing the old 150 person boundary (Facebook) means that political parties will proliferate .
See "Facebook , Friends and disciples" 12 Nov 2010

5.Economic consequences :

General rule of thumb :
Large scale concentrations of economic resources is inversely proportional to the number of political parties .

This means :

Large companies love Emperors .

Fractured political systems means fractured wealth concentrations .
A more effective Democratic system increases the number of alternatives , thereby decreasing the concentration of resources on a single item . Ususally a Good Thing .

Large companies unbound by Reagan-era deregulation will become bound again .
Commercial control of the legislature becomes more fragmented .
The pendulum swings back again .

The Budget Model of allocating resources becomes less relevant as the number of political parties increase . This is independent of regulation .
An emergent self-organization system .

Intriguing reversal to some of the Outpost Models of colonial times as technological differentials increase in the run-up to the Singularity .
See "Fuehrer Prinzip" 5 Oct 2009

Academia :

The success of the present Western Civilization can be largely ascribed to the Universities , which published knowledge freely and was funded from the public purse .

The commercializing and politicizing of Academia has led to the unfortunate compartementalizing of streams of information .Most fundamental research is now being done by companies or defense establishments , which do not share their findings .

This leads to a hatred of democracies , as they profess one thing and commercially do the exact opposite .

The dreaded intellectual property rights , enforced by the Empire's Military and Economic clout .

See what happened to the Spanish Empire vs England and Dutch in an analogue situation .

Do not give an order that you know will not be obeyed .

Can this survive the fragmentation of authority inherent in the increase in the number of political parties caused by Facebook ?

See effects of WikiLeaks . Assenge is like a modern-day Francis Drake . It is only a matter of time before the emphasis changes from political to commercial .

What does this mean ?
Political systems will adapt , but will be much less monolithic .A phase change in economic-political systems from profit to (profit + green profit) becomes more likely ,
where Green profit is in an extra currency . See previous posts .
See carbon trades .

Compliments of the equinox to all .


Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Smart , Strong Material .

Smart , Strong Material
Andre Willers
21 Dec 2010

Synopsis :
A cheap , smart , strong material can be made by 3D printing process producing threads using Aragonite , clay or a suitable brick-material , mortared by a suitable conducting polymer . Present , mature weaving technology can weave a super-strong material with embedded chips for smartness . (Not to mention TV screens .)

Discussion :
See NewScientist 13 Nov 2010 p46 "Feat of clay"

In the biological clam , the Mother-of-Pearl (Aragonite structure) is achieved by slow growth . It is also stronger than steel . Optical output is random , but appealing .
Similar materials have been made on small scale using clay .

Scaling-up has been hampered by a slow "curing" process , necessitating slow growth .
We are not limited by biological growth . (But keep it small .)

The Process
(My Xmas Gift for 2010 : Free according to all freeware protocols)

A very thin thread looping past an ordinary ink-jet printer with different heads printing Aragonite and a polymer , then through an ageing environment (ie mild heat , acidity , etc ) will build up into a thread of desired thickness .

The thread can then be further treated .
Eg the original starter thread can be dissolved out and replaced by a conducting superglue , giving a really , really tough thread .

The existing , mature weaving technology can then be used to weave any desired material . Eg armor , TV screens , invisibility clothing , temperature suits .

Smart chips can be cheaply implanted at this stage , but a neural-net of some type would be needed for the cheaper materials . Connections between the material and the chips would be rather haphazard and some learning would be required .

Strength :

A preliminary look indicates that cables woven from the threads would have a sufficient strength-to-weight ratio to function as space-elevator cables .

Military armor should outperform present specs by factors of 10-100 .

Even everlasting razorblades or tyres should finally be possible .

A new occupation :
Taking the clothes to school .
Armor will need to be trained .

Expensive materials might try for programmed interactions , but this is not advised for armor . Neural networks are more robust in case of damage .

TV screens:
An optical-conducting thread-core and a meta-material brick opens up some intriguing speculations .

A true invisibility cloak is possible . Smart , too .

Extreme heat-insulation or heat-dissipation become possible .
Note the similarity of thread-structure with polar-bear fur .

LED's in the material can give any camouflage output .

Including your favourite TV program .

This is then a cheap , printable , flexible TV screen .

Inverse camouflage .
Wear your favourite soapie .

How Smart can the Clothes be ?
Given the present rates of progress of processors , a suit of clothes soon might be smarter than the wearer . Something long suspected , in any case .

So what will happen if the owner dies ?
Gives an entirely new meaning to "Second hand clothes"
And what if one of a pair of socks wants a divorce ?

(Note the mystery of the vanishing single socks .
Time-traveling socks looking and finding for adventure and a savage mate ?
Gloves do not bear thinking about .
But only the truly perverted will wonder about crotch-straps . )

All this with an ink-jet printer and some software off the internet .

Ho-Ho-Ho !

Merry Xmas !

Santa Andre

Saturday, December 18, 2010

Megafauna Extinctions.

Megafauna Extinctions .
Andre Willers
18 Dec 2010

Synopsis :
Mainly America , Australia .
Humans did not cause the extinctions , but exploited the ecological gaps opened by the extinctions . Hence the temporal uncertainty . Extinction first , then quick human exploitation , stabilizing the ecosystem . Human guilt is over-driven .

Discussion :
1.Human conceit .
Humans think they can just walk into an existing ecosystem in it's full maturity and upset the applecart with a few puny tools .

Marketing analogue :
A new organism entering an established ecosystem face the same problems as a new product being foisted upon an existing economy .

Ask any foreign marketing executive how difficult it is to break into a fully developed local economy . Deep pockets and sustained effort is needed . The mathematics and economics have been exhaustively studied . I see no reason to re-invent the wheel . Look it up .

(Look at how tenuous the hold of the early settlers in North America circa 1600 AD really was .)

The human family-groups trickling into North-America or Australia over long periods went extinct or hung on by their fingernails .

2.The Extinctions :
Something drastically altered the ecosystems . Suddenly , humans could survive in more numbers . They enthusiastically exploited the gaps . This might have caused some extinctions , but the initial impetus was external .

2.1 North America
Humans trickle in via Bering strait , but hang on by their fingernails .
Extinction event : Comet fragments impact circa 13 000 ya .
Evidence of impact craters and impact sphericules have been found .
Ecosystem drastically affected .
Human numbers explode as competition for niches decline .
Surviving megafauna hunted to extinction .

Note that diseases would not have played a major role , as the Bering-landbridge allowed contact .

2.2 Australia
Humans trickle in via North Australia , mainly hunting parties .
With them comes rats , birds and marsupials from the Asiatic mainland . As Jared Diamond would say , they had no guns or steel , but germs they had . The Australian continent had been isolated from the pestilential breeding-grounds of Asia . Now these diseases sweep through the Australian continent over a period of thousands of years , severely impoverishing the local ecosystems . (Circa 70 000 – 45 000 ya)
Humans then move in and hunt the few survivors to extinction .
But the local ecosystems remain impoverished till today .

2.3 Africa
It is usually pointed out that it did not happen in Africa because of some mutual adaptation between humans and animals . (Diamond)

Rinderpest .
Unfortunately , it did . Called Rinderpest . (Circa 1890 AD)
A bovine disease that followed an Asia->Europe->Africa route that killed more than 90% of African bovines . This was an event whose ramifications are still working its way through the African ecosystem.
The human effect was of genocidal proportions .
Easily on par with the Australian extinction event .

Notice the speed , ferocity and effectiveness of the reaction . Rinderpest has been eradicated . Killing cattle activates some very old memes (Celtic , Bantu , etc)
Humans can do something right if they really , really try .

2.4 Euro-Asia
The same thing happened on an accelerated timescale . Every time a Virtual Continent was created and isolated (ie an Empire) , a Plague of some sort comes along , breaking the borders .

3.Summary :

3.1 As a Strategy , better communications with localized quarantine seems superior to prevent a large scale Extinction-level events . Chop it up into little Events . The present strategy .

3.2 Human guilt :
Overdone , to put it mildly .
A good argument can made that humans actually prevented a deeper collapse of the eco-systems by aggressively moving into and managing the vacated niches .

Nothing could have saved the megafauna of North-America or Australia once their ecosystem had fallen below a certain level . This was not caused by humans .

A quick eradication of top-level herbivores and predators enables a fast recovery to a less complex ecosystem . At least there is something , not just a desert , as could easily happen as top-level organisms battle for sustenance in an already impoverished ecology .

As for the bacteria and viruses , might as well blame Life or Gaia . Things change .
Humans are just better at exploiting and managing change .

Intriguing speculation :
The mass-shooting of game in Southern Africa circa 1900 AD might have been necessary to stave off a collapse of the grass-lands . These grasslands depend on herbivore dung to fertilize them . Needless to say , large numbers of herbivores are needed . But there is a theoretical maximum of herbivores , derived as follows on a first iteration :
Dung ~ nHerbivores
But also Dung ~ (nCarryingCapacity – nHerbivores)
Thus , Dung ~ nHerbivores *(nCarryingCapacity – nHerbivores)
This gives a quadratic equation on nHerbivores , with a maximum .
This means that you can always find an optimal number of herbivores for any given grass feeding ground .
Herbivores = game + cattle .
Rinderpest hit cattle far harder than game . In the short term it meant less dung from cattle , hence smaller carrying capacity of the land . In the long-term this would have been compensated by increased births of game . But these were managed farms . The niche for future births had to be left open to cattle . Thus game numbers had to be reduced .

In other words , if it had not been done , large parts of south Africa would now be desert .
The real argument is much more complex , but this is the gist of it .

Did collapse of the grasslands happen in other parts of Africa ?
I do not know , but suspect that many aspects of desertification can be traced to this cause . The effects are still working through .
Just another result of Rinderpest and human attempts to manage the effects .

4. Surprising Verdict :

Not Guilty !

Amerindians and Australian Aborigines were Not Guilty of killing off their Megafauna .

Instead , for sheer survival , they had to run around and cobble up a workable eco-system out of the ruins , with very few tools and little understanding . They did a fair job .

This resolves quite a number of niggling inconsistencies between the way the Amerindians and Aborigenes saw themselves (as custodians and sharers ) , contrasted to some other interpretations .

Fiat iustitia coelum ruat .


Tuesday, December 14, 2010

Epigenetics and PTSD

Epigenetics and PTSD
Andre Willers
13 Dec 2010

Important , but transient , events are tacked onto DNA , but not into DNA .
These lessons are expressed through logic gates formed by activation/repression of genes :This forms the Histone Code . It also regulates transcription of short-term memory into long-term memory .
Methylation is only one of these methods. (See Annexure A)

A traumatic memory (like Famine) for an individual can then be transcribed into a PTSD memory , but also into an Epigenetic memory affecting later generations of cells and children .

Ordinary memory works the same way , but with less emphasis .

Note the beautiful elegance of multiple usages for the same mechanism .

The switch and intensity for different usages is encoded into the same structure .
The Histone Code has 10 known modifications (see Addendum A) . From basic principles , only 4 are needed for primary data storage . The others are usage switches and intensity gauges . (Note the correlation with number of dimensions needed in String Theory – for the same reason)

Medium-term Structure , continuity and memory is conferred on the DNA by the Histone Code , which itself is of a different transience (time-span) than DNA . This makes the whole complex more stable , since mutual error-repair is (in theory) possible .

The DNA Code and the Histone Code are in mutual symbiosis .

Truly elegant .

Attack Points :
1 Coding
For this type of compression
See "Unpacking and Packing Information" 19 Jul 2008
See para 3.1 and 3.2 below .

