Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Random Walk Bias

Random Walk Bias
Andre Willers
27 Jan 2010

Randomness can be biased in two fundamental ways :
1.Inside the same Order of Randomness
2.Between different Orders of Randomness.

The Randomwalk algorithm:
1.Take step d1 from start .
2.Take step d2 in a random direction .
3 Repeat .
4.See where you end up and have traveled .

See Appendix A
Inside the same Order of Randomness
For beth(0)

From numerous other proofs , the Distance from center R = d*(n)^0.5
Where n is the number of beth(0) random steps .

This is the principle underpinning most of physics .

Between Orders of Randomness
See "Randomness" , Orders of Randomness 2" , "New Tools" et al

An extraordinary thing happens .
Because elements of beth(n) are infinitely more numerous than elements of beth(n-1) , there is an "osmotic" pressure between different orders of randomness .

An observer describing the system is statistically more inclined to describe an element as belonging to Beth(n+1) than Beth(n) , simply because Beth(n+1) is infinitely more numerous .

This can be calculated reasonably exactly .
Zero-point energy
Negative mass , dark matter and other beasties .

Branes :
An obvious descriptive self-organization .

What does this mean ?
From the viewpoint of beth(0) , this looks like a compression . A particle .
Note that so-called Laws of conservation of Energy and Momentum only hold for beth(0) . The very existence of particles presupposes the axioms of finite information speed to enable beth(0) systems to clump together .

An infinite number of particles are possible . But not all particles are equal in terms of probabability of existence .

A particle:
We can then define a particle as interacting elements that have a difference between beth(n) and beth(n-x) smaller than any other that can be found . Notice the infinity .

The whole of quantum physics falls out as result of this definition . This includes transluminals .( ie those pesky instantaneous –action-at-a-distance)

This can be seen as interactions between beth(n) and beth(n-x) systems. Ie self-organising clumping of energy .
We can then de-cohere matter (as previously discussed in Unpacking) .

Note that this will not release energy on the E=mc^2 model . (because most of the change(ie energy) is immediately repackaged .
I draw your attention to the ATP model of humans , where half of the body mass per day is created ATP , then immediately used . This is a beth(1) system .

All you need is chicken fat .

Andre .

Appendix A
Beth(0) Random Walk

R^2 = (sigma(d*sin(cos(x)) )^2 + (sigma(d*sin(sin(x)) ))^2
R^2 = d^2 * (Sigma 1 + F(sin(x)) )
R= d *(n)^0.5 … the random walk at beth)0)

F(sin(x)) à 0 if n àinfinity . The Beth(0) definition .Another way of putting it is that we can always find F(sin(x)) à 0 for a x .

For higher orders of beth this would not be true (by definition) .

Note that if d = (n)^(-0.5) like in Riemann's theorem , the expression can evaluate to a finite value , including zero .
See Riemann's theorem in previous posts .

Interesting fall-outs:
Any expression involving 1/n! (ie chopping things up )
See "Randomness" , Orders of Randomness 2"
are Beth(0) . This includes an expression like cos(ln(1/j))) . This would be an beth(0) expression as j->infinity . Which proves Riemann's Theorem .

Notice Riemann Orbitals
Surprisingly , they seem to be beth(0) . I would have thought at least beth(1) .
No wonder matter is so stable .

Sunday, January 24, 2010

Goldbach's Conjecture : a proof.

Goldbach's Conjecture : a proof.
Andre Willers
24 Jan 2009

Synopsis :
A simple proof for Goldbach's conjecture using iterative systems and infinite descent .

Goldbach's conjecture : any positive even number can be written as the sum of two prime numbers .

Part 1
Assume the conjecture is true .
2n = p1 + p2 , where p is an odd prime number . ….(1)
p=2n+1 , where n is a positive integer >=0 ……….(2)

Iterate expression (2) into (1)

Every (2n) part can be expressed as another sum of p .

Iterate this m times until at least one p=3 (ie n=1) for the first time .
Let s be the number of terms terms of p equal 3 at this iteration .
2n = sum(p) + m(m+1) - 2s ….(3)
where s must be equal to m(m+1)/2 for a true tautology .
This can only be true if m=1 if s=1 (see comments below . S is dependant on the number base , and can always be set to 1 .)
This means that there is always a sum of two primes equal to 2n .

Part 2
The inverse :
This is where we use the properties of prime numbers .
If even only case can be found where the sum of primes is equal to an even number , then the theorem must be true for all primes . (eg 7+11=18) . It sounds trivial , but it is true nonetheless .

