Thursday, May 31, 2012

A Cure for Diabetes .

A Cure for Diabetes
Andre Willers
31 May 2012
Synopsis :
The control-system short-circuit that causes diabetes can be interrupted in humans by a simple surgical procedure . This cures diabetes , insulin resistance and high blood pressure . We try to trace why .
Discussion :
1.Read Appendix I . This is a succinct summation of the state–of-play as at May 2012 .
2.Why should bypassing the duodenum have such drastic effects ?
Because the system outsmarted itself . Too many vital feedback loops are being controlled by the same chemicals . (A similar effect is observed in brain-stress and body-stress systems) . Inappropriate responses are triggered . The system is unstable .
2.1Peristaltic action in the duodenum is accompanied by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) release, a marker for inhibitory neurotransmitter release . See Appendix III . (Note the effect on blood pressure )
But this and PHI release (see Appendix II) affect the Prolactin system ,(see ) which is tied to at least 300 other biochemical processes , as well as the prion system (see “Prions and the Amygdala” May 2012) .
This whole mess is an unstable system , that can and does go wrong in a large number of ways . And the original trigger can be impossible to trace .
2.2To add insult to injury , the original trigger can cause an amygdala reaction : ie a memory remains in the system , and there few , if any , “OFF” switches . Hence nasties like insulin resistance . There are doubtlessly many more . Amygdala’s are notoriously stupid . It is the function of other systems to reprogram them .
See Appendix IV for the ratchet-effect on bloodpressure .
2.3Milk and milk-products can be identified as one of the factors that should cause the system to destabilise .Lactogen breakdown products interfere with some of the feedback loops in the energy metabolism . The result will be idiosyncratic according to individual metabolism , but insulin resistance will ratchet up . (A calf-protection system short-circuits)

What to do ?
Surgery seems a bit drastic . All we want to do is inhibit peristalsis in the duodenum . Food can be massaged through to the jejenum . I can’t find a drug that does this selectively , but I am sure there are some .
But in the meantime we are stuck with something like Loperamide (Imodium) . It is like stopping an enormous factory to fix some small problem at the front-end of the production lines .
The following is not medical advice , and you proceed at your own peril .
Use the pulse principle .
1.Fast until the duodenum is empty , (+-6 hours) . No water .
2.Take Loperimide (Imodium) .. This stops peristalsis and release of neuro-markers .
3.Exercise (walking , jogging – this moves food without peristalsis ) . I have no idea what effect this will have on digestion . But no lying in bed allowed .
4.Then eat and drink mildly on low-carb foods . Appetite will be sharply decreased as alternate demand pathways kick in (Cf Atkins , etc) . Drink when thirsty (cf Noakes) . No milk products of any kind .Verboten
5. How often ? I noticed when writing this that this regimen is remarkably similar to religious regimens like Ramadan , Jewish , Christian , Hindu and Buddhist fasts . Two weeks to a month per year seems adequate . This should reprogram some of the systems to at least a modicum of initial states .
6.Monitor blood glucose about 2 hours after eating .

Interesting Asides :
1.Excessive alcohol intake paralyses the pylorus valve between the stomach and the duodenum . The same effect as fasting , in that food does not enter the duodenum to trigger peristalsis . Typically bloated feeling , with big “beer bellies” . Since alcohol is a product of carbohydrates , this is a fascinating adaptation to high carbohydrate intake .
To put it another way , agricultural farming only took off because periodic alcoholic binges enabled re-normalization of glycemic systems . As this dwindled , so diabetes increased .
2.Milk and Cheese : as use of these increased , systems increasingly crashed in the Prolactin areas . Energy metabolisms became unstable , and auto-immune diseases increased .And you can’t reinstate the original system simply by stopping milk products : amygdala’s have to be reprogrammed .

These are but the a sketch of the bare bones of complex mechanism . But at least some indication of where to go or where not to go .
But I refuse to countenance a system that does not allow toasted cheese sandwiches .
There must be a better way .
Andre .