2 Methylation reduction :
See "BetaBlockers and Trauma memory" 30 Apr 2010
Extensively used .

2.2Comfort foods : theobromine (Chocolate)
Recent studies have indicated that about 6 gm of cacao mass per day reduces blood overpressure by about 46% . The indications are that it clears blood-vessel memory of stressor events (ie wiping an epigenetic memory) . De-methylation . .

Had a scare ?
Take two squares (about 7 gm) of 85% Cacao chocolate .
Maybe more is better ? Be a devil and take another two .

2.3 Alcohol
A proven method , with some undesirable side-effects .
Chocolate liqueurs , anyone ?

2.4 Other drugs work to some extent (see Wiki) , but without at least an outline of the function of the Histone Code , intervention has to proceed with some trepidation .

3 Bacteria
From Wiki :
"Histones are found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, and in certain Archaea, namely Euryarchaea, but not in bacteria. Archaeal histones may well resemble the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic histones. Histone proteins are among the most highly conserved proteins in eukaryotes, emphasizing their important role in the biology of the nucleus"

Note that the above implies that bacteria can have no sense of identity , but swap genetic (ie DNA) material in all directions . As is observed . An offshoot expressing all the possibilities of life .

3.1 Thus , we can use the techniques discussed in
See "The Beauty of the Genetic Code" 22 Feb 2010

3.2 These have been refined for use in the Gulf Oil Spill .
See "Mexican Gulf Oils Spill" 10 Sep 2010

Archaea bacteria can be used to probe the Histone Code , then usable bits can be stitched or expressed .

Some intriguing corollaries :
1. Humans with no diabetesII and very good natural long-term memories should patent their skin bacteria and sell them .
2. Proven and benchmarked PTSD individuals will have a marketable commodity .
3. Genealogy will become really important . Many mental problems (like schizophrenia ) can be reclassified as Epigenetic disorders . It has been shown that the methylation can come equally from the male or female for at least three generations. Thus the patients can now blame their Great-grand parents , grand parents or parents . This should ease the load on the parents , as most of the others should be safely dead .
4. Future Genealogy : Equally , present living progenitors would be anxious to avoid future blame and law-suits that they are not the source of the epigenetic handicap . A lawyer's paradise . Contracts do not void gross negligence . An interesting time for large , inherited estates . And the State will want it's share of health costs , as well . The mind boggles .
5. Class Action Suits by victims of wars , famines and other mass-traumatic events will become commonplace . See Tobacco . This should be extremely interesting in the case of Global Warming .Eg :The descendants of the victims of the Ethiopia Famine (caused by European atmospheric pollution) will have a class-action against the EU for damages suffered due to epigenetic factors .
6. Very good long-term memories will become commonplace .
7. And so forth

If this is too big a shock to your system , take this chocolate pill .
Dr Gaia will see you soon .

Andre .

Annexure A
From Wikipedia

Compacting DNA strands
Histones act as spools around which DNA winds. This enables the compaction necessary to fit the large genomes of eukaryotes inside cell nuclei: the compacted molecule is 40,000 times shorter than an unpacked molecule.
Chromatin regulation
Histones undergo posttranslational modifications which alter their interaction with DNA and nuclear proteins. The H3 and H4 histones have long tails protruding from the nucleosome which can be covalently modified at several places. Modifications of the tail include methylation,acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, citrullination and ADP-ribosylation. The core of the histones H2A, H2B and H3 can also be modified. Combinations of modifications are thought to constitute a code, the so-called "histone code".[9][10] Histone modifications act in diverse biological processes such as gene regulation, DNA repair and chromosome condensation (mitosis).[citation needed]
The common nomenclature of histone modifications is:
§ The name of the histone (e.g. H3)
§ The single letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g. K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein
§ The type of modification (Me: methyl, P: phosphate, Ac: acetyl, Ub: ubiquitin)
So H3K4me1 denotes the monomethylation of the 4th residue (a lysine) from the start (i.e., theN-terminal) of the H3 protein.

Annexure B
From Wikipedia

Histone methylation
Histone methylation is the modification of certain amino acids in a histone protein by the addition of one, two, or three methyl groups. In the cell nucleus, DNA is wound around histones. Methylation and demethylation of histones turns the genes in DNA "on" and "off", respectively, either by loosening their tails, thus, allowing transcription factors and other proteins to access the DNA or by encompassing their tails around the DNA, thus, restricting access to the DNA.
This modification alters the properties of the nucleosome and affects its interactions with other proteins.
§ Histone methylation is generally associated with transcriptional repression.
§ However, methylation of some lysine and arginine residues of histones results in transcriptional activation. Examples include methylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4), and arginine (R) residues on H3 and H4.
For many years histone methylation was thought to be a permanent modification. Very recently two families of histone demethylating enzymes were discovered.
§ The first was Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) which is an flavin-dependentmonoamine oxidase which can demethylate mono- and di-methylated lysines, specifically histone 3, lysines 4 and 9 (H3K4 and H3K9). This enzyme cannot demethylate tri-methylated lysines and for a short while it was thought that tri-methylated lysines may indeed be permanent modifications.
§ In late 2005 the Jumonji domain-containing (JmjC) histone demethylases were discovered which are able to demethylate mono-, di-, or tri-methylated lysines thereby disproving the theory that histone methylation is permanent once and for all. Although this conclusion has since come into question.[1] Two specific JmjC histone demethylases are PHF8 andKIAA1718.

Saturday, December 11, 2010

Wrist-watch Straps and Disease Protection.

Wrist-Watch Straps and DiseaseProtection
Andre Willers
11 Dec 2010

Synopsis :
The ubiquitous wrist-watch strap acts as a reservoir for benign skin-ecosystem bacteria that greatly impedes malign bacteria populations .
Repeated and regular removal (ie nightly) of the wrist-strap promotes diabetesII .
A simple cure for DiabetesII is proposed.

Discussion :
The strap acts as an external appendix veriformis .
During normal wear , nutrients ( like oils ,fats , salts ) and skin bacteria accumulate in the crevices of the strap .
Hand washing , even with alcohol rubs , removes bacteria from the hands , but the strap is never sterilized .

The hand bacterial ecology then repopulates from the strap .
Hence the asymmetry between left-hand and right-hand bacterial ecologies . Nearly all watches (even for lefties ) are worn on the left arm .

Why is the repopulation benign ?
It is usually benign , unless there has been a prolonged period of illness . Straps worn during this period of illness should be discarded . Do not try to sterilize them , as this cannot be done .
During healthy periods , only benign bacteria make it to the surface . Some immune system elements also survive into the strap , leading to warfare between malign invaders and benign immune-system elements .
The influx of benign immune-system elements is limited , while the reproduction of malign elements are not .

This leads to the conclusion that a strap material that inhibits the reproduction of bacteria favours the benign side of things .

Luckily , we know that leather , wood , roughened silver or gold has this effect.
(Hint :stickles)
I do not know about other materials (research needed .)

Historical :
This might be urban legend :
In WWI young women packing machine-gun bullets into belts rubbed the belts on their thighs (cf Cuban cigars) . This was for good luck to their young men .
Machine gunners (especially the trusty old Vickers) hands were frequently raw or bloody as the belt rips through . Germans did not use women labour . The incidence of 1918 Flu was lower by two orders of magnitude on the English side . This would be because their hands were repopulated from pristine bacteriological sources . and Flu's are propagated mainly by hand to face contact .
An interesting speculation .

More important , flu epidemics are less frequent and not as serious as expected .
The major reservoirs of flu in the far east now all wear wrist watches . As expected , the flu epidemics are shorter and much less severe .

Babies :
Babies really need continual refreshment of their skin-ecosystem . Contact with the mother's skin helps , but frequent washing , especially of the nappy regions , removes benign bacteria . Most of the high death-rate of orphans without TLC can be ascribed to lack of repopulation by benign skin-ecologies . The malign bacteria win and eats the baby alive .

Baby Helpers :
Leather straps above the nappy around the middle .
Leather arm straps slightly above the wrist .
Leather strap loosely around the neck .

These function as reservoirs for benign skin-ecosystems . Do not wash them with the baby . Don't worry , the bacteria will find their way.

I use leather because I do not know of a better material .
There has been insufficient research on the long-term effects of metals and synthetics

Lifetime of a strap :
Look at the argument .Organisms survive in the strap , but if they are cut off from a source of nourishment (ie contact with the skin) , they are genetically constrained to switch on lethality genes in their competition for resources . The strap turns into a source of contagion and toxins . Sterilization will not remove the toxins . An acid and alkali bath should do the trick .

Logic indicates that items worn on the skin should be put into a freezer when taken off .

At room temperature , I can only estimate that an item unworn will spoil at the same rate as meat . About two weeks .
If you have not worn a skin-item for two weeks , really , really sterilize it or discard it .
Meta-study possibility : nurses and sisters on duty wear lapel watches .
Sigh . So much for that big study about nurses and diabetes .
See also "Problem with Randomization"

Wrist-watch strap and DiabetesII
The incidence of wrist watches and DiabetesII match very exactly .
The reason is that most people take their watches off at night .
The bacteria in the strap use up their food resources during the night , but are still alive and hungry in the morning .
When the watch is put back on , demand signals are sent back through the skin for more energy (ie sugar) .
The demand signals have evolved to lie :they use methylization methods to increase the priority of their resource demands . This persists for 3 generations of demands .

The body obliges , but cannot pinpoint the source of demand . The general sugar output is increased .

This would also hold for any jewelry routinely worn against the skin .

Epigenetic systems are involved (methylization is the signal sent back) .
Only items worn for a long time will elicit this effect .
To add insult to injury , this will affect 3 generations after you .

Evolutionary argument:
Decaying matter under fingernails . If not replaced , leads to hunt-generation and predator-selection switches going to hair-triggers .

This deserves a double Argh! . For stupidity .
All I needed to do was to wear my watch on a sleeve , not in contact with the skin and the sleeve daily washed . No diabetesII .
Oh well .

Once the system has stabilized , use Baby Helpers .

Caution :
Do not do this without medical supervision if you are on diabetic medication to reduce blood sugar levels . Drastic fluctuations are possible .

Sweet .

Andre .

Thursday, December 09, 2010

Predator Switch

Predator Switch
Andre Willers
9 Dec 2010

"The Prey is a lonely Hunter" Zen saying .

Synopsis :
A first iteration points out ADHD , Aspergers , Hyperactivity and Learned HelpLessness , with some suggested solutions .

The existence of a Predator Switch delineating chosen prey causes all sorts of consequences in existence or non-existence of delineated neural and psychological effects .

Discussion :

PredatorSwitch :
This is a very old mechanism . Fixation on a designated prey has major advantages for any organism with motility . Probably played a major role in the evolution of mobility and concentration(ie attention) .

Mirror Neuron Networks evolved from these concentrations of Activity and Attention. This led to Fairness (a nice little optimization problem)

Postulate a clump of neurons , which by it’s architecture classifies output as prey or non-prey .

A . The Logical Architecture :

1.Attention :
Attention (+x) <…………..> PredatorSwitch <………..>Attention(-x)

Where x is the degree of attention . (+x) would translate in extremes as Aspergers , while (-x) would translate as Attention Deficit Syndrome .

2.Activity :
Activity (+x) <…………..> PredatorSwitch <………..>Activity(-x)

Where x is the degree of attention . (+x) would translate in extremes as hyperactivity , while (-x) would translate as learned helplessness and depression .