Interesting comments:

1.Notice how the proof sidesteps the definition of primes except in Part 2. Some values can be adduced using the algorithm . (See equation (3) ) .

2.The problem with this sort of proof is always the infinite search space . What we have done is use a form of metalogic to show the general case .
Eq (3) can then be written in an iterative form
2(n-s) = sum(p) + m(m+1) ….(4)
The rest follows .

3.Note that sum(m) = m(m+1)/2 , as expected . There is a deep underlying logic to the iterative metasteps .

4.Expressing numbers in terms of different bases illustrates this
Why m(m+1) –2s =0 must be true if only one instance of the theorem is true .
S is dependant on the number base , which we can vary at will , but m is a pure counter (a metacounter , if you will) . We can always set s=1 by choosing the number base .

5. Notice the use of Infinite Descent .
A general expression is described in terms of constraints to a particular instance .
What is sauce for the goose must then be sauce for the gander .

6. Other uses .
Only beth(0) (ie aleph(0) ) infinite descent was used above .
The same technique can be used fruitfully to probe infinite feedback processes of higher orders of randomness .
See "Negative Evolution" et al

7.Other proofs:
Longer but easier proofs can easily be adduced .

Hint : Use the transformation 0 -> i0 in the definition of number .

Keep track of those pesky transfinitesimal zeros . You've only had them for 1500 years . Losing them is sheer carelessness .

Tora! Tora! Tora!

Andre .

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Negative Evolution.

Negative Evolution.
Andre Willers
20 Jan 2010

Repeated Negative evolution is one of the most powerful mechanisms for searching information spaces .

See "Prodigies,Primitives and Cancers" et al.
Appended in Appendix A for ease of reference.

A quick and dirty approximation :
Apply the Negative Evolution (NEv) algorithm twice in succession . This leads to an equivalent Positive Evolution(ie pro-survival) position . But you do not end up at the same position you started from . This is because (A plus ~A < Universum) as discussed before .
This end result can also be a position in the information space that could not be reached from a purely Positive Evolutionary (PEv) algorithm .

Designers of catalysts take note .

Primitive Pairs :
NEv(1) + NEv(2) = PEv

But how can threshold energies be lower ?
The trick:
Fluctuations .
PEv fluctuates below the threshold and above the threshold because of beats in NEv(1) + Nev(2) . Reactions take place over the threshold . Some energies are recovered by NEv(1) + Nev(2) . From the outside it looks as if the total is at a lower threshold .

Another favourite is leverage . A trick the system learned from the water molecule . The Y shape is replicated , with suitable embellishments , in reactors like anti-bodies .

Leverage is also applied through folding , a protein favourite . Reactants are trapped in folds and subjected to fluctuating thermal , EM and mechanical pressure . Extremely high short range , short-term forces up to fusion levels are possible .See previous posts about chicken fat and Catastrophe folding .

1.1. Enzymes These show the typical route of their origin : nested and sequential inhibitors of inhibitors . This also has the advantage of sensitive controls .
1.2.Gene inhibition in one of a pair . See how effective this is ?

2.1.The inhibition of vitC production in protohomonins led to obligate hunting .
2.2.The inhibition of amygdala controls led to protohomonin hysteria and ground dwelling (due to fear of falling) . See previous posts on the Hysterical Focus .

A Genetic Algorithm for Catalysts :
See "New Tools" "Reserves"
1.Slice and dice the problem into N pieces .
2.We know that approximately 1/3 is not amenable to manipulation , but we do not know which items .
3.Divide the mess into NVe(0)= 1/3 of items and the remainder into NEv(1)= into 1/3 of 2/3=0.22 and Nev(2) = 2/3 of 2/3 = 0.44 .
4.Write a Genetic Algorithm program that has negative feedback on NEv(1) and NEv(2) , but positive feedback on PEv , where PEv is the output of NEv(1) + NEv(2)
5.After (2^N) / 3 iterations or if system is stuck , pulse NVe(0) data at random into NVe(1) and NVe(2) .
6.The system fluctuates . Monitor fluctuations in PVe . Maximal PVe is your catalyst .
If it remains stable , an optimal has been reached ,

A simultaneous GRRR! And AARGH!

I hope this is not the best possible algorithm .

I trust you have identified NEv(1) and NEv(2) as politicians and shamans (of religious or scientific persuasion) in the above argument .
NVe(0) would translate as reason , real science and the rest of the long suffering slobs..