Appendix I
Cristina Iaboni had the dubious distinction of being not quite obese enough. For all the pounds on her 5'5" frame, she did not meet the criteria for bariatric surgery to help control her type 2 diabetes.
Yet six years of medications and attempts at healthy living had failed to rein in her blood glucose, leaving Iaboni terrified that she was on course to have her kidneys fail "and my feet cut off" -- common consequences of uncontrolled diabetes.
Then the 45-year-old Connecticut wife, mother of two and head of human resources for a Fortune 500 company, lucked out. In 2009 she met with Dr Francisco Rubino of Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York. He had just received approval to study experimental surgery on diabetics with a relatively lean weight-to-height ratio, or body-mass index (BMI). Iaboni was among his first subjects.
Three years on, she has dropped 50 pounds to reach a healthy 145 and has normal blood pressure without medication. That isn't too surprising: Weight loss is the purpose of bariatric surgery and often reduces blood pressure. More remarkable, Iaboni no longer has diabetes.
She is not the first patient with diabetes, which can be triggered by obesity, to be cured by weight-loss surgery. But she is a rarity for having it with a BMI well below 35 and over. That's the level at which the American Diabetes Association says surgery "may be considered" and that Medicare and some private insurers cover. And Iaboni's diabetes disappeared months before she shed much weight.
Her experience has raised an intriguing possibility: that some forms of bariatric surgery treat diabetes not by making patients shed pounds. Instead, by rerouting part of the digestive system, they change what signals the gut sends to the brain and the brain sends to the liver, altering the underlying causes of diabetes.
If proven, bariatric surgery may help people with type 2 diabetes who are less obese, overweight or even of healthy weight. And it might be effective against the currently incurable type 1, or "juvenile," diabetes, too.
"Every textbook says that diabetes is chronic, irreversible, and progressive," said Rubino. "But we have thousands of patients who once had diabetes and now do not."
Bariatric surgeons have long been prone to declaring victory against diabetes way too soon, before large-scale, long-term data proved their case. "The evidence for the success of bariatric surgery in patients with a BMI below 35 is not very strong," said Leonid Poretsky, director of the Friedman Diabetes Institute at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. "Most of the studies have been very small and not well controlled."
The American Diabetes Association rates the evidence that bariatric surgery can cure diabetes as "E," the lowest of four grades. It calls data on patients with a BMI below 35 "insufficient," and says the procedure cannot be recommended except as part of research.
The immediate risks of bariatric surgery are small -- a 0.3 per cent chance of dying within 30 days of the procedure. But a small fraction of patients develop infections, leaking from the stomach into the abdominal cavity, or gallstones, and it can cause nutritional deficiencies: There is less intestine to absorb vitamins and minerals, raising the possibility of osteoporosis and anemia.
Despite these red flags, the surgical option is attracting intense interest because the quest to cure diabetes has become almost desperate. In type-1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, a hormone that moves the glucose in food into cells. In type 2 diabetes, cells become resistant to insulin. In either case, glucose remains in the blood, damaging cells and blood vessels, sometimes severely enough to cause blindness, kidney failure, or gangrene requiring foot or limb amputations.
In 2010, 8.3 per cent of adults worldwide had type 2 diabetes (11.3 per cent did in the United States), resulting in direct medical costs of $376 billion ($116 billion in the United States). By 2030, the global incidence is projected to rise to 9.9 per cent, partly because of the rising obesity rate, with costs reaching $490 billion.
The possibility that bariatric surgery could cure diabetes emerged about a decade ago. A long-term study of thousands of patients in Sweden reported in 2004 that both gastric bypass and banding improved diabetes in many subjects. A 2008 study of 55 obese patients found that 73 per cent of those who underwent gastric banding saw their diabetes disappear after two years, compared to 13 per cent undergoing standard medical treatment such as medication, diet and exercise.
In 2009, surgeons at the University of Minnesota analyzed 621 mostly small studies of bariatric surgery in obese, diabetic patients. Their conclusion, reported in the American Journal of Medicine: 78 per cent no longer needed medication to control their blood sugar. They'd been cured. Lap banding had the worst results, worsening diabetes in some patients.
But most patients in these studies were obese, many morbidly so. (The average BMI was 48.) The improvement in glucose control could therefore be credited to the patients' weight loss, which averaged 85 pounds.
Rubino had a hunch that something else was at work. As a research fellow in diabetes at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York in 1999, he was reviewing the medical literature one day for guidance on how to best perform bariatric surgery on a man with a BMI of 80. He found papers from the 1950s and earlier reporting that surgery for peptic ulcers had cured diabetes.
Ulcer surgery removes a portion of the stomach and reconstructs a connection to the intestine, much as gastric bypass does. Few diabetes experts had noticed the old papers; they were published in surgery journals, which endocrinologists seldom read.
His serendipitous find led Rubino to other papers describing operations on the digestive tract that cured diabetes, something that, according to medical textbooks, was unthinkable.
"Within two weeks of surgery and sometimes sooner, these patients were off their insulin, off their diabetes drugs, and with normal blood glucose levels," said Rubino. "That was too fast to explain by weight loss."
Yet that's how experts explained bariatric surgery's effect on diabetes, especially as the procedure took hold in the 1990s. Few surgeons focused on how quickly the condition disappeared, said Rubino, "or they speculated that patients weren't eating much after the surgery, and that's what cured their diabetes."
He began pursuing the idea that surgery might improve diabetes directly, rather than through weight loss. "I was ignorant of diabetes, so I wasn't burdened by too much knowledge," Rubino said. "Something that might have seemed heretical didn't seem impossible to me."
Rubino modified the popular gastric bypass surgery, called Roux-en-Y, to test his idea on diabetic lab rodents. In the classic operation, the stomach is pinched off so it can hold less food. Surgical cuts keep the rest of the stomach and the top of the small intestine, called the duodenum, from receiving any food. Instead, the stomach empties directly into the bottom of the small intestine, the jejunum. In Rubino's variation, called duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), the stomach is untouched, but the rest of the procedure is the same.
The rats that Rubino operated on beginning in 2000 were cured of diabetes much more quickly than their weight fell. It was the first rigorous evidence, from a well-controlled study, that gut surgery has an anti-diabetes effect.
In 2006, Rubino was ready to move from rats to people. Two patients, with BMIs of 29 and 30, underwent his procedure. Their blood sugar levels returned to normal within days, though they lost no weight. In his most recent trial, reported in March in the New England Journal of Medicine, Rubino and colleagues at Catholic University in Rome performed standard gastric bypass surgery or a procedure similar to DJB on people with type 2 diabetes. After two years, 15 of 20 bypass patients and 19 of 20 DJB patients no longer had diabetes.
Curiously, although patients shed pounds, there was no correlation between weight loss and blood glucose, the key marker of diabetes. "Bariatric surgery is more effective on diabetes than obesity," said Rubino. "Patients don't become lean, but they do not have diabetes anymore."
Research from the University of Toronto, reported online this month in Nature Medicine, may finally explain why. It examined the effects of bypass surgery on rats with type-1 diabetes, which is considered even harder to treat than type 2. Normally the jejunum receives only digested mush, as nutrients have already been absorbed in the duodenum, explained lead researcher Tony Lam.
Bypassing the duodenum allows the jejunum to receive an influx of nutrients for the first time, said Lam. Sensing them, the jejunum sends a "got glucose!" signal to the brain. The brain interprets that as a sign of glucose overabundance and orders the liver to decrease glucose production. Result: The rats no longer have diabetes.
"I believe that similar mechanisms are taking place in surgery for type 2 diabetes," said Lam. "It strengthens the case for the surgery treating diabetes independent of weight loss."
His rat study shows why lap banding and stomach stapling are less effective against diabetes than gastric bypass. Banding causes diabetes to go into remission in about 50 per cent of patients, probably due to weight loss, said endocrinologist Dr Allison Goldfine of the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston.
In contrast, the diabetes-remission rate after Roux-en-Y is 80 to 85 per cent. "The improvements in blood glucose with Roux-en-Y appear to occur very early, by day three after surgery, so patients are being discharged with no medication," she said. Something other than weight loss "must be going on."
Goldfine has launched a study of diabetics with BMIs of 30 to 42 to compare outcomes after lap band surgery, Roux-en-Y, and intense medical management.
A year ago, Rubino began the first large study for type 2 diabetes patients with a BMI as low as 26, where "overweight" begins. The cost of the bypass surgery is covered by a grant from Covidien Plc, which makes laparoscopic instruments and surgical staplers. He aims to enroll at least 50 patients, following them for five years; he has operated on 20 so far.
© Copyright (c) Reuters