MirrorNetwork(+x) <……….> AttentionSwitch <…………….> MirrorNetwork(-x)
Where x is the degree of attention mediated by feedback processes initiated by the PredatorSwitch . (+x) would translate in extremes as Saintliness , while (-x) would translate as Sociopathy .

See how it fits into a related spectrum around the Predator Switch ?

Attention Deficiency , HyperActivity , Aspergers (Hyper Attention) , Learned Helplessness (depression , lethargy) are all related and the system can shift between them with bewildering rapidity . Sociability follows .

Hunting the PredatorSwitch :
A nice little three-patch problem .
The twists and turns of the arguments are too long to show here (an exercise for the Dear Reader)
The results are simple :

PredatorSwitch is a distributed switch .
1.The Master Switch is the Pituitary . (Note Melatonin)
Subsidiary switches are
2.Hypocampus (neurotransmitters)
3.Amygdala (neurotransmitters and hormones)
4.Visual system (interruptors and glial signals) (Note research on toad-eyes)

These four delineated systems are the minimum necessary sufficient to handle contiguous dimensional transforms of data .
(See "The inside of zero" et al )
This is geek-speak for being able to form a continuous sensorium .With these four centers operational , an entity can make sense of an environment utilizing neural-nets with quantized parameters . (Cf " What it like to be a bat")
It is bounded at first iterations by ever-decreasing observational limits , culminating in the Planck limits of space and time .

Subsequent iterations gives sub-Planck dimensions . Also called Infinitesimal Calculus . Mathematics .

Studying infinities should have observable effects on fMRI .Cf music .

Interventions :
Most human problems can be described by various values of x in the three major parameters shown in A (The Logical Architecture) above . Interventions are individually known , then equally obvious in aggregates of three .
Try thinking a little .

I have thought of many algorithms to ameliorate most conditions covered by variations in the three basic variables in A above .
But who am I to prescribe to you ?
Do it yourself .

These give a 3x1 matrix for an individual and a 3x2 matrix for two individuals . The matrix rules of interaction are derivable .

Virtual individuals : (Children)
The first child slots into the 3x3 matrix willy-nilly . And so forth .It is a pity that sometimes this does not work out .

These calculations are fairly accurate to Beth(1) levels

"The Prey is a lonely Hunter"


Sunday, November 21, 2010

Do gods proliferate ?

Do gods proliferate ?
Andre Willers
21 Nov 2010

Synopsis :
Proliferation in the number of gods , each one with a commemorative day in a limited set of 365 days places an unbearable strain in societies in decline . This contributes to revolution or collapse .

Discussion :
Facebook :
Facebook enables humans to bypass the old limitation of 150 persons .
The question is : how many friends on facebook can you have to give a probability of 99% that every day of the year will be a birthday .
According to wikipedia it is 21 170 ( = 58*365)

Now do the same for gods or saints .
Being virtual , they do not share the 150 limit .
This number of commemorations puts an unbearable strain on primitive economies .
Especially if they are in decline .
Vested interests (priesthoods and god-kings) demand ever greater percentage of resources , until the very fabric of society tears .

See what happened to
The ancient Mayans , Egyptians , Roman-Greeks , Angkor-Wat , ancient Arabians , to a certain extent Bronze-age societies , France in medieval times , etc .

Even today , modern societies utilizes the various commemoritive holidays as reserve mechanisms (about 1/3 of a year) . See previous posts .
Going over this 1/3 optimum eats away at the society's competitiveness .

The economic appeal of mono-theism .
A point not exactly emphasized by religious historians .
Having one god is far cheaper than having a lot of them .
Especially in decline phases .

Roman Empire example :
Most emperors were made gods . They had commemorations , enforced by the priesthood and the Roman Army , who took a big share of the offerings . And the number of gods increased with each new emperor .
This was a tax .This became unsupportable as the economy and population declined .

A classical Hegelian Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis ensued .
The Roman Catholic Church (being , well , catholic) , imported the old gods and called them saints . This proliferated the number of entities needed to be honoured by adding human historical figures .

But the synthesis was that commemoration was not obligatory .

A very important point . It limited the support a religious order could extort . Neatly short-circuiting the whole priesthood problem into a voluntary thing . Also ensuring the break between State and Religion . (The State is a legal person , a virtual person in our terms . What is sauce for the gander , is sauce for the duck ) If religious liability for persons is limited , so is the liability of the state .

It is then possible to rebel against the priesthood without rebelling against the mono-theistic deity . (eg Protestants vs Catholics in Middle Ages) .

This is what happened .

Variations of this played out over the millennia .
In Eastern countries Buddha was conscripted into the same monotheistic role (something that would have amused him tremendously) .
Just look at all the Temples !

Theistic Drag .
The cost of the religious establishment .
Is it worth it ?

It cannot be zero . (Because A plus ~A See Toba and WWII . (Crux points : Altruism has a higher survival value . Proven the hard way .)
But too much altruism stultifies and destroys .(See above)

Optimal Religious Investment .

It exists , but shifts .

As an exercise for the Dear Reader , calculate the optimal investment of a society in religious establishments , in general and in particular for various civilizations and era's .
Show the effects of uncertain data on the error boundaries of the solutions .(to the nearest 3% )

Hints :
1.Use Pairs (to keep infinities to manageable levels)
3. "New Tools" , "TSP and QG" , "Problems with Randomization" , et al
4.Actual example : Judaic systems . A monotheistic system with a stripped down priesthood . Proven survivors .
Any explanation of Optimal Religious Investment must be able to explain this survivor . Note the size of Schules : about 150 . Are there Facebook schules , and how do they adapt to the larger virtual congregations ?

For those with too few or too many gods .


Friday, November 19, 2010

Traveling Salesman Problem and Quantum Gravity

Traveling Salesman Problem and Quantum Gravity
Andre Willers
19 Nov 2010

A short , fast solution to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is deduced and a potential application to quantum Gravity proposed .

Discussion :
1.Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)
While I solved this problem in May 2005 , it was a curiosity until I saw the article in NewScientist of 25 Sept 2010 " Dimensions vanish in quantum gravity" (p14) , which can easily be related to the Suburban solution of the TSP . Hence this article .

2.TSP :
A salesman travels from city to city . Calculate his minimum route .

This is described as a Hard Problem , since the brute-force approach involves all possible combinations of n cities . In other words , the PowerSet of n .
This approaches Aleph(1) as n grows large
(see "Problems with Randomization" , "Randomness2" et al)
This is normally translated as uncomputable (though I do not agree) .

Constraints :
2.1 The salesman and the cities are delineated . ie Have boundaries
2.2 The salesman arrives and departs only once per city .
2.3 The salesman ends up in his starting city (the classical , circular form)

Algorithm :
Overview :
Calculate distances between pairs of all cities .
Sort the pairs of connected cities in ascending order (The Trick !).
This is only n*(n+1)/2 in speed-size . Sort algorithms are very fast .

This is a reduced PowerSet .
Do you see why our universe runs on a reduced PowerSet ?
Reducing to pairs (which the constraint or Axiom of Delineation makes possible) enables us to keep things below Aleph(1) levels .
That is why the Algorithm below is possible .
Notice the cunning use of this by Nature in Sex , DNA pairing , immune systems et al.
Anywhere you see a pairing system , it means the PowerSet is reduced and humans can understand it .

Each city can have only one Arrival and one Departure . Go down the list of increasing distances , eliminating impossibilities until all Arrival and Departure slots are filled . Then stop . The cities not eliminated are the minimum route .
The arrival and departure slots are analogous to quantum states .
Only one available is analogous to the Pauli-principle .

Detail :
Let there be n cities .
Calculate the distances between pairs of cities .
Constraint 2.3 means there are only n-1 cities for calculation purposes because city(begin)=city(end) .
There are thus numL1 = (n-1)C2 = n*(n-1)/2 combinations .
These are distances between cities .
Sort them in ascending order , smallest first .
Every Length L has a city at each end .
Let each city have a dimension City(nID1,nID2 ,nArrivalFrom , nDepartureTo)
Total of dimensions required is numL1* n^4 = of order n^6

The simple algorithm :
Let every length be different . The cities are at different distances from each other . Then the solution is simple (which is why we mention it) :
Start with the shortest length L .
Eliminate all subsequent cities with the same departure ID as first Departure city .
Eliminate all subsequent cities with the same arrival ID as first Arrival city .

Proceed to the second length and iterate .

Stop when all Arrival and Departure slots have been filled .
Identify route You have it in a very short time , as the list reduces .

This can be considerably shortened , but I keep it simple to show the principle .

More complicated :
Aha !
What if there are multiple duplications in the distances between the cities ?
Then we can easily be stuck back in the brute-force approach . If the ratio's are wrong , we might even be stuck in a Aleph(1) situation .

The Suburban Solution .The elegant Solution .
We use the constraint as set out above :
"2.1 The salesman and the cities are delineated . ie Have boundaries"

Instead of traveling from city-center to city-center , our Salesman only needs to travel to a Suburb . We arbitrarily assign the distance of the suburb from the center , so we can have unique distances . We can then use the sorting mechanism .
This is The Trick !

We know what the minimum distance between any of the cities are (we calculated it at step one) . We know how many cities there are .

We can then calculate a distance dBurbMax from the city center that , no matter what distance we assign the Salesman's suburban target offset from the city-center , the sum of these n distances cannot exceed the minimum distance between any of the cities .
Recommended :use Random walk , but make sure it is Random !

We then simply iterate the Simple Algorithm above , which gives a boundaried solution , but the biggest boundary is smaller than smallest distance between cities .

Computations :
This leads to problems if dBurbMax < Planck length or number capability of computer .

Thinking out of the circle .
(The box is so passé)
Sub-Planck lengths can be approximated by looking at elements outside the circle , but that interact inside the sub-planck circle .
Shades of the Mach principle !

Which , of course brings us to Quantum-inertia and quantum-gravity .

Inertia :
This should be manipulable by letting dBurbMax straddle the Planck-length .
Be careful of the radiation release !
(A form of Hawking radiation)

However , gravity would need manipulation of dBurbMax at sub-Planck lengths and in Beth(1+) modes .

FTL communication :
This is implied by the above . Manipulation of inertia .

FTL travel :
Maybe a bit further . A higher order of technology required .

For literary worrywarts :
Death of the Salesman will really knock things asunder .
What happens if the Postman only knocks pi times ?

Pity .
I was hoping for easy anti-gravity .

Oh well ,

Andre .


Appendix A
From AW VB program TSP.vbp dated 24/5/2005
Rough programming notes for the Simple Algorithm.

Public Sub s_Doc()
'Symmetrical Travelling Salesman Problem Documentation
'1. Problem: n Nodes (Cities) are given .
'Find the minimum distances from any point returning
'to the same point,visiting each node once only.
'Symmetrical means A->B = B->A .
'Returning to the same point means that every node must have one
'arrival and one departure.
'There are m=n*(n-1)/2 links between nodes .
'For the minimum distance , n links must be chosen , ie n arrivals
'and n departures , one each per node .