Negative feedback on these two means exactly that . Their function is to reduce and inhibit .
Dunderheads in charge is optimal for the system as a whole . Even in theory .
Is the best we can do ?

This is not exactly what I had in mind .
Surely there is a better algorithm to search the information spaces for survival paths .
The present one steps over literally trillions of bodies .

Is a better Algorithm possible ?
The above algorithm has been used for the last 4 billion years on earth .
But note that the fluctuations are of a beth(0) order of randomness .
See "Randomness" and "Orders of Randomness 2"
Higher orders of beth(randomness) will shorten the number of iterations to an optimal solution .

So better algorithms are possible .

A teensy , weensy problem . Anybody getting into social power under the present algorithm , turns into a dunderhead . This has been discussed before . It is due to restrictions of information flows in hierarchical systems . The higher you are , the less data you get . At least beth(1) techniques are necessary to get out of this trap .

Now you know why you never got anywhere by being smart .
The algorithm requires stupidity , stupid !



Appendix A

Prodigies , Primitives and Cancers
Andre Willers
9 May 2007

Synopsis :
Prodigies do things we can all do (like calculations , languages , music ) with little seeming effort or tuition , but only much better , faster and at an earlier age .It is often confused with intelligence .

Discussion :

Sources : “Primitives” , “Primitives_1” , “Origins of War” and others. for Zerah Colburn
General sources on prodigies and mind-body interactions .

Dedicated Brain Centers
Two dedicated hardwired neuron complexes are known from experimental evidence :
The language center (usually above the left ear ) and the counting complex . A music complex is very strongly suspected .

Various other emotional centers (amygdala) and memory centers are known . Many others are suspected . (Like eye-body co-ordination )

Please take note of the Neuronal Mirror argument .
These complexes above evolved from primal neuronal mirror set-ups .

A prodigy happens when a hardwired primitive neuronal complex replicates into the neuronal mirror arrangements . Because only non-simple encoding is used , this means a degradation of the functions usually done by these usurped mirror-neurons . This is at the cost of things like modeling other people (ie social skills) . Hence the prevalence of the lower end of the autistic spectrum in prodigies . ( Idiots savant )

As to be expected , there is a link between prodigies in arithmetic , language and music .

Prodigies (like William Hamilton of mathematics fame , or Zerah Colburn )were good at arithmetic and languages . The link between music and arithmetic is well known . Mozart’s linguistic skills are overshadowed by other events .

The problem is that well-known prodigies are the ones that were pushed by their parent(s) into notoriety . The smarter ones like Gauss , Macauly ,Young , etc learned to blend in .

Present day prodigies .
Where are they ?
Why , at the top end of most human endeavours . Top-class tennis players , golfers , chess-players , etc would qualify in earlier times as prodigies . Today they have to train hard 8 hours a day from early youth to be able to compete with the other prodigies . “Ordinary” people do not even get a look in .

Raw Talent .
A lightning calculator , if he survived the school system , might be lucky to get a job as a bookie’s runner or a croupier .

So you learned Greek , Latin , Finnish , Serbo-Croat and Basque at the age of five ? You have an interesting future as an interpreter at the UN .

You have a better chance in music . There are numerous schools for musical prodigies.

Fractal Identity Crises.
The hardwired primitive neuronal complex has an internal coding that is not simple .

It has to compensate for a temporal identity problem .

The complex assembles information very quickly ( some researchers say quantum effects are used , in which case it is instantaneous or from different time-sources ) .

Regardless , this information has to be presented to the rest of the brain in an usable fashion , with sequential markers .

For example , Mozart could comprehend an entire symphony in his overgrown musical complex . This had to be passed to the normal brain with sequential markers , so that he could scribble like mad from his simple memory to get a shadow of it in reproducible form .

Another example is a native speaker of a complicated language like Latin or Finnish . The complicated grammar arrives as an entirety , not worked out piecemeal .

This non-simple coding is very important , since it holds the key to identity markers , not only temporally but over other parameters as well .

As all my gentle readers will know , identity defineability is the key on how we know we are us , how the immune system recognizes our cells , how chromosome clusters are self-recognised , and all those other fractal identity crises .

This begs the question :
If we have identity resolution paradigms good enough to resolve an ID interface between a very fast (or multitemporal) complex , and the normal brain , why is it not used in the immune system ?

The answer is that it is used in this way , but sometimes the controls slip , or is programmed to slip .

The brain evolved from these systems , but we would expect some feedback .