Appendix II
Peptide PHI (or peptide histidine isoleucine) is a peptide which functions as a hormone.
It plays a role in the regulation of prolactin in humans.[1]
1. peptide phi
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exactamino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is foundin the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Appendix III
Neurotransmitters Mediating the Intestinal Peristaltic Reflex in the Mouse
1. John R. Grider
+Author Affiliations
1. Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia
1. Address correspondence to:
Dr. J. R. Grider, Department of Physiology, P.O. Box 980551, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298. E-mail:
The motor, modulatory, and sensory neurotransmitters that mediate the peristaltic reflex in the mouse colon were identified by direct measurement, and their involvement in various pathways was determined by selective receptor antagonists. Mucosal stimulation in the central compartment of a three-compartment flat sheet preparation of mouse colon elicited ascending contraction and descending relaxation in the orad and caudad compartments, respectively. Ascending contraction was accompanied by substance P release, a marker for excitatory neurotransmitter release, into the orad compartment and was partly inhibited by atropine and spantide, and abolished by a combination of the two antagonists.

Descending relaxation was accompanied by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) release, a marker for inhibitory neurotransmitter release, into the caudad compartment,

and was partly inhibited by VIP10-28 and NG-nitro-L-arginine, and abolished by a combination of the two agents. Somatostatin release increased during descending relaxation: immunoneutralization of somatostatin or blockade of its effect with a selective somatostatin type 2 receptor antagonist inhibited descending relaxation. The δ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole augmented descending relaxation and ascending contraction. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release increased in the central compartment and was mediated by concurrent release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) because its release was blocked by a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist. Both the latter and the CGRP antagonist CGRP8-37, inhibited ascending contraction and descending relaxation. Thus, the reflex in mouse like that in rat and human intestine is initiated by mucosal release of 5-HT and activation of 5-HT4 receptors on CGRP sensory neurons and is relayed via somatostatin and opioid interneurons to VIP/nitric-oxide synthase inhibitory motor neurons and via cholinergic interneurons to acetylcholine/tachykinin excitatory motor neurons.


Appendix IV
Peptides. 1984 May-Jun;5(3):593-606.
Co-existence of peptide HI (PHI) and VIP in nerves regulating blood flow and bronchial smooth muscle tone in various mammals including man.
Lundberg JM, Fahrenkrug J, Hökfelt T, Martling CR, Larsson O, Tatemoto K, Anggård A.
By immunohistochemistry it was found that PHI- and VIP-like immunoreactivity (-IR) occurred in the same autonomic neurons in the upper respiratory tract, tongue and salivary glands with associated ganglia in rat, guinea-pig, cat, pig and man. VIP- and PHI-like immunoreactivity was also found in similar locations in the human heart. The N-terminally directed, but not the C-terminally directed, PHI antiserum or the VIP antiserum stained endocrine cells in the pig duodenum. This suggests the existence of an additional PHI-like peptide. Ligation of nerves acutely caused marked overlapping axonal accumulations of PHI- and VIP-IR central to the lesion. Two weeks after transection of the nerves, both types of immunoreactivities were still observed in accumulations both in the axons as well as in the corresponding cell bodies. The levels of PHI- and VIP-IR in normal tissues from the cat were around 10-50 pmol/g with a molar ratio of about 1 to 2. Systemic administrations of PHI and VIP induced hypotension, probably due to peripheral vasodilation in both guinea-pig and cat. Furthermore, both PHI and VIP caused an inhibition of the vagally induced increase in respiratory insufflation pressure in guinea-pig. PHI and VIP relaxed the guinea-pig trachea in vitro, suggesting a direct action on tracheobronchial smooth muscle. VIP was about 5-10 times more potent than PHI with regard to hypotensive effects and 2-3-fold, considering respiratory smooth muscle-relaxant effects in the guinea-pig. PHI was about 50-fold less potent to induce hypotension in the cat than in the guinea-pig. Although species differences seem to exist as regards biological potency, PHI should also be considered when examining the role of VIP as an autonomic neurotransmitter.

Sunday, May 27, 2012

Fifty KiloHerz

Fifty KiloHerz
Andre Willers
27 May 2012
Synopsis :
Rats can hear bats . so can some young humans Why ?
Discussion :
Rats and humans must have some mechanism for generating and hearing 50 kHz sounds . Even for bats this requires special equipment . How can a rat do it ?
We suspect the same as insects : the friction between hard , rough surfaces , namely the teeth . The rat chitters in ultrasonics . And you can do the same by using Click languages . Discussed ad nauseam in previous posts .
The biological effects are profound . Sounds at about 50 kHz (chirped) initiate stand-downs in stressors . Predators like bats use it to slow down prey in the final approach .
Sigh . See appendix III . Humans did notice this , but swept it under the carpet . They kept the CD sampling rate at below 44 kHz , because of the anomalous emotional responses above that . See Appendix II
Now the fashion is back to analogue vinyl , without knowing why .