'2. Algorithm
'2.1 Calc distances of links .(=set L1)
'2.2 Sort links in ascending order, keeping track of nodes involved.(=set L2)
'2.3 starting at left-hand(smallest link) , proceed link by link
'until every departure- and arrival node has been included at least once .
'2.4 This is the collection of minimum round-trips possible .(=set L3)
'2.5 The trick is now to eliminate as many of the longest distances possible.
'2.6 Starting at the right-hand of the collection L3 formed in para 2.3 above,
'goto the left hand (smallest)of L3 . If node(x) is in arrival at the
'furthest right-hand , try to find departures for the same node in the
'left-hand . Do the same for departures .
'Loop to the right-hand until number of arrival and departure
'nodes in RH are 1 or bigger.
'2.7 Goto the next one on the left of L3 and repeat .
'This gives set=L4
'2.6 The end result is the minimum distance by going from node 1 to n
'in collection L4
'2.7 Duplicate possible pathways means there are duplicate minimum lenghts.
'2.8 This is exact .
'2.9 Calculation time :
'Minimum:if there are no duplicate distances betwen any two nodes ,
'the calculation time is the sort time of L1 (para 2.2)
'Maximum:if maximum duplicate distances in every instance in L3.
'This has upper limit of ~n^4 using para's 2.6 onwards , plus minimum
'sorting time.

End Sub

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Problems with Randomization .

Problems with Randomization .
Andre Willers
16 Nov 2010

Synopsis :
Any random number of delineated items can be described as a non-random set .
What appears random , is not .

Discussion :
See "Randomness2" et al .

A quick derivation:
Let a delineated set of elements A() have Aleph(0) elements , ie countable .
Aleph(0) : A(1),A(2), A(3), … , A(Aleph(0) ) with n=Aleph(0) elements .

The Powerset of this is all the possible combinations C of the set of n elements .
This can be counted as : nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + … nCn = 2^n (Binomial expansion)
Where nCk=n! / { (n-k)! * k! }
But the PowerSet has (n+1) terms .

Now , pair each term nCk with a term in Aleph(0) set . We ignore SuperCounting . There will always be one left over . This means that the Powerset cannot be counted in terms of Aleph(0) . It must then be of a higher order of infinity . ie Aleph(1) .

This is iterated to give higher orders of Aleph .

Important note :
The meaning of repetition of terms in the basal Aleph(0) set .
Each successive Combinations involves the original terms . This denotes feedback processes or causal relationships .
Think feedback descriptions without the time-dimension .
They clump together .

Randomness :
Let Beth(m) denote the Order of Randomness of Aleph(m) .

Any finite selection of once-only combination of terms in Aleph(0) can be expressed as a term in Aleph(1) . (By definition)

If there can be more than repetition of an Aleph(0) term , then we can always (by definition) find a Aleph(x) term that incorporates these terms . But the true randomness is then expressed only relative to this particular term .
This can be exactly calculated , since the Aleph(0) items are delineated .
The numbers can be large , but ratio's and countability can be used .

The problem :
Randomization in medicine , marketing , etc is routinely used with naïve randomization on Aleph(0) items . But these are never random . Results can be extremely misleading .

How to choose a truly random set :
We use the trusty old diagonal proof :
Write the transfinite set as
Aleph(0) : A(1),A(2), A(3), … , A(Aleph(0) )
Aleph(1) : S(1,1) , S(1,2) , …
Aleph(2) : S(2,1) , S(2,2) , …
Aleph(w) : S(w,1) , S(w,2) , …

Where S(j,z) is Powerset of previous S(j-1),k)
Now do a change on each element of the diagonal and designate this diagonal set as Aleph(w+1) . This cannot fit any previous Aleph (by definition of diagonal Process)
This is an iterative , transfinite process , but it can be truncated at any stage to give a randomness with exactly calculated , finite boundaries .
(This is done all the time in Quantum Physics , to avoid those pesky infinities.)
What does all this mean ?
Sigh . All those nice little studies using random assignations of groups without taking into account feedback processes will have to be redone . At best , they are meaningless . At worst , they are harmful , giving false positives or negatives .
It is like doing a gene-analysis , and ignoring all the gene-repetitions . You see ?
Beth has many rooms .

Sunday, November 14, 2010

Gaia Strikes Back !

Gaia Strikes Back !
Andre Willers
14 Nov 2010

Synopsis :
The success-rate of angiosperm reproduction has fallen due to reduction in Gaiean non-angiosperm reserves . This has major consequences for human food supplies .
(Indeed , alarm bells should be ringing loudly.)

Discussion :
See :
NewScientist 11 Sept 2010 p6 "Pollen crisis" : "The Flower , the Dinosaur and Puff" , "Tunneling Nanotubes ." and "Death of the Dinosaurs"

The effects of the decrease in Gaiean non-angiosperm reserves (mainly gymnosperms and fungi) was discussed at length . The decrease in pollinator numbers (ie bees and dependant species like frogs) was expected .

However , a new effect has appeared from 1999 onward .
(See "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B , vol 365 ,p3187)
Naturally pollinated plants fared consistently worse compared to artificially pollinated plants (the effects of insect scarcity was eliminated : there was no pollinator scarcity in the test system .)

There are three possible explanations
1.Plants are producing less pollen .
2.Angiosperm double-fertilization has been reduced .
3.A combination of both .

The second possibility is truly worrisome .

The mechanism :
Some factors produced by gymnosperms and/or fungi were in balance with the angiosperm double-fertilization trick . The balance was at the discussed 1/3 non-angiosperm , 2/3 angiosperm level . This was the level about 90 million years ago .

(Typical evolutionary would be : inhibitors (A) of angiosperm double-fertilization would be inhibited by gymnosperm inhibitors(B1) and fungi inhibitors(B2) .
The success of angiosperms would then occur if B1<>B2 .
Angiosperms sort-of wriggled their way into exploiting the inequalities between the two systems .)

As the gymnosperm forests shrink (eg human deforestation , global warming) and fungal mass shrink (eg draining of marshlands , sequestering of sulfur-bearing biomass) , double-fertilization becomes rarer . B1 and B2 both shrink , leading to increased inhibition A .

The effects should be more pronounced at the borders of the three biomes .

Quorum mechanisms .
These most likely have been established , as this process has been around for about 130 million years .

This means that a sudden , catastrophic reduction of angiosperm reproduction to gymnosperm reproduction is not only possible , but likely .
Crop yields would fall by factors of 100 – 10 000 within a season .
(Something like a natural version of Monsanto's Terminator gene)

The resultant die-off of over-successful dependant species would re-establish business-as-usual from Gaia's viewpoint .

Artificial pollination in agricultural enclaves (like agricultural towers) is possible if they survive the warfare . (Cf ants and termites , who seem to have been here before)

Or else , the genetic- and bio-engineers could get off their duff .

It is doubtful if any political solution except war is possible . (Tragedy of the Commons argument)

We could awaken Gaia .
The Sleeping Princess with a vengeance .
It is definitely possible (probability about 80% in 2010)
This might happen in any case given present technology . Humans would be part of the gestalt .
(As discussed in : "Death of the Dinosaurs" )

This might seem like a political solution , but is it really ?
Does a weed negotiate with the gardener ? Only if it is smart weed and can be useful .
But autonomy would be limited .
(On the other hand , I have had spirited negotiations with crabgrass , and usually came out on the losing end.)

Interesting times in the gardens of Sol .


Thursday, November 11, 2010

Facebook , Friends and Disciples .

Facebook , Friends and Disciples
Andre Willers
12 Nov 2010

Synopsis :
Facebook and similar self-organizing systems are forcing a change in very basic human societal perceptions and interactions .

Discussion :
1.Let us put some numbers on it .
We know that 150 is the optimum human grouping . (Clan)
This in turn is grouped in pairs . (Families)
This gives N= 150*149/2 = 11 175 as the number of groups of two in the clan .
But 2^x = 11175 if x=13.447
The 2^x is interpreted as all possible combinations of 13 individuals will give the same number of combinations of families in a clan .

Hence the 12 Apostles+1 . This is a standard configuration because it is stable .
Cf ministers and cabinets .

Fractally , 2^y = 13 if y= 3.7

The inner circle will be 3 . The old Triumvirate .
This pattern has repeated over and over in history .

Why three ?
Because of humans having two sexes .
The family is 2 parents plus the successor child .

Back generation: do the inverse .
Lower boundary as first approximation = Sqrt( 2^(2^3) ) * 2 = 32
Upper boundary as first approximation = Sqrt(2*(2*4) ) *2 = 516

What does this mean ?
The smallest survivable human grouping is 32 .
The necessary sufficient human grouping for survival is 516/3 = 172 .
This is close enough to 150 for government work .
See "New Tools reserves"
See also Celtic Rule of 1/3 for expansion/expulsion .

So , humans configured around this , not the usual rather doubtful communication boundaries .

Facebook :
Facebook does not have an acquaintance setting . It is either Friend or nowhere in truly Aristotelian fashion . But humans dislike to say "No" . So they maneuver around it by increasing the number of friends , but only pay attention to a few (as calculated above) . But the Devil is in the decimals . If you interpret the decimals in the numerical arguments above as "Casuals" , then the acquaintances rapidly escalate above the necessary sufficient human grouping for survival of 172 .

Facebook is forcing a fundamental societal change , not seen since Toba.

Remember , pre-Toba the social structure was a cloud of hyper-smart males around a core of females and children .

Facebook is essentially a female tool . What the sites show are clouds of female relationships .

But now we have an even larger cloud of acquaintances , each one which can elevated at will to "More Friendly status" .

Think clouds of relations . Your brother's keeper with a vengeance .

Where is the Dark Side ?
It is inherent in the Dark Side that it cannot share an advantage .
No more need to be said .
It has inherent , self-imposed limitations .

Where can Darth Vader hang out with the boys , slurp up a few beers and brag what he will do to Princess Leia ? But you see , he cannot even do that . He is limited to his own few paltry neurons .

What to do ?
Facebook works best in large scale , exponentially increasing number of connections . Check in privacy and embarrassment at the door . You will never get them back .

Or creep into your shell and watch the universe go by .

The number of disciples needed :
After 12+1 the next stable number is 6653+1 . Maybe possible with Facebook . But to get 6653 humans to agree on anything is nearly impossible .
Or another way of thinking about it , this is the upper boundary for religious congregations . Things fall apart after that .
After that , it is 2^6654 , and good luck to you .

Conclusion :
You have to join in , or miss the fun . Also , if you don't you will have to repeat the lesson in the aftermath .

Ie Clean up the shit on your own doorstep . Teachers are never fair .

And so it goes .



Andre Willers
11 Nov 2010

Synopsis :
Updates of previous posts based on articles in the 14 Aug 2010 NewScientist.
This is a highly interesting edition .

Discussion :
1.This is an interesting edition of NewScientist
Not all editions are equally interesting.
All are equal , but some are more equal than others .
Note that the interesting-article distribution per weekly edition follows a power law (as expected with higher-order randomness)
This is fractal (ie , true regardless of field(s) of interest .
See "New Tools" , "Orders of Randomness" et al .

See "Sunspots" , "Sunspots2" Jan 2008

See 14 Aug 2010 NewScientist p14 "Frozen jet stream,violent weather"
Northern hemisphere Jet stream shows sunspot-induced stasis or accellarated changes near resonance frequencies . Relevance to Global warming .

3. !Click Language
See for !Click references around Oct 2009

See 14 Aug 2010 NewScientist p43 "Ear today , eye tomorrow"
MRI evidence of the neural mechanisms underlying the capability .
General acceptance and increasing research .
Electronic translators greatly speed up the process .
But be careful of TransCranial Magnetic Induction . This can severely disrupt working mechanisms .
Mechanical reading of subsurface rock "sonic paintings" and "sonic inscriptions" now possible . Very interesting . Try Pyramids ?

4.Evolutionary trauma handling .
See "Climate change,heat shock and evolution" and previous posts on the subject (referenced inside the article or Search)
See "Hibernation and Cryogenics" , " Birdflu update-4" Oct 2008

See 14 Aug 2010 NewScientist p46 "Heal thyself"

Very briefly : SIRS is a two-stage process .
(According to Singer , University College , London)
SIRS : Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome .
SIRS(1) : Fight mode . Fever .
SIRS(2) : Decrease metabolism . Switch off major organs .
SIRS(3) : Recovery . Switch everything back on .