Cancer Cells .
We refer to these bio-hazard labs as cancer cells . It is where evolution is put into fast-forward . ( See Scientific American of May 2007 p35 “ Chromosomal Chaos and Cancer”)

Have you ever wondered how complex organisms can even exist , when there are trillions of tons of bacteria , fungi , viruses ,etc in the world . By sheer numbers and breeding rate , they must outperform any organism’s defence system .

The Trick :
Any centurion will tell you this trick : discipline .

Aneuploidy is the main mechanism . This is a fancy name for shuffling chromosomes (ie the tried and trusted sexual mixer .) Only this mechanism is on steroids .

An unknown molecule is encountered.
The body does not know how it will affect the organism .
There are two ways to test it :
1. Live through it (potentially disasterous)
2. Test it in a fast-forward evolutionary biolab .

The body induces aneuploid cancer in a test cell .
This cell is nurtured by the body , deliberately bypassing all the evolutionary pressures of the environment or the immune system .
The test cell and its daughters have very rapid and semi-random chromosome shuffling . (This is also where all those null codons come into play.)
This cluster of cells forms a bio-hazard lab .

If they find a solution , it is communicated to the immune system and the lab is liquidated by apoptosis using the identity markers .

Can you see how this is more advantageous than living through it ?

If they do not , the cancer expands , resulting in the non-viability of the organism due to resource constraints .

But surely , an off-switch would have evolved ? If it could not find a solution to an unknown after n tries , it stops . Yes , but if the immune system had not recognised it the molecules will keep on arriving , triggering new explorations .

To recognize and “END” codon to a particular try to resolve a “new” molecule previously tried would require a memory of this molecule . Yet this is exactly what the immune system does not have , since it passed this molecule on to the cancer test lab . There does not seem to be a memory of previous cancer-lab experiments (understandably , since the resource requirements would overwhelm any finite system with simple coding .)

Is there a general “END” codon ?
The answer must be yes , since it appears in more evolved brain mechanisms . See also the languages of bacteria . (There is an Ur language , and various dialects .)

The particular information is stored epigenetically . The presence of the problem molecules in the mother’s womb gets tagged with a methylization complex , marking it as solved . Each new generation must resolve it anew .

What a horrible trap . Old age must be programmed in , since only by setting the “END” codon in the mothers womb can rubbishy molecules be prevented from triggering cancers . Mothers get partially reset , which is why they live longer .

Well , it helps to know that there is a single switch that will apoptise some cancer labs . It must be something simple , like the methylization of a geneplex that backpropagates .

Classical music:
Most people who listen to classical music live longer and look younger . This is because of the very recognizable “END” sequence to any symphony . The sequence entrains a neural process in the brain , which generates chemicals which signal “END ALL” sequences to the internal cancer labs .

This is one of the much threatened feedback from more developed parts of the being .
The storm of feedback from the brain creates a non-linear feedback system , with all that it implies .

The Q Trick

For example , Turing ( from Godel’s work ) proved way back in the 1930’s that a linear logic(computing) process cannot know when to stop if it looks only at internal logic . This is exactly what we said above . However , by using quantum processes , the system can know when to slam down an “END” .

This has to be communicated to the cell-complexes concerned . It is not sufficient to have a blanket “END” all the time , since the cancer-labs are vital to the health of the organism . Once a week seems sufficient , judging from the religious observances .

So what does this have to do with prodigies ?

Prodigies are the cancers of the body human .

They pretest which behaviours and talents will be acceptable .

Spiderman , Batman , Superman , etc
The same tired old lot :Hercules , Zeus , all the saints . I can’t remember all their names , or want to .

Bah . Do any of them even straddle the space-time crack ?
Ride t’em ,cowboy


Monday, January 18, 2010

ATP as Neurotransmitter

ATP as Neurotransmitter
Andre Willers
18 Jan 2010

Synopsis :
ATP has been proven to be a neurotransmitter . Various receptor sites on cellwalls have been found as result of the Human Genome project . Important health considerations result .

Discussion :
See important article in ScientificAmerican Dec 2009 , p60 "The double life of ATP" by BS Khakh and G Burnstock (let us hope that nominative determinism does not hold sway .)
Beg , borrow , steal or buy a copy .

See "ATP and Catalytic Motors" . Appended in Appendix A for ease of reference .