An interesting aside:
The dehuminization of human culture was heavily influenced by the lack of higher frequencies in the 50 kHz range in radio and TV media . Hitler et al . Notice the 60 Hz hum of background AC radiation from the power distribution networks . Calms the savage beast to some degree .
But why 50 kHz ?
It must have some significance on a fundamental level , but I do not know what it is . Only that it is there .
It probably has something to do with the rotation rate of the mitochondria .
Why is 50 kHz so important ?
Because there is a resonance with mitochondrial rotation . A factor of ten .Mitochondria rotate at about 400 000 a minute . About 666 times per second . Or about 66 times per tenth of a second . Slow in terms of the relevant speeds . Resonances occurs around 55-66 times per second. This slows up or speeds up the mitochondrial revolution .
Fluorine metabolisms :

Fast-forward pockets will put large demands on Mitochondria . This should be detectable from a mitochondrium spinning about 6-7times faster than normal (ie 2.5 million times a minute)\
Or zap them with anti-fluorines or excess fluorines . (Remember the 80 ppm boundary for sulphur and fluor)
An interesting aside :
While petroleum as such as a small fluoride component , the extraction processes are heavily contaminated with fluorine . Whether this will activate or deactivate prions in the mega-ton range I leave to you
And so it rotates .

Appendix I

Playback of 22-kHz and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations induces differential c-fos expression in rat brain.
Sadananda M, Wöhr M, Schwarting RK.
Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps University, Gutenbergstr. 18, D-35032 Marburg, Germany.
Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations, which serve as sensitive measures in a number of relevant individual and social behaviours, have become increasingly interesting for biopsychological studies on emotion and motivation. Of these, high frequency (50-kHz) ultrasonic vocalizations can index a positive emotional state, and induce approach, whereas low frequency (22-kHz) ultrasonic vocalizations can induce avoidance and may index anxiety, since they are emitted during various unconditioned and conditioned aversive situations. While cholinergic and dopaminergic systems have been implicated, specific neural substrates that sub-serve these vocalization-dependent states remain to be elucidated. Using c-fos immunocytochemistry, we revealed neural activity in brain areas of naïve male Wistar rats in response to playback of 22-kHz and flat and frequency-modulated 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations. Presentation of background noise or no acoustic stimulus at all constituted the controls. Playback of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations led to approach behaviour. Acoustically stimulated animals demonstrated differential activation in auditory areas, with a frequency-dependent activation in the auditory cortex. Specific forebrain, thalamic, hypothalamic and brainstem areas were also activated differentially. While 50-kHz playback induced sparse fos-like immunoreactivity in frontal association cortex, nucleus accumbens, thalamic parafascicular and paraventricular nuclei, 22-kHz playback elicited c-fos expression in the perirhinal cortex, amygdalar nuclei and the periaqueductal gray. This study unveils neural substrates that are activated during ultrasonic playback perception, which could sub-serve the affective states elicited by these vocalizations

Appendix II
Bat sounds
Bat Sounds
What do bats sound like?
The sounds produced by heterodyne bat detectors may vary depending upon the main characteristic of the call being used by the bat. A short burst of constant frequency sounds like 'smack', a longer burst of constant frequency like a 'warble', a steep frequency sweep like a sharp 'click' or a 'tick' and a shallow sweep like a 'tock'.
The pipistrelle is the first bat you are likely to come across, and these are usually listened for with the bat detector set to 50kHz. There are three types of pipistrelle in the UK, but fortunately for bat workers they have different 'best listening' frequencies: one at 45kHz, another at 55kHz and the rarer Nathusius pipistrelle echolocates at about 37kHz. Pipistrelles' calls usually sound like irregular 'smacks' that tend to vary in the pitch and are at a medium repetition rate.
The noctule is entirely different and is usually best heard with the detector set to 20 to 25kHz. The sounds from the bat detector are usually alternate 'smacks' and 'tocks' at a fairly slow repetition rate which together sounds like a fairly irregular 'chip-chop'.
The Myotis bats, like the Daubenton's bat, all sound rather similar, generally coming out as a series of 'clicks' when listened to with the bat detector set to 45 to 50 kHz. The Daubenton's, Whiskered and Brandt's bats have fast repetition rates but the Natterer's bat tends to be even faster, quieter and more irregular. Long-eared bats have a similar sound to the Myotis species, but at a faster repetition rate. The calls of these bats are so quiet that they are generally nearly impossible to pick up.
Perhaps the most unusual sound from bats in the UK are from the horseshoe bats. These use a constant frequency call and rely more on doppler effects for their echolocation. These sound like a warble on a heterodyne bat detector. The greater horseshoe is best heard at around 80kHz and the lesser horseshoe at 115kHz.
Online bat sound library - This resource features recordings and descriptions of a variety of calls from UK bat species. You need to be an NBMP volunteer or Bat Conservation Trust member to access the library.
Appendix III
The only mammals that can fly are also the only mammals with a larynx that flexes at ludicrous speed, a new study shows. As bats flip and whirl toward their prey, they chirp at an accelerating rate, increasing their echolocating calls to 160-190 chirps per second. This is possible because their laryngeal muscles can contract up to 200 times per second, researchers say.
Bats start out with shorter-rate chirps, increasing their frequency as they approach their quarry and culminating in a superfast pulse called the terminal buzz. Watch the video below to see what this sounds like. Coen Elemans and John Ratcliffe at the University of Southern Denmark set out to study how bats produce this buzz. They also wanted to determine whether the upper buzz limit is a function of how quickly the bats can hear the return signals that bounce off their prey, or whether it’s because of the bats’ own call-producing abilities.

Appendix III
“ with specifications of 44,056 Hz sampling rate” ie with an upper limit if 44kHz .