(SIRS : a coarse outline according to AW's previous posts)

SIRS(1) : Fight mode . Fever . Switch off lethality genes in body-bacteria . Pasteurise the body . Keep new sources of infection out . Do not use mitochondrial inhibitants . Vit C in megadoses (+- 7gm/day) to mobilize immune system .

SIRS(2) : Decrease metabolism . The body switches off major organs into hibernation
Induction from high fever can be done by H2S (80 ppm) as discussed.
(Interesting aside : are there any old treatments for very high fever involving rotten eggs? )
Melatonin additives ? Sleep .
The immune system is another organ that is put into hibernation . New sources of infection (ie bacteria with lethality genes switched on) must be kept out .

SIRS(3) : Recovery . Switch everything back on , but in stages . Think of an electrical grid coming back up after a blackout .
This process starts with the beginning of SIRS(2)
Essentials :
1.Replace Gut bacteria (to enable nutrient absorbtion . Remember , most gut bacteria have been pasteurized during SIRS(1) to free the immune system guards hanging around on their butts surrounding the gut . See previous posts on "Gut" .(Hence Vit C megadoses) )
2.Raw materials (food) , especially Sulfur and Iron .
3.Mitochondrial stimulants.
4.Graduated Mental stimulation . For evolutionary reasons , brain demands on consumables have overrides on repair processes . The whole system's recovery priorities are governed by the brain . The switching on of various genes and organs are balanced with the switching on of various brain processes . So , do not interfere with the brain processes unless you really know what you are doing .
5.Pure water . Pasteurized at least .
6.Stay out of hospitals and go light on the antibiotics .

"Don't you love it when a plan comes together , especially if it is Plan 9 ." AW Team .


Friday, November 05, 2010

Flightrage and betablockers

Flightrage and Betablockers.
Andre Willers
5 Nov 2010

Synopsis :
Betablockers exacerbates fight-or-flight reflexes from quick altitude changes , due to activation of adrenal glands .

Discussion :

Example : Capetown to Johannesburg flight .

Aircraft cabins pressurize to 8 200 feet equivalent very soon after takeoff as plane reaches cruising altitude of around 30 000 to 40 000 feet . (Wikipedia)

This is calculated to be right at the edge of the 95% Gaussian distribution , since this costs less . If you fall into the 2.5% of the remaining upper end of the sickly , elderly or pregnant , too bad .

The passenger subjectively goes from sea level to 8 200 feet in a matter of minutes .

This causes the heart to try and speed up and increase its stroke in a linear fashion to get more oxygen to the organs .(Altitude sickness)
This is noticed as a shortness of breath as the blood alkaline level falls due to CO2 exhalation . Feelings of claustrophobia and constraint are experienced .
Oxygen deprivation will be experienced by individuals on the tail end of the statistical distribution , with all the attendant symptoms (Google "Altitude sickness")

Betablockers :
However , if the passenger is taking betablockers , the heartspeed cannot compensate. The control mechanism via the brain is interrupted .

The system then initiates a more general hormone system , namely large-scale adrenal activations . Fight-or flight on a systemic scale .
The passenger goes ape . Mostly cowers , but some will go ballistic .

This is Flightrage .

Anxiety attacks :
The signaling molecules for amygdala and physical stressors are the same (unfortunately) . They have a feedback pattern that has to be disrupted . (Use alcohol)

Reduced oxygen supply :
The partial pressure of oxygen reduces linearly . Most organisms compensate by inducing endorphous melatonin release and going to sleep .
But this does not happen to all of them .

Notice that this means that you can get jet-lag even on a Capetown-Joburg route . The body interprets the varying oxygen supply and demand fluctuations as temporal fluctuations . And the inverse , of course .

Reduced oxygen demand : Melatonin supplements .
Melatonin supplements , combined with disruptors like betablockers and alcohol , will reduce oxygen consumption to compensate for subjective altitude .
Take a fast release Melatonin pill (Solal , 3 mg) about 30 minutes before flight .

What to do :

1.Two to three stiff drinks : 50 ml of 40% alcohol (a double) times 3 will be sufficient to interrupt 95% of anxiety attacks . No more , as this will erode self-control
This should work for a short flight of 2 hours . About 30 to 0 minutes before takeoff .

2. Melatonin :
Take a fast release Melatonin pill (Solal , 3 mg) about 30 minutes before flight .
For longer flights , combine with slow-release melatonon .

3.Smoking :
Smoking increases red-blood cell concentrations (Carbon monoxide effect) . The turnabout is quite rapid (24 hrs - a heritage of millions of years of fire) . Stopping smoking about 8 hours before the flight should optimize systems nicely .
Take iron supplements .

4.BetaBlockers :
Take an extra one about 30 mins before the flight . The anti-anxiety effect outweighs the fight-or-flight effect for 67% of humans 95% of the time .
Other anti-anxiety drugs like Activan can be tried .

5.Do not eat beans .
Or any gas causing foods for at least 48 hrs before flight . The sudden decrease in cabin pressure on going to cruising altitude will cause major abdominal discomfort as the gas pockets expand . Farts and belches .
(You will not see this caution on any airline website)
Mexican flights must be a culinary adventure .

6.High blood pressure medication .
Do not take 12 hours before flight .
This includes diuretics .

The sudden decrease in cabin pressure from sea-level to 8 200 feet reduces blood pressure drastically . This should be ok for a healthy young individual , but older ones with obstructed blood vessels can easily get the bends . Also euphemistically known as Deep Vein Thrombosis . The vein expands faster than the blood can rush in to fill the gap . A thrombosis results as the clotting agents lose contact with quorum anti-coagulants . Gases reverse osmosis from tissue into veins , forming microscopic thrombosis spicules . It also screws up the O2/CO2 sensor mechanisms .

7 Aspirin:
Anti-coagulents taken about 45 mins before take-off .About 3x300 mg Disprin . The pulse of concentration of the anti-coagulent is important.

8 Hydration :
At 8 200 feet , there is significant CO2 loss through breathing (Google "Altitude sickness") .The blood becomes more alkaline , causing major metabolic shifts , especially in the CNS .

So , drink Coke or Soda water .
Soda water with a dash of salt and vinegar will go down well .(Old Roman recipe)
This should be done continously about 12 hrs before takeoff and during flight .

9 On Landing :
Biological systems will be in a state of reverberating shock (ie oscillating) . Do not take any medication except alcohol for about 12 hours after landing .(The alcohol dampens shock effects . Do not use caffeine in any form )

10. Epigenetic effects .
Obesity and diabetes
A flight on a aircraft pressurized at 8 200 feet from sealevel triggers starvation mechanisms . The body thinks it cannot get enough energy , but thinks it is because of a lack of food (not oxygen) . Epigenetic markers get switched on , as if the person had lived through a famine . Fat deposit mechanisms are switched on .

Anybody who has been on a commercial flight in the last three generations will have fat children or be at risk of diabetes .

Hence the present epidemic of obesity/diabetes . The system is simply trying to compensate for a perceived repeated famine (and getting very confused in the process) .

11. Chicken fat .
See previous posts . A source of merriment to many .
However , eating chicken fat about about 6-12 hours before takeoff will significantly reduce epigenetic markers .

There is even the prospect of reversing the process :
Use pulses of sound to compress tissue . ie Really heavy beat music .
During the compression phase , the rate of chemical activity is significantly enhanced.
This convinces some quorum systems to unmark some epigenetic systems .

Why ?
Reinforcing success is an old strategic principle . About 500 million years of evolution must have developed the same at genetic level .
A failure at first is overwritten by a success later .
Therefore , there must be a method on cellular level of doing exactly this .

12.The Chicken Stomp .
Sip chicken fat soup in rhythm to the heavy beat .
Systems will compensate to switch off fat-deposit markers .
An easy way of losing weight .

After all , birds are the champion weight-watchers .


Sunday, October 31, 2010

Open Bidding

Open Bidding .
Andre Willers
31 Oct 2010

A transparent market mechanism , incorporating a random element .In a fractal form , more efficient than any present systems .

Discussions :
First , read

The points of note are Error arguments in the 1/3 Reserves and the 200% of Costs in optimal markup .

An example :
I wish to hire my nephew for transport on a short visit .
I do not wish to disadvantage him , but do not wish to be held up for ransom ,either .
Both parties must feel that the deal is equitable and fair .

The Algorithm :
1.The Cost :
Establish boundaries -Iteration (1)
Lower boundary : operational costs (ie petrol) . R0,8/km
Upper boundary : Standard taxi fares: R8.00/km . This includes amortization of all other costs , including profit .
Difference= R7.2/km

Establish boundaries -Iteration (2)
Lower boundary : operational costs related to petrol only . R1,60 /km = 0.8x2
Upper boundary : Standard taxi fares: R8.00/2 = R4.00/km . This would be the cost after all sorts of add-ons .
Difference= R2.4/km

Establish boundaries -Iteration (3)
Lower boundary : 1/3 of the difference (4,00 – 1.6) =0.8 plus lower boundary(1.6) = R2.4/km
Upper boundary : 1/3 of the difference (4,00 – 1.6) =0.8 minus upper boundary(4.0) = R3.2/km
Difference= R1.2 /km

Random Offer : Iteration(4)
When the difference is between 2 and 3 times the lower and upper boundaries , offer a random settlement .
Settlement = 3.2 + Rnd(1.2) , where Rnd(1.2) lies between (–1.2 and +1.2)

Why do this ?:
Fairness .
Fairness is hardwired in , with some very sophisticated algorithms . Millions of years of evolution went into this sense .

If it does not feel fair , humans and many animals start nitpicking at the basic conditions , previously agreed as fair . A fixed outcome is not seen as fair . A chance element involving human skill is . Go figure .

The boundary conditions ensure that nobody loses , but that humans feel they are involved (and actually are) This an open process .

The Fair offer to the nephew :

R 3.2 /km +- R1.2/km depending on your choice of random mechanism .

An interesting aside :
This method can be used in any bargaining process , with the advantage that both parties feel satisfied . Not the usual result in most Market Mechanisms .

Note the importance of the random element at the end .
This is usually interpreted as skill . I hope you do not pay too much for it .

Why is it more efficient ?
The random element enables Futures Markets , with the whole panoply armament of Hedge Funds .
This has been proven to be more efficient .
The difference here is that boundaries are fixed. Nobody can lose their all , but the top end is open ended over many transactions .

Nice , eh?

Andre .

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Epidemics without Pathogen transmission .

Epidemics without Pathogen transmission .
Andre Willers
28 Oct 2010

Epidemics can manifest without pathogen transmission if (1) pathogens are already present in an organism , but with lethality genes switched off , and (2) quorum markers can be transmitted .

This has not been much of a problem as yet , because we did not have filters good enough to keep out bacteriological (maybe even viral) particles . But we do now . Nano filters (eg Uni Stellenbosch simple and cheap water filter using tangled bundles of carbon nano-fibres) .

This will keep out the nasty , large bugs , but not the marker molecules used to transmit information in the bacterial/viral quorum system .

Everybody has endogenous potentially harmful bacteria . But their lethality genes are switched off as long as they are better off in a healthy host .

For example , the water might test clear of any pathogen , but have a high enough concentration of quorum markers to trigger the lethality switches of endogenous bacteria or viruses .
They then send out more markers . If there is a shared medium like water , a ripple of bacterial activation is sent out . This can have a positive feedback if the water supply is limited , concentrating the markers .