Crackpot duckling into Swan :
The effect had been clinically demonstrated since 1959 , but disregarded as not fitting into the accepted model .
The isolation of certain ATP and ADP receptors in 1993 and 1994 , as well as development of Clopidogrel to prevent clot formation led to greater acceptance .
The Human Genome Project led to the genes for receptor sites of ATP and it's various breakdown products . It is now a Hot Subject (ie fashionable) . A number of drugs are in various development stages .
A lot of money , major health items and knowledge is in play .

A Brief Description .
It is a very elegant mechanism . Also very old .

1. ATP = Adenosine + P + P + P
= AdenosineTriPhosphate
2. ABP= AdenosineBiPhosphate (the last phosphor atom has been stripped away . This is energy bond powering the muscles)
3. AMP= AdenosineMonoPhosphate . Only one phosphor atom .
4. Adenosine is adenosine (a purine) without any phosphor atoms .

Every cell has specialized receptor sites on the surface that interacts with one or a combination of these compounds . This gives at least 2^4=16 possible basic receptor types .
See "Phene Systems"

The information being triggered is in the cell-wall (the Phene system) . This causes various portals to open or close , influencing sodium , calcium , etc balances in cellular substructures (including DNA in the chain)
See "Unpacking and packing information"

Surrounding the cells are class of enzymes called EctoATPases that sequentially strip away the phosphor atoms from ATP .
See "Chaperones , unpacking and asthma"

This stripping of phosphor atoms makes the whole system workable by creating four unique markers necessary and sufficient for a three dimensional contiguous information space.

A teensy little problem is : where does all this energy go ? Heating up the synaptial fluid seems to be a result . Is this essential for multi-cellular life ? The intercellular information transfer spaces are then always hot and ready to roll . Certainly , it would give a great advantage to even a cold-blooded lifeform . The energy costs would not be very high .

From an evolutionary viewpoint , it is easy to see that a temperature control mechanism in synaptial fluids expanded into the whole organism in a random mutational-selection process .

But what is the original mechanism ?
See ApendixA "Throttle"
It must involve the production speed of ATP : ie the rotational speed of the rotor in the mitochodria .
There are two known ways to influence this:
Ironically , sleep seems to be basically necessary to give synaptical spaces a chance to cool down . If they grow too hot , the other neurotransmitters start breaking down and the well-known dementia of sleeplessness results . Obviously , the immune system is affected as well . This whole ATP signaling system is part of the immune control-system .
Note the correlation of symptoms between heat-stroke , sleeplessness and forms of dementia associated with various neurotransmitter shortages .

2.APS generator .
(See AppendixA)
The pulsed waveform will not only speed up lagging mitochondrial rotors, but also slow down ones that are too fast (ie overproducing ATP) . This should ameliorate synaptial fluid overheating .
Ideally , we should have an APS generator that can force a desired spin rate on any set of organs . But the one we can buy now is set at 3 milliseconds .

Remember , a standard human produces about 40 Kg of ATP per day (See AppendixA)

An useful analogue:
Using the energy transmission conduit also as an information transmission route is used in electrical systems . You can buy a system that uses the electrical wiring of your home to transmit music , video , internet , etc .
The analogue goes both ways , since the problems with the electrical system will also be experienced in the ATP system .

Known systems using ATP as neurotransmitter:
1.Blood vessel constriction : ATP as co-neurotransmitter with noradrenaline .
2. Blood vessel dilation : shear stress->ATP->NO->vessel relaxation.Part of the feedback system .
3.Blood clotting: platelets have ADP receptors.
4.Cell proliferation : eg restinosis , various cancers . See Phene control system .
5.Eye: acetylcholine and ATP are co-neurotransmitters.
6.Ear :about 50% of cochleal hairs have ATP receptors.
7.Taste:as expected , evolutionary old chemical receptors like taste or smell do not function without ATP receptors(in this case P2X2 and P2X3 receptors) .
8.Pain and touch: mainly the P2X3 receptor .
9.Neuropathy :
See "Neuropathy"
P2X receptors are involved .
10.Digestive system:
Irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease :P2X and P2Y receptors are involved .
11.Clotting :
Existing drugs Clopidogrel and Prasugrel blocks P2X12 receptor .
12.Tumors , developmental diseases , etc .
13.Disease regulation using bacterial ATP signaling.
14.Old Age
Apoptosis and ATP quorum mechanisms await exploration .

The Phene System:
It seems that the ATP signaling systems plays an important part in the meta-control system of multi-cellular organisms (multi-cellular includes a single cell with a mitochondrium by definition) .

We know that viruses encapsulated by cell-wall material is the signaling mechanism of cells .