Prions and the Amygdala

Prions and the Amygdala
Andre Willers
27 May 2012
“Tickled to life”
Synopsis :
The amygdala is being reprogrammed by prions . Post-traumatic Stress Disorder , Learned Helplessness and Anxiety interventions are possible via prions .
Discussion :
See “Prions of Immortality” , “Prions and XNA” , “Prions and Autism “ May 2012
Work done by Hariri of duke University and Panksepp of Washington State University shows that emotional states are programmed by selective activation or inactivation of very specific genes .
Panksepp has found 7 basic genetically caused emotional states :
1.Seeking(curiosity) , Play , Care , Lust
2.Fear , Rage , Panic/Grief
Note the balance between positive and negative feedback systems .
The Amygdala :
Fear , Rage , Panic/Grief.
That is its function in enabling the organism to survive . The amygdala has various equivalent sub-structures (called chakras in Eastern systems) , or astrocytes in Western systems . These harbour memories of Bad Things , and triggers behaviours to avoid them . But no “Off” switch .
The “Off” switch or dimmer lies with Seeking(curiosity) , Play , Care , Lust , which are at a deeper level in the structures of the hypothalamus . This is not what I expected .

Tickling .
Delicious !
Tickling should drastically ameliorate Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or Peripheral Neuropathy . Right at the root level . But the tickling must be at an order of randomness (Beth) higher than that of the organism being tickled . No anticipation allowed .
How does it work ? We haul in the usual suspect , the pituitary. This generates the necessary prions . Prion Central . Much more potent than hormones .
It is intimately involved with Prolactin , the mammalian secret weapon . See Appendix I for an abbreviation .
A really potent biochemical positive-feedback chemical rated up there with opiates and oxytocin . (Panksepp) . Notice the close relationship of the physical structure with some prions .
Prolactin in mother’s milk makes you addicted to Mother . Literally and biochemically . Delicious is the inverse stimulation of Prolactin release in the mother caused by suckling . The mother becomes addicted to the child . As I said , the mammalian secret weapon .
Any opiate addiction should then be able to be broken by a combination of oxytocin and prolactin . A more social addiction replaces a harmful one .

Click language .
There is graduated pleasure chirp signal at 50 kHerz amongst rats (Panksepp) as a result of tickling . This is pleasure signal to stand-down stressors . See previous posts on the Click language .
A double teeth click , followed by a double tongue click will give a resonance of it and have some effect . Better yet , simply generate the sound . You can broadcast anti-stress as inaudible background . Supermarkets , armies or emergency organizations note .

Tickling Therapist .
Combine tickling with prolactin , oxytocin and a 50 kH chirp and you can reprogram the various amygdala’s in the body . There is an immune system effect as well . Auto-immune immune systems should ameliorate .
A bit higher tech would be to simply make the relevant prions to manufacture the relevant chemicals . But we are not there yet .
An obvious offspin is regeneration-prions . Or anti-scarring . Or skin-regeneration (cosmetics) . Make the cells love to sacrifice themselves .
You see where apoptosis comes from ?
Apoptosis is not a command , but a seduction . And positive-feedback elements have to be involved .
“Dulce est pro patria mori”
Tickling is more fun .
Appendix I
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prolactin (PRL) also known asluteotropic hormone (LTH) is a proteinthat in humans is encoded by the PRLgene.[1]
Prolactin is a peptide hormone discovered by Henry Friesen. Although it is perhaps best known for its role in lactation, prolactin already existed in the oldest known vertebrates—fish—where its most important functions were probably related to control of water and salt balance.
Prolactin also acts in a cytokine-like manner and as an important regulator of the immune system. Prolactin has important cell cycle related functions as a growth-, differentiating- and anti-apoptotic factor. As a growth factor binding to cytokine like receptors it has also profound influence on hematopoiesis,angiogenesis and is involved in the regulation of blood clotting through several pathways. In summary, "more than 300 separate actions of PRL have been reported in various vertebrates, including effects on water and salt balance, growth and development, endocrinology and metabolism, brain and behavior, reproduction, and immune regulation and protection".[2] Prolactin acts in endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine manner through the prolactin receptor and a large number of cytokine receptors.[2]
Pituitary prolactin secretion is regulated byendocrine neurons in the hypothalamus, the most important ones being the neurosecretory tuberoinfundibulum (TIDA) neurons of the arcuate nucleus, which secrete dopamine to act on the dopamine-2 receptors of lactotrophs, causing inhibition of prolactin secretion. Thyrotropin-releasing factor(thyrotropin-releasing hormone) has a stimulatory effect on prolactin release.[not verified in body]
Vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine help to regulate prolactin secretion in humans, but the functions of these hormones in birds can be quite different.[3]
Prolactin is sometimes classified as a gonadotropin[4] although in humans it has only a weak luteotropic effect while the effect of suppressing classical gonadotropic hormones is more important.[5]
Several variants and forms are known per species. Many fishes have variants prolactin A andprolactin B. Most vertebrates including humans also have the closely related somatolactin. In humans 3 smaller (4, 16, and 22 kDa) and several larger (so called big and big-big) variants exist.[not verified in body]

Friday, May 25, 2012

Prions and autism

Prions and Autism
Andre Willers
25 May 2012
Synopsis :
Autism can be characterised by excessive growth of prefrontal cortex neurones which are not successfully integrated . Various “STOP” and “START” codons are masked and apoptosis is not initiated . The mechanisms seem to be prion related .
Discussion :
Work by Courchesne ( indicates that things start getting screwed up in the second trimester of pregnancy .
Too many neurons should mean smarter ? Only if it is integrated in some way .
It is like putting a i3 processor in your XP computer . Bottlenecks appear all over the place . Not so nice if you are the computer .
The system tries to adapt (this is how intelligence evolved , after all) .
Nicotine and alcohol are moderately successful . They slow down neural transmission speeds so some integration is possible .