And , of course nothing concentrates the markers more than urine .
So , urine might test sterile , but still kill you stone dead by activating lethality switches .

That will teach you to pee in the pool !

Note the decreased mortality due to male circumcision . Less urine is retained in the prepuce . The same effect is observed in females with tampons and pads , or in general with nappies . A form of anaphylactic shock , as the lethality genes get quorum , switch on and the body's immune system responds . But the little buggers are all over , so the immune system tries to respond all-over , instead of localized (which is it's forte) . This is anaphylactic , systemic shock . A variant is known as asthma .

Prophylactic measures :
1.Keep pubic hairs short
See "Old Age markers" 23 Dec 2007
This is to prevent quorum markers from sticking around . A bidet with clean water is recommended .
2.Use some toilet paper . Nothing soggy or wet should be retained in contact with the body .
Do not use absorbent underwear .The longer it stays wet , the longer it zaps you .

Some other horries:

1.Flesh eating bacteria . A "tragedy of the commons" variant . The bacteria get a quorum telling them that the host is dead or in extremis . They promptly switch on genes that enable them to eat the host .

2.Cancers . Some types of cancers are similar .

3.Consumptive type diseases : by definition .

4.Air-borne quorum markers .
Possible , but would normally be limited to the personal heat-envelope . If this is a problem , use a simple fan . Will be a problem in space-habitats . TB?

5.Touch quorum markers (includes fluid exchange)
The HIV to AIDS transition springs to mind . Many people live quite happily with HIV even without ARV's , but something triggers the quorum mechanism and the lethality RNA switches on . This suggests a very low quorum .
Our venerable history of Democracy suggests two solutions : kill the voters (ie quorum markers) or saturate with shills . This second has been found most effective .

This means :
Accellerate the HIV mutation rate . Flood the system with their marker products (about a cc injection) .
This will prevent a quorum . It will also make the Pharma's happy , as it means a repeated dose is necessary .

The usual human choice .
Pay up or die .


Shale Fracturing

Shale Fracturing
Andre Willers
28 Oct 2010

Update to Makgadigadi Sea
(Magadigadi , Makgadigadi , Makgadikgadi , Magadikgadi )

New technology involving horizontal drilling and high-pressure water-gels fractures shales to extract significant volumes of hydrocarbon gases .

Karoo areas around Prince Albert are already being developed PetroSA in conjunction with some American firms . Google "whitehill shale fracturing"

This falls within the southern edges of the endorheic basin roughly bounded by Prieska-VictoriaWest-Sutherland .
See "Makgadikgadi Sea:

Gas reserves in the order of 30 trillion cubic meters are estimated over the region . Enough for Southern Africa's energy needs for the next 100 years .
Google "shale fracturing"

The technology :
A mixture of nano- and micro-gels . These are pumped into the shale formation under very high pressure via horizontal boreholes . This fractures the shale . The water is withdrawn , leaving the micro-nano elements remaining to prop open the fracture , allowing the gases to collect at a central point .

About 70% of the water can be reused , but the rest must go into the aquifers .

Some effects:

1.Restocking aquifers
This has the unintentional effect of restocking deep aquifers , not only in the Karoo but elsewhere in the world . (This is already being used on large scale in US , EU ,Russia , probably China . ) It is easy and cheap . The whole process is driven by recovered gas . Water can be obtained by desalination , using same gas supplies .
Will have a major effect on agriculture , especially American Mid-West and West (Oglalla acquifer)
This will probably be the major effect of this boom .

Rehydration can activate dormant faults , as the water lubricates . The present shale-fracturing in the New York area might have some interesting consequences vis-à-vis the Ramapo Fault .

3.Legal .
Who owns the water in the acquifers that seeps in from these activities ?
Lawayers will have a field day .

Tons and tons of it .
The usual squabbling .

The importance of oil-reserves will decrease .

Epitaph on a tombstone :
"I expected this , but not so soon."


The burning of the Fleets.

The burning of the Fleets.
Andre Willers
26 Oct 2010

The burning of the Chinese Exploration Fleets and dismantling of dockyard capability was a deliberate , considerate policy . What's more , it was correct .

Discussion :

During 1300 to 1400 AD the Chinese were in a desperate war of survival with the Mongols . Though the Mongols only numbered about 700 000 at the best of times , through superior tactics and strategy they managed to conquer 40 million Chinese .
The old problem : they could not hold the territory due to insufficient numbers and unwillingness to assimilate . (Mongols were racists that put the Nazi's to shame).

The Mongols ruled by terrorism .
They pitted various social groups against each other , with survival of their wives and daughters as prize . Then systematically betrayed them .

No social system that had contact with the Mongols survived unchanged . The result is usually extreme xenophobia , coupled with paranoia . (Cf Russia , Middle East , China)

The Ming only managed to slowly push the Mongols out of China . No crushing victory was obtained . (The Mongolian threat was only ended in the 1700's with firearms from Russia and China in a pincer movement)

One of the major reasons for Mongol successes was systematic reconnaissance . All possible enemies or victims were probed by spies , emissaries , priests , mercenaries , etc .

The Ming learned to do the same . Having a much larger resource base , and using the designs Kublai Khan developed for the invasion of Japan , they assembled intelligence , sent out exploring and interdiction parties , and built the Admiral He Fleets .

Their findings horrified them . They knew the extent of Europe and North Africa from previous trades . The problem was the plains of Africa . The ideal of heaven for Mongols .

Any breakthrough of Mongols in large numbers into the plains of Serengeti or Southern Africa would mean war unending .

The marginal benefit for China of opening the territories is close to zero , since it is not arable land with their technology . But it is ideal for nomads like the Mongols .

A desperate battle ensued .

Mongols tried to break through , and Chinese countered in annihilation battles (reminiscent of Canada circa 1758 or Anglia circa 450) .

Only small number of elite troops were involved , but the results were large .

The Chinese won . But only by destroying their own capability of projecting large-scale forces overseas . They could not keep the shipyards out of the reach of a determined Mongol assault . So they burned the fleets and dismantled the shipyards and dispersed the skilled workers .

Remember the horsies .
No Mongol went anywhere without a horse .
If the ship could not carry a large number of horses , they weren't going anywhere .
Hence the destruction of large carrier capacity .

Oh , they kept the ones with local sailing skills , but 3000 tons plus skills were retired and dispersed .

Did it work ?
Yes .
The Mongols were parasites . Without concentrated sources of skilled slaves they were unable to reach the promised land of Serengeti .

The Chinese actually allowed them to survive , which sounds magnanimous until you realize that Han , Tibetan and Mongolian nobility are all cousins . Plus la change .

Would the Chinese have survived if Africa went Mongolian ?
One of those Alternate History questions .
The Ming definitely would not have survived for long . A reconquest of China by African Mongols using Indian surrogate troops is highly likely .

An ethnic cleansing type war is then likely . Indian helots with mongol overseers , ending in a mutual bloodletting about 2173 Alternative timeline .

A good example :
Short term denial had bad long-term effects , but not doing it would have been much , much worse .

What today ?
The plains are still the same . Exploitation can only be done by Nomad-types .
But now we have :
1.Mongols (the Chinese champs)
2.Cossacks (the Russian champs)
3.Apache(the American champs)
4.Boere(the South African champs)
5.Vacquero's (Mexican champs)
6.Gaucho's (Argentinian champs)

Who do think will win on the plains of Africa ?

Ho-ho-ho !
Remember , they will have to be Green !
Else , anything goes .

Interesting .


Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Makgadikgadi Sea .

Makgadikgadi Sea .
Andre Willers .

Update : 26 Oct 2010
Also Magadigadi sea , Makgadigadi sea , Magadikgadi sea .
Also shown in "DaMing Hun Yi Tu" ("Amalgamated map of the Great Ming Empire") dated 1398 AD on 17 square meters of silk , thought to be based on data about 1320-1380 AD , from preparation explorers before the Admiral He fleet .


This includes a map clearly showing the inland sea before it drained through Kariba , and Orange River as described below .

Accuracy :
The latitudes could then be measured fairly accurately , but the longitudes seem slightly wonky . However , what is interesting is what is not shown : ie the outlets of the Zambezi or the Orange , though it does show the outlet of the Cunene at the correct latitude . Major mountain ranges are also shown at correct latitudes .

We suspect that at the time of the mapping (circa 1320 AD) , the outlets of the Zambezi and Orange rivers did not exist , but were opened shortly afterwards by tectonic action of the active faults in the regions .

What the map does show is the Caledon , ending in an endorheic basin roughly bounded today by Coleberg-Tarkastad-BarkleyEast.

The tributary/outflow shown to the south of the Makgadigadi Sea is more interesting . The flow here would be towards an endorheic basin roughly bounded by Prieska-VictoriaWest-Sutherland . The map shows the Makgadigadi Sea to be rather full at the time , so the water flow would have been into this endorheic basin .
In times of drought , the Makgadigadi Sea would shrink and the flow would reverse .

An alternate endorheic basin is roughly Upington-Garies-Calvinia . This would be accessable depending on tectonic activity . (It is a bit lower than the previous basin)

Tectonic activity would also periodically open the Orange and Zambezi outlets to the oceans .

Fluctuate this over geologic time , and you have diamond deposits from the weathering of the volcanoes formed after the Vredefoort impact .
These have been found at the Orange outlet , Upington-Garies-Calvinia basin (eg Hexriver diamonds) , Botswana , Zimbabwe .

But , nobody has really looked at the Prieska-VictoriaWest-Sutherland endorheic basin . There should be very rich alluvial diamond pockets in potholes in the old riverbeds as the water swished back and forth .

Gas and Oil :
Endorheic basins are usually associated with gas or oil if they fluctuated over geologic timespans . Biologic material gets washed into basins with no outlet , covered up and pressurized . Voila! At least gas . Maybe oil .

You know you have struck it rich when
Your borehole at Sutherland blows and the diamonds clog the oil-filters .

Have fun!


Previous article:
Makgadikgadi Sea .

28 Aug 2009

Synopsis :
Southern Africa had a large interior freshwater sea until historical times , with major effects on human evolution and regional climates .

Discussion :
Map source : Reader's digest "Atlas of the World" (1993) ISBN 0-276-42001-264-7 .
P128 : Map of Southern Africa .
Wikipedia , Google . See appendices .

The topographical map clearly shows a major basin with 200 – 1000 meter elevation

Location :
Bounded by 16 to 28 degrees latitude (longest about 1 320 km) ,
The width varies : roughly hourglass-shape . At the narrowest in the middle : 23 to 25 degrees longitude (about 240 km) at about latitude 22 degrees .
The widest about 500 km . Bounded in the east by about 27 degrees longitude , and the west by 20 degrees longitude .

The basin is bounded by higher elevations and mountains on all sides , except for the breakthrough gap of the Zambezi at Victoria Falls .

Faults :
Roughly the line from Worcester – Grootvlei – Kakamas – Khakea – Lake Ngami – Victoria Falls – Present course of Zambezi to Great Rift Valley .

Essentially a branch of the Great East African Rift . See the Luangwa river plains .
See also Zimbabwe – Kalahari Axis , Gumare fault .See Appendices .

Note that these faults runs right through the center of the old Kalahari Sea , and was thus sensitive to the changes in it's water level . This in turn was sensitive to rainfall and river-inflow / outflow balance . Changes in the weight of the water would cause changes in seismic activity .

The faults are quite active (cf Tulbagh earthquakes , when the southernmost end had a mild 6.8 tremor.) . The Zimbabwe – Kalahari Axis and Gumare fault have been active in historical times , but with long intervals . Overdue . .