Speculation : Distributed Viruses .
That ATP , ADP , AMP and Adenosine plus receptor sites form a distributed virus
The crystal structure of the P2X receptor looks like a typical virus . It only needs the key(s) to activate . As expected from a phene control mechanism , it regulates activities in the cell via switching on or off of genes in the DNA .
(See how handy the concept of phenes is ?)

Even more speculative :
Do not try this without qualified supervision .
Diseases like AIDS , cancer or old age must interact with the ATP signaling system at some stage . Quorum systems play a role (why we use melatonin)
Slow down the mitochondrial rotors with melatonin , and simultaneously entrain them with a APS generator on selected organs . Pulse if necessary .
This will hopefully break interlocked feedback cycles .

Interestingly , this should work on fevers as well , as well as disrupt quite a few viral diseases .

A hot time in the old town tonight .

Andre .


Appendix A

ATP and Catalytic Motors
Andre Willers
4 Dec 2008

The Catalytic Motor.
See Annexure A below .
This is a new concept to me .

The basic principle :
The chemical equilibrium of a reaction is biased in a certain direction by dynamical , rotational processes .

And not in a trivial way either . A whopping 40 kg per day production and consumption of ATP for a sedentary human (of say mass 80 kg) means a very finely balanced mechanism . (Half of body mass per day)

The logistical demands almost necessitate a multi-cellular organism .

Where does the rotor come from ?
From bacterial flagellae . They work by rotation of the flagella .(Google it)
The rotor is driven by proton gradients , caused by electron-flow balances between inflowing nutrients and usage .

Putative evolution :
The ur-mitochondrium was a free organism whose flagellae by chance could beat two poisons (oxygen and alcohol) into harmless ATP . As if protein-folding was not complicated enough , now dynamics have to be considered as well .
As the concentrations of these poisons increased , ur-mitochondria did the usual plaque - freeform alternation of bacteria . In every colony episode , the efficiency of the conversion was enhanced . At some stage , a freeform colonized some other bacterium . The host learned to use ATP as an energy source . Multicellular forms were force-formed .
The motors of the mitochondria cannot stop spinning . (If they do , apoptosis results: see Appendix B) . The ATP has to be used .

Rotor-spin speed:
This seems to be quite slow . (As expected from a flagella heritage) . About one to three milliseconds per revolution . ( About 1 to 0.3 kHz) . The ATP production is not smooth either . There are three units physically opening and closing (see Appendix A).

A very useful analogue:
We can use an national electricity grid operating at 1 kHz alternating current of three-phase current as an tool for understanding the meta-energy flow in the body . Every cell would be like a municipality with its own powerstation .
The voltage and transformers ? Nobody has looked , but a guess would be ATP concentration regulators , like the reticular cellular formations , antioxidants (see Appendix B) , ATP chaperones , cellular-wall ports , etc . You get the drift .

The advantage of this approach is that we then have an immediately usable box of tools to analyze and suggest fruitful new approaches .
Our electricity networks would also gain , since evolution has been at this problem for a tad longer than humans .

Melatonin for ESKOM ? Some would say they are asleep at the switch in any case .

Throttles .
There seems to be a wee problem here .
The problem seems to be too much energy , not too little .
Most organisms normally spend 1/9 to 1/3 of 24 hours actually getting enough to eat . The rest is spent having fun or sleeping .
But a certain reserve needs to kept (see "Infinite Probes" et al )

There is a strong suspicion that melatonin throttles down the production of ATP , but not the usage of ATP (cf fMRI scans of sleeping brains) See Appendix B . Sleep would then be necessary to keep the organism out of trouble (ie quiescent) while surplus ATP is used up . (1/3 : eg 8 hours per day)

Obesity epidemic:
As can be seen from the above , the problem is not a sudden influx of energy-rich food .This has been a trouble since the first mitochondrium took up housekeeping in a host cell .
The obesity is caused simply by a lack of sleep .
Present generations sleep less . Artificial lighting , computers , cinema , etc . The extra waking time is also usually spent eating .
The equilibrium is upset . (This has been going on for about 100 years on a large scale) .

An interesting result is the generational increase in IQ measurements . The system is trying to soak up the extra energy in more complex nervous structures (for which it has the evolutionary tools) . An epigenetic feedback loop is suspected .

Kids who stay up late for three generations will be fatter and smarter .