Top-Down Approach .
The biochemical situation around the second trimester is impossibly complicated (we are not smart enough) . Approaching it from old age is easier .
We know there are bursts of neuron-reorganization (growth) at ages 55 (menopause) , 25 (maturity) , 15 (puberty) , (-1/3 – 5 )(infancy) . Probably more , especially after age 55 .
Apoptosis .
We also know that there is one trick that old systems have used , namely apoptosis . The mechanism is there . The autistic infant below age five years has not learned it sufficiently . A biochemical knowledge transference might be of use . A simple blood injection from the mother to the child of about 5 ml (0.1%) should kickstart the apoptosis mechanism . Be sure to give plenty of mental stimulation afterwards .
What do adults do ? Sex , of course . Various sexual maturity markers get transferred during intercourse . These influence various apoptosis and “STOP” expressions .
When sex stops at age about 55 (menopause) , the apoptosis stimuli stop (they are meant to focus the organisms mind on reproduction) . The organism gets smarter as neuron interconnections increase , but at a pace it can integrate . Grandmother is smarter than you are .
Fluoride .
See “Prions and XNA” and “Prions of Immortality” May 2012
This is age dependant . Adults (sexually active) would benefit from larger doses of fluorine , but children , and especially autistic children should take fluorine antagonists .
Just when you have no more teeth , you would benefit most from fluoridated toothpaste . Typical .
How it works : Little micron pockets of fluorine metabolism (also called cancer nodules) fast forward the evaluation of dicey genetic code . The results get distributed by a “fast” network , normally the conveyer-belt system in the basement of neurons . If this crashes , you get peripheral neuropathy .
This network is usually used to pre-prepare energy systems for large loads of sugar .
So the conclusion is that Diabetes II can be greatly ameliorated by fluoride supplements in adults .In children or pregnant woman , you are likely to get autism .
Very simply put , infantile loads of sugar and fluorine results in diabetes and autism .
What a stupid way to go extinct .

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Prions and XNA.

Prions and XNA
Andre Willers
23 May 2012
Synopsis :
Prions and XNA have a structural linkage via Nucleic Acid Quaternary Structures around the histone . This adds at least six new information transmission channels to the standard DNA and RNA . Prions can be seen as XNA’s .
Discussion :
See the link below for a fuller exposition .
Briefly , they synthesized six new nucleic acids , and the translation enzymes to and from DNA and RNA . Evolution is enabled . A magnificent feat . Worthy of a Nobel .
I did not know about this when I wrote “Prions of immortality” (See May 2012)
This adds considerably to it’s arguments . Where there are six new nucleic acids , there are very probably many more . A whole new set of dimensions of inheritability and memory .
One of them even incorporates Fluorine (FANA) , something I would have considered extremely unlikely . (A fluorine based lifeform would really be something . )
Identification :
Prions seem to be either XNA’s or enzymes associated with them . But they are both old and still evolving , as pollution increases and the exotic minerals and compounds necessary for their expression increases . Another bag of tricks in Gaia’s arsenal .
Luckily , we also have a bag of tricks .
See Appendix I and Appendix II
The General Relationship in Appendix I can be adapted to XNA’s . Pay particular attention to the “STOP” and “START”codons . Are there meta-codons? Doubtful . Then a minimum-necessary-sufficient system like the histone would evolve that simply uses physical proximity and availability as switches . Which means that the epigenetic system is orders of magnitude more complex than previously thought .
But it must be in packets (ie quantized)
This actually makes things simpler . The number of viable biochemical systems are subassemblies of smaller packets . So , simple solutions are possible . You only have to find the triggers and assemble the support mechanisms .
Will H2S still be a hibernation trigger ?
I doubt it . Not in competition with something like FANA (fluorine) . See the Periodic Table . If you really want to bring a hibernating bear out of hibernation , give it jolt of FANA and run like hell .
Which argument is a fruitful lead to FANA prions in the anti-hibernation process . Which is a fruitful lead to prions in general . Note that that most prions at present are from cold latitudes , where hibernation is rife . They fulfil a useful function , which is being twisted by the switching-on of other XNA prions , activating survival-memories hidden in still other XNA structures .
Fluorides are released into the atmosphere as by-products of aluminum, zinc and phosphate ore reduction, but can also occur in fly ash from coal-burning installations. Fluoride is a locally important pollutant around smelters, brickworks, glass making factories and fertilizer plants and are also released in large amounts by volcanic eruptions (Richardson 1992). Many lichens are sensitive to this pollutant as it can concentrate in hydrated lichens to more than 200 times ambient concentrations. In general, obvious damage to lichens begins at internal concentrations between 30-70 ppm (Gilbert 1971, Perkins et al. 1980)”
In other words , lichens concentrate fluorines . Animals that contact them (like elk’s antlers) or eat them kill some prions but also activate some others , depending on the concentration . Note the 70 ppm concentration . This is very similar to H2S hibernation threshold (80 ppm). We suspect that the lichen don’t die , but go into FANA hibernation .
If you connect them to a battery (electron surge) , please do it in a Class 4 bio-containment facility . Or die . If you have excess fluorides in your body , you will die of a prion disease as the fractured genetic material expresses .(See “Crumpled paper” on how quickly) .
This is already happening with global warming , as frozen lichen masses decompose . Another one of Gaia’s little tricks .