Periodic fluctuations .
The entire system is seismically sensitive to climate fluctuations caused by the periodic filling and emptying of the Makgadikgadi Sea . Hence the zig-zag pattern of the Victoria Falls gorges .

Climate .
There is also a complex feedback with rainfall patterns in the catchment areas of the feeder rivers . The system is an endorheic basin (internal drainage-see Appendix B)
But such a large body of water and concomitant vegetation drastically alters the rainfall in its region .
See "Biotic pump"
Notice the orientation of rivers on the sides of the old sea (ie Namibia , Angola) . They are all on the side of ridges facing the basin , ie from where moisture will come . A large percentage of moisture simply recirculated within the basin .

During the full episodes , it simply overflowed through the Limpopo .
Earthquakes opened the Victoria Falls portal . The water level fell . Moisture recirculation fell . The borders dried up . If this coincides with a dry climate period , we get the present shrinkage to marshes at the deepest parts .
Earthquakes sooner or later close the Victoria Falls portal , and the process reverses .
This has been going on for more than 3 million years (see Appendix C) .
The latest reversal started about 10 000 years ago , with the major climate shift at the end of the ice age .

Orange River .
Note the very peculiar fact that most major rivers in South Africa (Orange , Vaal , Harts , Modder , etc) are on top of ridges . This has led to some interesting squirming by geologists , since water has this well-known propensity to flow downhill . The explanations are suitably convoluted and involve escarpments , really long stretches of time and lots of erosion .
Whatever , it still means that the major rivers are unstable vis-a-vis major tectonic movements , but may be self-sealing due to heavy silting .Though this takes some heavy swallowing .
But the Orange river has a high probability of also periodically emptying into the Inland Sea . Most probably about 60 km downstream from Kakamas , where it comes nearest to the Molopo .
This is not an idle question , since such an old riverbed will be lousy with alluvial diamonds . Might even be gold-nuggets from the Vaal .

Human Evolution .
See Appendix D .
The point actually pinpointed is where the borders of present RSA , Namibia and Botswana meet . This is not an accident , since the borders follow habitability . This is where the Nossob river meets the westernmost part of the old inland sea . An ideal place for human evolution .
Lots of food , easily gathered . A whole sea of potable water .Lots of caves . An extended coastline to accommodate expanding population or climatic change . An outlet to the South-South-West with no unsurmountable barriers for the bored and rebellious .

The inhabitants of Pinnacle Point near Mosselbay were thus colonizers , migrating via the West Coast . They were stopped by the dense Tsitsikama forest and inhospitable terrain past that . The really inhospitable central plateaux were only the populated by outcasts , criminals and refugees .

Others on the inland sea would move northwards during fluctuations , eventually ending up in the Rift Valley system . From there they could easily move northwards , using well-known strategies and technologies next to the rift lakes . Bypassing the whole problem of latitude crossing (cf Jared Diamond) .

Back-pressure .
The periodic nature of the process means that after the first migration , and after Toba
(73 000 BP) , there would be people already there . But population density was low and newcomers (essentially refugees) , were helped on their way , eventually towards North Africa , Middle-East , Asia and Europe . This attitude (called Ubuntu) is still a characteristic of most ordinary people in Africa .

Interesting asides :
Aquatic human episode : a freshwater sea like the Magadikgadi Sea would be a much more benign environment for such evolutionary development than salt-water ocean . Note the trainable capability of humans to see underwater (not very well known , but well documented) .

More telling is Click . See "Click and human Evolution" Click sounds aid fishing . Do humans still use this ? (without technology)
The inland sea teemed with fish . Clicking would not only locate , but also chase fish into weirs or nets . We know they used weirs (stone weirs have been found by archeologists in areas like Mosselbay) . The efficiency of clicks (mimicking predators like dolphins) would be very efficient in chasing fish . They would also attract dolphins , which would share of the largesse . The beginning of a long cupboard love .

With the invention of agriculture , click-languages fell out of fashion .
"So last year .Who needs the effort ." But some aquaculture enclaves might still have it . Cf surprising Chinese efficiency in freshwater aquaculture . Do they cluck ?
Was the first domestication done simply by seeing which animals responded to clicks , then selecting and breeding . This could be easily tested .

Chickens and falcons also respond better to clicks . How deep does it go ? I will need a lot of convincing for a virus click-whisperer . What about a homeopathic click-whisperer ? The shaman has click-whispered into this large body of water and it is transmitted . Sigh . Many humans believe exactly that . Holy water .

Endorheic Pumps.
See Appendix B

Basins which have internal drainage act like pumps to any living organisms inside them . Because of the interaction between rainfall and vegetation , there is a feedback oscillation . When times are good , populations increase . When times are bad , the tough emigrate , and export their troubles .

The Magadikgadi basin is probably the oldest , but the Tibetan Plateau is not far behind . Ditto the steppes of Mongolia , Aral and Black Seas . North Africa (Lake Fezzan , Lake Chad) , the whole Arabian and Sinai peninsulas , northern Mexico , Middle-West USA are examples . All the troublespots . Even small climatic fluctuations cause trouble if the population is over carrying capacity .

Zimbabwe I
See "Fractal collapse of societies"
For about 2000 years , to about 1400 AD , there was a flourishing civilization around the borders of the inland sea . The climate in the highland-areas around it was very benign , with rain the year around . Extensive ruins of terraced agriculture are discernable . The center was in Zimbabwe .
Value added items were exported to India , Arabia mainly gold , minerals and precious stones Like now .
See the photo's in Adam's Calender by Heine and Tellinger . (ISBN 1-920153-07-1) .
Especially p25-p27 . Kilometers of ruins showing clear evidence of agriculture (terraced ,nogal) and husbandry , with market mechanisms (roads , but no evidence of wheel tracks) . Though the authors try hard , the ruins are patently fresh . They show less weathering than equivalent Roman ruins in Europe . They are younger than 1000 years . There is no evidence of Deep Time . Stone fences are still above ground . Terraces are evident . Not very old at all . But still indicative of a flourishing society about 100 BC to 1400 AD .

So what happened ?
A severe earthquake opened up Victoria Falls again and the inland sea started draining . This coincided with the latest long-term drying-up . A tipping point was reached (because of the feedback effect) , and things went to hell in a handbasket quickly after that . There was already shrinkage before that , but this was the coup-de-grace .

The overseas merchants (Dravidian South Indian merchant class – the Komati) cut their losses and departed . Markets shrunk . The locals abandoned expensive agriculture , especially as the climate changed . The shrinkage was gradual . When the final pull-out occurred , the remnants could live on the land in a simple subsistence economy .
What remained was kilometers of ruins (like Rome before the Renaissance.)

Note that this was not a failure of civilization , but an effect of climate change .
The market disappeared because the infrastructure to feed the labour force was no longer sufficient . A market cannot create a climate . (Not then , in case)

What can we do about it ?
Well , we can rob the Congo river or the Rift lakes , but that is inelegant .
(Ne kulturny)
An elegant solution is to punch a channel underground to below 1000 meters in the Atlantic , use the pressure to squirt the water into basin , after desalinating it .

The technology exists :
1.The tunnel :
Sub-Crustal torpedoes . Submarine versions are already in use with the Russian and USA navies . Simply a high-speed projectile that uses vaporized plasma ahead of it to change the phase of the material . A train of them condenses the plasma on the sidewalls as a strong material .Cheap .

2.The desalination :
See "Negative Pressure : an important update" 6 Mar 2009 .
The nanotechnology is due at any moment . By it's very nature , it is high throughput .

3. The ideal spot :
The top reaches of the Nossob river , about midway between Okanhanja and Epokira . From there is an uncomplicated run for a sub-crustal missile to the Atlantic towards the south-west .. The further advantage is that the flooding would be via a natural river . It would be truly spectacular . It is doubtful that they could get the right depth on first try , but would rather go too deep , than too shallow . A huge permanent geyser of water hundreds of meters high would result . An inverse waterfall , to rival Victoria Falls .

4. What if the desalination is not ready ?
(Yakkity-yak humans –most likely)
A sea-water sea would be nearly as acceptable . The climatic effects would be similar. We have a model in the Black Sea .
Do the same in other endorheic basins ? Libya might do it first . Or repopulating the Aral sea . The Black Sea can do with some topping up .
This can be done definitely within 6 months from now .
See map of endorheic basins in Arabia and Sinai .
Not to mention India . Or Australia . They really need it .

5. Ocean current climatology will suddenly assume a new strategic importance .

6. The defense strategic importance of sub-crustal missile technology .
Nil .
They cannot defend against super-crustal missiles . So that is not applicable . The thing a nation or civilization has to worry about is resources . And this technology frees up the oceans' resources .
Ecology is the major worry , and avenues for that exist .

7. Money .
There is an incredible amount of money to be made .
Actually made . Real wealth creation . Millions of acres made fertile even with just saline water nearby . The carbon credits of a sub-ocean fountain dissolving CO2 alone will pay the fairly modest capital costs (about $500 million) . Sneer at iceberg-towing.
Global flooding ?. Rather worry whether there is enough water in the oceans to satisfy human demand .
An interesting exercise : calculate the remaining sea-level after maximal usage of sea-water . (Hint : look at ice-ages . Would we use the water-equivalent of miles thick glaciers on land ? Easily .Crops , drinking , industrial etc . But remember , if it is properly cleansed , it is borrowed . It does get returned to the ocean . But an awful lot of it is "in use" , in the air as it were . This percentage will increase .)

Industrial demand will lead to such a shortage of water that it would be economical to import water from the Saturn orbital clouds .

8. Parallel sub-crustal missiles .
I am deeply unhappy about the fact that major river systems in South Africa are on hard ridges . It is simply unstable , unless there is a deep trench in the river bed . The only way I can think of is a a collapsed tunnel . Drilled by a sub-crustal missile .
Meteor impact :
If you look at the paths of the Vaal ,Caledon and Orange rivers and backtrack , you see that the tracks meet at 36.67 degrees longtitude and 26.78 latitude . This would be the putative impact point of a meteorite that split into two and tunneled under the crust for about 1 620 km till the two plasma bodies slowed to a threshold velocity and they swerved sharply towards each other . They impacted roughly where Hopetown is now . (A bit to the south-east , actually .) Expect diamonds .

What to expect at the impact point :
This is about 200 km from Beira . This has been a carbon rich area for a long time . I do not know when the impact took place , but even if it was a fragment of the Vredefoort meteor there would still be gas and maybe oil deposits formed by the impact waves .

Note the lightning-like offshoots before the final .

At the end , quantum distribution of charge on the plasma body overwhelms internal coherence and the two bodies rush towards each other and self-annihilate .
Violent energy release results .

Hence the little stretch of the Orange river between Colesberg and Kimberley .

What to expect at the impact point (36.67 degrees longtitude and 26.78 latitude) .
This is in the Mozambique channel . There should be oil and gas in a radius of 120 km .
The two missile trajectories passed on either side of Nelspruit , with dense rock concentrators on either side . There should be at least gas , probably oil .
Something similar at Bloemfontein , but probably only gas .(Figures)
Notice all the thermal springs around .

At Nelspruit : narrow at the top and wide at the bottom . Quite large .

Andre .