Diabetes .
Melatonin has many effects . Lack of it causes neuro-degenerative complications (see Appendix B) . Included is peripheral neuropathy . This is where we can use our useful little model of an electricity grid above . Without the feedback from the damaged nerves , the system cannot shift loads . Just monitoring the glucose level is too coarse. Fluctuations build up . Future load estimations cannot be made . Fat builds up .

Old Age
Lack of sleep during old age leads to glucose metabolic complications for all the reasons mentioned , regardless whether the person is obese or not .

Other throttles are rendered less effective by lack of materials:
Specifically , sulfur (H2S hibernation throttle) , chrome (cytochrome oxidase : see Appendix B) , alpha lipoic acid(nerve repair) , melatonin .

Homeostasis is another useful little energy soak .
Large brains ditto .

But Culture , hot or cold , is master of them all .
Nothing soaks up energy like culture . Fashion is by far the largest industry on the planet , outstripping even food production .
Eg sports is a fashion . Clothes .Entertainment . Tourism . Even lies . (JK Rowling is the most fashionable and richest professional liar in Britain .)

What is the culture of your mitochondria ?

An Actual , Physical ATP generator you can buy .
This is a well-known and clinically proven machine usually touted for pain-relief .
It works .
But the theory is rather patchy . There used to be a lot of mumbo-jumbo about the gate theory of pain .

It actually works by alleviating the underlying causes of the pain (see scans on website) . It does this by pumping energy into the ATP-rotors from the outside at the damage site .

It does this by sending 3-millisecond square pulses which decay exponentially (see wave-form on web-site .) This spins up damaged rotors and transfers energy (a non-food source of energy) . Most importantly , it re-establishes timing mechanisms . Cells on the point of mitochondrial apoptosis can be salvaged . (The apoptosis mechanism is very sensitive , due to all the feedback mechanisms involved.)
While the energy input here is small , the energy of an ATP molecule is not exactly large . And the ATP is targeted exactly at the damage site . This helps to stop the cascade effect of trauma-shock .

Your attention is drawn to the well-known effects of aligned magnetic fields on bone-healing . A similar thing happens here .
Notice the effects of zero electro-magnetic fields on early astronauts .(Their metabolisms went haywire) . They had to be supplied with artificial fields .

Energise organisms directly by high-energy em-waves .
Are there any like that already ? The planet is awash with em waves and organisms with flagellae .
Deep ocean , moons of Jupiter or Saturn springs to mind .

An actual cure for diabetes by re-establishing communications between cell-groups to do proper load-sharing .
Also useful for cases of paralysis or strokes .

Fat-loss without dieting or exercising . Fashionable .
Targeted , too .
Spin up the mitochondrial rotors with em-waves , then wash out the surplus ATP in urine after fixing this ATP with something like a mono-clonal anti-body .
Get rid of that cellulite !

Cheating at sports . (Even more fashionable)
A focused em-wave of the right form will boost ATP production of an athlete or horse at that critical instant , and is nearly undetectable .

Muscle building for the gym-brigade .
Eg the machine for training the biceps can have an em-generator focused on the biceps while training . Saturation by ATP will hopefully rapidly increase muscle mass.

MRI problems .
As you will have gathered , alignment of mitochondrial rotor-spins by a powerful magnetic field as found in MRI machines can have unfortunate effects if the patient is soon afterwards exposed to em radiation of periods of 3 milliseconds (or beats thereof)

Melatonin and DHEA supplements should form part of the old age package (like statins , etc) .

Nanotech should be able to do really interesting things .

And so it goes round and round .


Annexure A
Sunday, January 21, 2007
ATP Generator Structure – Function
Almost incredibly, a sedentary adult makes and uses 40 kg of ATP per day! ATP is made by the F0-F1 ATPase, a molecular motor with a rotating shaft and fixed "stator". One end of the shaft, F0, is buried in the mitochondrial inner membrane where the proton gradient causes it to rotate. A single gamma subunit connects the F0 to three alpha and beta subunits, together F1, which are responsible for synthesizing ATP from ADP and Pi (H2PO4-). As a catalytic motor and not just a catalyst, the F0-F1 ATPase is able to increase the rate of reaction away from the equilibrium (which strongly favors the reverse reaction, hydrolysis, because the concentrations of reactants and product in mitochondria are similar). The gamma subunit rotates too slowly, in the microsecond-to-millisecond range, for standard molecular dynamics simulation. To solve this, the authors applied "biasing forces" as the motor moved and assumed these forces would not change the mechanism. Positively charged amino acids on the gamma subunit attract negative amino acids on beta subunit, producing smooth and efficient ionic coupling. Rotation of the gamma subunit induces the opening of the beta subunits. The beta subunit closes spontaneously. Synthesis is not the reverse of hydrolysis, explaining why high concentrations of free ATP does not inhibit synthesis. Gao and colleagues propose a detailed model of how the motor harnesses the proton gradient to act against the equilibrium. Their quantitative model is based on the conceptual “binding change mechanism” model proposed by Boyer, where ATP synthesis proceeds by each beta subunit changing from “open”, weak nucleotide binding, to “tight”, high affinity ATP binding, to “loose”, with the release of ATP. The authors used this model to make accurate predictions about synthesis and hydrolysis kinetics and they invite others to test their detailed model.
PubMed :Yi Qin Gao, Wei Yang and Martin Karplus, "A Structure-Based Model for the Synthesis and Hydrolysis of ATP by F1-ATPase" Cell Oct 21, 2005; 123(2):195-205