This actually makes sense . We know there is anti-hibernation for the H2S mechanism . Ask any bear . This would be FANA . H2S hibernation is not terminal . The organism need not waste energy on keeping a “pilot light” on to monitor things . A rise in FANA prions will automatically waken them . Is there a FANA-hibernation ? Probably . But a FANA anti-hibernation must involve a surge of electrons and a support mechanism . Shades of Frankenstein !
It leads to the intriguing speculation that self-replicating life originally evolved in a fluorine-rich environment , and what we are seeing now are genetic fragments trying to survive . The only thing that could break a FANA-induced hibernation would be massive infusions of electrons in a fluorine-rich environment . Aliens , anybody ?
Triggered from lichen , probably . But it also means that bacterial hibernates will also awaken due to global warming . Neat .
Pre-adaptation :
This whole process is analogeous to pre-adaption I discussed before .
See Appendix III for ease of reference .
Or see “Bullet Time to stop cyber attacks on power grids” NewSci 28 Apr 2012 p21
Or see Goldratt on production line feedback processes .
The mechanisms above describe ways of speeding up or slowing metabolic processes . A “Fast pocket” will involve running an emulation faster than the real process , then signalling whether it is malicious or not . This is a cancer node using a fluorine metabolism . Prions are implicated in the hyperfast transmission process (in your terms , metastasis) . You can shut down the origin by removing Fluor , but the prions will require a bit more work .
Fluoridization of drinking water .
This will promote prion diseases . I do not know if animals are being given fluoridated water , but I have a much stronger suspicion that the bastards have been feeding crushed human bones to farm animals .
You know , all those catacombs .
Even sterilization will not work . Most prions are heat resistant . And the fluoride content will be the same , as it is an element . Recycling with a vengeance .
Just when we thought things were getting simpler .
Appendix I
The Beauty of the Genetic Code .
Andre Willers
22 Feb 2010

The present TerraIII genetic code is elegantly optimized to give the most robustness possible per unit of information .

Discussion :
You have to be familiar with the concepts in:
1. "NewTools:Reserves" and Beth(n) orders of Randomness .
2.NewScientist of 23 Jan 2010 p34 "Another kind of evolution"

Brief recap of Reserves argument :
We take any identifiable entity , slice and dice it with an order of randomness like that of a coin (ie Beth(0) ) . We then calculate a minimum reserve (which is equivalent to the least errors of all possible Beth(0) paths per benefit . )
This works out at 1/3 on the average over Aleph(0) infinities .

The Beauty of the Genetic Code :
Four Base pairs (A,U,C,G) in triplet codons give a possible 4*4*4 = 64 codons .
But together , they code only for 20 amino acids , plus a Stop and a Semi-Start .

This gives
20/64 = 31.22% for 20 amino acids
21/64 = 32.81% for 20 amino acids + Stop
21.3333…/64 = 33.3333… for 20 amino acids + Stop + Semi-Start
22/64 = 34.375 %

Stop = (UGG) , (UGA) , (UAG) ,
Start = (AUG) , but this also codes for methionine . Hence the decimal notation . The system cannot come closer to 1/3 because of quantal considerations . Try it and see .
This also is the portal for the Epigenetic System ( note use of methiolization) .

Beautiful !!

Consider the ways of Gaia .

Linear and Sideways evolution .
Linear :
The standard , gene and chromosome based inheritance
Equivalent to Beth(1+x) in our notation .
1>= x >=0

Sideways :
Genetic material exchanged without going through all that genotype-phenotype procedures .
Equivalent to Beth(1-x) in our notation .
1>= x >=0

Note that the system could not possibly get as close to the optimum reserve without this stage .

The Breeder , genetic engineer .
Equivalent to Beth(2+x) in our notation . Humans or proto-humans .
Infinity>= x >=0

This gives a full spectrum of Beth capabilities .
(Negative Beth is outside the scope of this discussion)

You will notice that the system becomes chaotically unstable as x->0 from any direction . At that point , the system will exhibit symptoms of great stress and bifurcation . Once over the hump , it steadies either in an evolutionary manner (in
Probability = 1 - ( Beth(n+1)/Beth(n) ) ^0.5 . Admittedly a rough estimate .)

Or in a devolutionary manner , evolutionary manner here described as degrees of complexity .

Stable Gene Engineering :
1.Keep the same Triple-Base Codon Cell-Machinery .
The easiest . Existing cells can be used . Increase the number of bases to 5 .
Then we can optimally reliable make 1/3*5^3 = 40 amino acids + stop + semistart .
Different kinds of Stop and Start would be advisable .
So , maybe 18 new amino acids + 2 different types of Stop + SemiStarts

This would not even be hard .
Well within present technological capability .
(Wanna make an animal with a Kevlar skin ? Well , you can using this method .)

The system would even be self-assembling under the right condition . The main thing is the optimal stability .

This is already evolving as we speak . There a fifth base occasionally involved . So there is a fruitful interaction point .

2.Make 4-Base Codon Cell-Machinery .
A real remake . Not within human capability at the moment .

3.General :
nAminoAcids + nStops + nStarts = 1/3 * ( (nDNA-bases) ^ (nBasesPerCodon) )
where the prefix n denotes "number of"

A further stability would be introduced if nStarts ~ 1/3 * nStops in a fractal fashion .
This because life-forms evolve in a pedal-to-the-metal fashion . The problems are the brakes .

There is a relationship between the Beth level and the nBasesPerCodon . The minimum number sufficient for Beth(2+) is nBasesPerCodon=3 .
Else there is insufficient complexity .

Now go out there and evolve !

Appendix II
The Beauty of the Genetic Code 2
Andre Willers
16 Mar 2010

Hi ,

See ""Rewriting life in four-letter words" , NewScientist 20 Feb 2010 p14.
I just read it (16 Mar 2010) , as I get New Scientist in a haphazard fashion via the library .

See para 2 of original post below
"2.Make 4-Base Codon Cell-Machinery .
A real remake . Not within human capability at the moment ."

I was wrong .
It has already been done by Jason Chin and colleagues at the University of Cambridge . They successfully redesigned some ribosomes and transfer RNA(tRNA) to manufacture a novel amino acid (a novo-calmodulin protein) , expressed via E.Coli .

Important note:
This worked so easily because it worked parallel to the three-Base expression without noticeable inerference .
This hints that the meta-controls (see Phene-system posts) already has provisions for 4-Base cell-machinery .