Appendix A
Geological changes to the course
More than two million years ago, the Upper Zambezi river used to flow south through what is now the Makgadikgadi Pan to the Limpopo River. The land around the pan experienced tectonic uplift (perhaps as part of the African superswell) and a large lake formed, and extended east.
Meanwhile, 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) east, a western tributary of the Shire River in the Great Rift Valley's southern extension through Malawi eroded a deep valley on its western escarpment. At the rate of a few cm per year, this river, the Middle Zambezi, started cutting back the bed of its river towards the west, aided by grabens (rift valleys) forming along its course in an east-west axis. As it did so it captured a number of south-flowing rivers such as the Luangwa and Kafue.
Eventually the large lake trapped at Makgadikgadi (or a tributary of it) was captured by the Middle Zambezi cutting back towards it, and emptied eastwards. The Upper Zambezi was captured as well. The Middle Zambezi was about 300 metres (980 ft) lower than the Upper Zambezi, and a high waterfall formed at the edge of the basalt plateau across which the upper river flows. This was the first Victoria Falls, somewhere down the Batoka Gorge near where Lake Kariba is now.[6] For details of how the falls cuts back its bed to form the gorge, see How the Victoria Falls formed.
The Zambezi region was known to medieval geographers as the Empire of Monomotapa, and the course of the river, as well as the position of Lakes Ngami and Nyasa, were given broadly accurately in early maps. These were probably constructed from Arab information.
Appendix B
List of endorheic basins
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following is a list of endorheic basins — watersheds which do not drain to the sea.
Appendix C
Lake Makgadikgadi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lake Makgadikgadi is an ancient lake that existed in what is now the Kalahari Desert in Botswana. It may have once covered as much as 80,000 km² and been 30 m deep. The Okavango, Zambezi, and Cuando rivers once all emptied into the lake.
Origin and History
Approximately 3 million years ago, strong easterly winds brought about the formation of elongated dunes which ran from east to west across the middle of the Kalahari Desert. During wetter times, these dunes channeled the flow of the great rivers of the area, the Okavango, Chobe, and Zambezi, eastwards with the Limpopo River into the Indian Ocean.
About 2 million years ago, the formation of the fault known as the Kalahari-Zimbabwe axis, which runs from the Zimbabwe capital Harare through its second-largest city Bulawayo and ends in the eastern side of the Kalahari, created an enormous basin and forced these rivers to flow into and fill up the basin. Lake Makgadikgadi was thus created.
As the millennia passed, the lake was filled to capacity and began to overflow. About 20,000 years ago, as a result, it began to drain northwards and then eastwards. This caused the middle and lower Zambezi Rivers to connect, resulting in the formation of Victoria Falls. With the water now able to flow out of the basin, Lake Makgadikgadi was able to drain partially and its average level decreased.
A drier climatic period followed which caused an increase in evaporation and a decrease in the flow of the rivers that fed it. By about 10,000 years ago the drying of Lake Makgadikgadi was in an advanced stage. Sediment and debris from the Okavango River and windblown sand were gradually filling the lake.
The formation of the Gumare fault caused a reduction in the elevation of the land. As a result, the water of the Okavango River spread out over a much larger area of land than it previously did, forming the now characteristic fan-shaped inland delta of the Okavango, which further reduced the water that flowed into Lake Makgadikgadi and hastened its demise.
Today the only remains of Lake Makgadikgadi, are the Okavango Delta, the Nxai Pan, Lake Ngami, Lake Xau, the Mababe Depression, and the two main Makgadikgadi pans of Sua and Nwetwe.
Lake Makgadikgadi is theorized to have been the birthplace of the vast number of cichlids[1] that once swam the Congo River, Zambezi River, Okavango River and Limpopo River - as many as 100 to 400 new species, of which approximately 25 survive today. The lake's sheer size may have provided the ancestors of these fish with an extremely wide range of new ecological niches to exploit and thus could have served as the stimulus for the evolution of the new species, which they may have done in record time before the lake drained completely. The theory further says that the newly evolved species, after having evolved within the confines of the lake, could have escaped with the waters of the lake as it drained, and populated the rivers of the region to evolve into the cichlids that exist today.
In current times this land is desiccated most of the year and is a seasonal wetland in the rainy summer months.[2]
· C. Michael Hogan (2008) Makgadikgadi, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham [1]
· James Owen (May 4. 2005) Lost African Lake Spawned Fish Diversity "Beyond Belief. National Geographic News[2]
Coordinates: 20°43′0″S 24°57′3″E20.71667°S 24.95083°E
Retrieved from ""
Categories: Former lakes | Geography of Botswana | Makgadikgadi Pan | Pleistocene

Appendix D

Human Evolution .
Snip from a NYT article about a new study by a group of geneticists which pins the origin of humankind to a spot on the coast of southwest Africa near the Kalahari Desert. The study is said to be the largest ever of its kind on African genetic diversity. The researchers say Africans are descended from 14 ancestral populations that typically correlate with language and cultural groups.
Locations for the Garden of Eden have been offered many times before, but seldom in the somewhat inhospitable borderland where Angola and Namibia meet.
A new genetic survey of people in Africa, the largest of its kind, suggests, however, that the region in southwest Africa seems, on the present evidence, to be the origin of modern humans. The authors have also identified some 14 ancestral populations.
The new data goes far toward equalizing the genetic picture of the world, given that most genetic information has come from European and Asian populations. But because it comes from Africa, the continent on which the human lineage evolved, it also sheds light on the origins of human life.
The research team was led by Sarah A. Tishkoff of the University of Pennsylvania, and reported in in a recent issue of Science: "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans." (via Ned Sublette)

Appendix E
Okavango .

Greatest Places Physical Geography: Dr. Cecil Keen, July 1997 Okavango
Geographic Description: Described as "the river which never finds the sea", the Okavango in northwestern Botswana disappears into a 6,000-square-mile maze of lagoons, channels, and islands. The river system annually brings more than 2 million tons of sand and silt into the Delta, yet less than three percent of the water emerges at the other end to either flood Lake Ngami or cross another 300 miles of the Kalahari, then to enter Lake Xau and the Makgadikgadi Pans. The Okavango Delta, in the midst of the Kalhan sands, is Africa's largest and most beautiful oasis. The River Okavango, which rises in the highlands of Angola, never reaches the sea; instead its mighty waters empty over the sands of the Kalahari. Here the great Kalahari desert thirst is locally quenched in a blue-green wilderness of fresh water, with emerald reed beds and towering trees. It is a natural refuge and giant water hole for the larger animals of the Kalahari. The water gives rise to many forms of life unexpected in a "desert": There are fish, crocodiles basking on the sands, and hippopotamuses and swamp antelopes feeding on the vegetation. The Okavango is the last surviving remnant of the great Lake Makgadikgadi whose waters and associated swamps once covered much of the Middle Kalahari. It also is closely associated with the Kwando, Linyanti, and Chobe swamps and river systems to the northeast. It is thought that long ago the Okavango, Chobe, Kwando, and upper Zambezi waterways flowed as one massive river across the Middle Kalahari, to join the Limpopo River and then to the Indian Ocean. The earth movements that created the rift of the Kalahari-Zimbabwe Axis impeded this flow, causing a damming back of the giant river, which resulted in the formation of a series of high and complex swamps. As the Okavango River left the humid highlands and entered the arid flatness of the Kalahari, it slowed and dropped its sediment load. Channels became blocked and the water sought other courses, continuing to deposit its sediments wherever it traveled. Over time, some 2 million tons of sand and debris were deposited over the Kalahari sands, creating the characteristic fan shape of the Delta. The Okavango's waters still cut the characteristic fan shape of the Delta. The Okavango's waters still cut paths through this built-up cone and deposit their sand load, causing the channels to continue changing direction. Superimposed on these changes were the climate fluctuations of the last million years. In arid periods these complex swamps and waterways would recede; in wetter times the myriad channels may have combined to form one vast river flowing into a huge lake--the former Lake Makgadikgadi. 2 parallel faults now control the direction in which the Okavango River enters the Kalahari Basin, in an area called the Panhandle. Other faults also direct its exit from the Delta, flowing south into the ocean of sand. As the Okavango flows over the Gomare Fault, a continuation of the Great Rift Valley of east Africa, that runs southwest to northeast, the slope of the land breaks it up into numerous channels, which fan outwards over the Delta. These are blocked by 2 southern faults, the Kunyere and the Thalamakane, which redirect the Delta's myriad channels. The Thalamakane Fault acts as a 150-mile-long natural dam: Here the channels abruptly change direction and join to form one river, the Boteti, which flows eastwards through a break in the fault towards the Makgadikgadi Pan. A small channel, the Nghabe River, continues southwest toward Lake Ngami, serving as both inlet and outlet depending on the strength and direction of the annual floods. The present Okavango is still connected to the Chobe-Zambezi River system via the Selinda Spillway. However, recent arid conditions have meant that these water courses are now seldom joined. The geology of the Okavango is still inherently unstable, as the faults continue to move and earth tremors occur. Channels become filled with sand and debris, and massive plugs of papyrus interrupt their flow. The pattern of drainage in the Delta will continue to change. Interior drainage systems occur typically in arid areas where water evaporates to leave an accumulation of salts as a saline pan, as in Makgadikgadi and Lake Ngami. The Okavango is unique in that it forms a freshwater Delta, simply because it has several outlets. Even though their outflow comprises only three percent of the Okavango's inflow, this is enough to carry away most of the salts and keep the Delta's waters fresh. In fact there are 2 groups of outlets: west to Lake Ngami, and south and east to the Makgadikgadi Pan via the Boteti River. Although the total drainage pattern in the Delta is complex, there is an underlying simplicity in the slow and regular pulse of water that flows down each year from the Angolan highlands. South of the Panhandle the Delta fans out for many miles. During dry periods it is estimated to cover at least 6,000 square miles, but in wetter years, with a heavy annual flood, the Okavango's waters can spread over 8,500 square miles of the Kalahari's sands. Deep water occurs in only a few channels, while vast areas of reed beds are covered by only a few inches of water. The Okavango offers an oasis of habitat for prolific plant and animal life in a personified state of "balance in nature." Two plants dominate the Delta's perennial swamps: papyrus, a giant sedge (type of grass) which grows naturally only in Africa, and the willowy phoenix palm. They provide a fascinating record of recent changes in the limits of the perennial swamps. Papyrus, being a herbaceous species, responds more quickly to changes in water level than the phoenix, which is a woody species. The full extent of the perennial swamps along the Thaoge River, before it began to dry up this century, can be seen by the distribution of the phoenix palm, which extends much further south than the papyrus. Conversely, papyrus extends much farther east than the palm, along the Moanatshira system. This indicates the expansion of perennial swamps during this century. On the Boro River, the papyrus and phoenix occur in the same places, indicating that the extent of swamp areas has remained relatively unchanged in the central Delta during this century. Inhabiting the waters of the Okavango are an estimated 35 million fish of almost 80 species. The most abundant, three species of bream, are preserved from excessive predation by crocodiles feeding on the tiger fish that would prey on the bream. Hippos flatten paths through the papyrus on their nocturnal forays to graze, allowing easier access for the sitatunga and antelope to traverse across the swamps during their daytime migrations. Belts of forest fringe the swamps with tall trees giving shade to large herds of larger game. Beyond the forest fringe the landscape forms an open savanna park land, and in these drier areas the greatest concentrations of game are accompanied by the predator families: lion, leopard, cheetah, hyena, and wild dog. It is in these forest fringes and savanna grasslands that elephants and giraffes can be found browsing with antelope of almost every kind, from buffalo, wildebeest, and kudu, to sable, roan and impala. Okavango is a delicate and unique example of dynamic equilibrium at work in nature. A place worthy of being called a "greatest place."
Amazon Greenland Iguazu Madagascar Namib Okavango Tibet