Annexure B

Melatonin, mitochondria, and cellular bioenergetics.

Acuña-Castroviejo D, Martín M, Macías M, Escames G, León J, Khaldy H, Reiter RJ.

Departamento de Fisiología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada, Spain.

Aerobic cells use oxygen for the production of 90-95% of the total amount of ATP that they use. This amounts to about 40 kg ATP/day in an adult human. The synthesis of ATP via the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the result of electron transport across the electron transport chain coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. Although ideally all the oxygen should be reduced to water by a four-electron reduction reaction driven by the cytochrome oxidase, under normal conditions a small percentage of oxygen may be reduced by one, two, or three electrons only, yielding superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radical, respectively. The main radical produced by mitochondria is superoxide anion and the intramitochondrial antioxidant systems should scavenge this radical to avoid oxidative damage, which leads to impaired ATP production. During aging and some neurodegenerative diseases, oxidatively damaged mitochondria are unable to maintain the energy demands of the cell leading to an increased production of free radicals. Both processes, i.e., defective ATP production and increased oxygen radicals, may induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cell death. Melatonin has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in several experimental and clinical situations involving neurotoxicity and/or excitotoxicity. Additionally, in a series of pathologies in which high production of free radicals is the primary cause of the disease, melatonin is also protective. A common feature in these diseases is the existence of mitochondrial damage due to oxidative stress. The discoveries of new actions of melatonin in mitochondria support a novel mechanism, which explains some of the protective effects of the indoleamine on cell survival.

Publication Types:
· Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
· Review

PMID: 11270481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Thursday, January 07, 2010

A Quantum Probe Algorithm

A Quantum Probe Algorithm
Andre Willers
7 Jan 2010

Rare events where the observer interferes with the measurement can be analysed .

Discussion :
Existing technology :
In the new generation computational cameras , a low-definition video is taken at n frames a second . If an interesting event occurs , the camera-person presses the shutter button and a series of very high definition pictures are shot . The software then calculates what the enhanced picture at the time of the interesting event looked like .
Here , memory limitations prevent n high-def pictures a second .

Why is this significant ?
In quantum probes , the probe disturbs the event . (The Heisenberg principle)
The limitation is the interference in a high-def picture .
But we can keep an eye at a low definition (ie low disturbance) , then backtrack after an interesting event , utilizing high-def pictures from after the event . A poor man's time machine .

Some Applications :
1.History (the argument is scale-free if feedback systems are involved)
Examine history books . They are mostly about events after crux-points .

2.Psychology – ditto .

Large Hadron Collider. (LHC)
Sensors all over . And they wonder why it is so obstreperous . (Cf Tokamak)

The paranoid will say that it did enable some primitive time-travel . The time-travellers very sensibly took over control , leading to the interruption of operation while they consolidate in this time-line .
And into the Singularity we slide .

4. Stochastic Resonance and the Stutter Effect
If the same interesting event is replayed (the Stutter Effect) , measured chaos can be introduced to give a Stochastic Resonance . The most interesting is when the stutter effect is incorporated into stochastic resonance .
(ie religions masquerading as science , but also real information on the nature of the component systems .)

An example is high temperature superconductors (see NewScientist28 Nov 2009 p 19 "Warm wire to superconductor" , where cold spots are stuttered along warmer lengths.
The system has a stochastic resonance , using the hot spaces as randomization .
See also "Acropolis and Catastrophe theory" et al for more precise molecular configurations .

5.Cold Fusion.
Do not clutter it up with sensors . They will squelch the reaction . The reason is obvious from the above .

Macroscopically yours
Andre .