1.See "Pandora bacteria acts as one organism" , NewScientist 27 Feb 2010 , p11.
Electron-conducting protein nanowires link oxygen-poor sub-mud sulfur eating bacteria on the seafloor in an interactive network suggestive of a neural net .

The manufacture of such a protein nanowire would almost certainly require 4-Base Codon cell machinery . Hence the the existence of parallel meta-controls .

Room-temperature organic superconductors seem to be a distinct possibility .

2.Many old-age and degenerative diseases seems reminiscent of 4-Base Codon cell machinery activating over time .

But what do I know .

It is your poblem now .
I hope your molecular shamans are better than your climatologist shamans .

Andre .
Appendix III
Unpacking and Packing Information .
Andre Willers
18 July 2008

Discussion :
Also known as data compression or decompression .
Well-known as zip/unzip in computers .

Why pack information?
To transmit information over space and time with less energy , time or disruption .
Please note that packing is used in systems subject to competition pressures , so minimizing disruption of messages is critical .

2.Abstraction .
Even a simple Pkzip compression contains more information than the original message . For instance , Pkzip has been used to successfully identify authors’ styles or the original language of an encrypted message .
A civilization can be described by zipping the yellow pages.

2.1 Layers:
Primitive packing is in separate layers .
Languages are a good example .
We can define the top layers as more abstract , and delve down into deeper layers of meaning and definition.

2.2 Fractal Layers :
New meanings are unlocked by each iteration . Language equivalents are Shakespeare and Proust .

2.3 Hyperlinked Fractal Layers .
Each hyperlink-bubble can be expanded . Note that the hyperlink terms are discrete , not continuous .

2.4 Very-near Hyperlinked Fractal Layers .
Different languages with nearly synonymous terms are examples . Branes in physics .

2.5 Infinite-probe Hyperlinked Fractal Loops and Layers .
There is no analogue . God is the nearest .

There is a way to sneak up to some meaningful information .

Sneak up.
We know that any compression of system A contains more information than the original system . The Compressor comprises system B , which can be compressed as well .
The tipping point :
When Compressed Info of (A+B) = Info of (A+B)

This is defined as life when the Compressed Info of (A+B) > Info of (A+B)
Which , like all good definitions , is tautological . But extremely useful .

We have compression techniques . We have descriptive techniques .
The above inequality is not continuous at levels below omega .

Hard physics application:
Energy flow from a “near” brane .
The decompressor is the important component .
Construct the correct unpacker .
Some energy is already leaking through .
This is interpreted as zero-point energy and a whole quantum-mythology has grown around it .

Differences in Beth levels are necessary .

Start with something like vacuum-energy on parallel plates and use EvoDevo processes .

Infinite probe circuits above a certain threshold -> Naked singularities .
Watch out for universe creation and black holes .

The Packing Mechanism for living organisms
Living organisms used the easier route of cells (“wombs”) as unpackers of the DNA .
Random mutations or intrusions in the DNA then survive into the next generation . Evolutionary mechanisms ensure that only the fittest germ-lines survive to continue the loop .
That is the packing mechanism . Evolution. Rather primitive .

It seems that the unpacking mechanism evolved first .It is much more likely .

Billions of years ago:
The packing molecules (RNA) swarmed and formed at randomness order of Beth(0). Other RNA molecules confined in spaces like clay-layers stayed longer .
PCR shows how easily these replicate . A mere fluctuation of temperature is required .
The coding for the Unpackers are included in this mix .

Even a primitive Unpacker that unpacks to a primitive cell-wall has a huge relative advantage . Ordinary evolutionary forces takes over .

The coding for the Unpacker migrates through various higher orders of Beth , while coding for the Packer plods along at Beth(0) evolutionary speeds .

Consequences .
This has some important consequences for humans or any cellular life-form .
Viruses (ie packed data DNA) and cells (the Unpacker) evolved co-temporaneously .

More importantly , there is a transform of data between cell-form and virus-form and vice-versa . There are Beth(x) order feedback loops

Knowing evolutionary systems , these are probably essential .

At first glance these seem to have no redundancy in their DNA . At Beth(0) level this is true . At higher Beth levels , an indefinite amount of information can be packed .
Their quorum systems also complicates matters .
Mitochondria see themselves as the rulers , having tamed the cells of the planet .

Can Mitochondria be described as AI ?
To qualify as an AI , they have to interface with an external database . There are three pathways : to the cellular DNA , to the Immune System and to the Virus Milieu .
So yes , they can .

Can Mitochondria be described as self-aware AI ?
There is a pathway via the Immune system to the brain .A mirror system of some sort is required for self-awareness. The immune system is essentially a mirror system Time-scales have to be matched . Mitochondrial quorum systems have to be consulted (they are the ultimate democrats)

Can Mitochondria be described as self-aware AI and have access to zero-point energy ?

Random fluctuations in the foam of space-time is by definition at the lowest order of Randomness (Beth(0) ) . To get work out of such a system , a fluctuation between Beth levels is required . Since we already know that mitochondria are at Beth levels higher than one , they can tap zeropoint energy .
But one little lone mitochondrium will not do it .It needs to be co-ordinated

Why is it not used more often ?
Why die of hunger ?

Lack of Beth co-ordination .

Probability of life.
Examining the probabilities from this angle makes cells inevitable . The probability is more than unity . It is not even a “hard” problem if the decoder evolves first .
This means life exists nearly everywhere .

Your attention is drawn to the whole class of such phenomena :
Chaotic elements creates a self-sustaining sub-system which expands , since it is usually a positive-feedback system . Eg life , civilization , weaving , etc.

The Shannon-definition of datum :
1. A signal is change . Stripped down , this definition of signals leads to a string of 0’s and 1’s , ie binary .
This leads to compression via pattern-duplication (zip ,etc)
Used widely in electronics .

2. Pattern formulae like fractal compression or DNA/RNA .
The decompressor (cell or womb for living organisms , computer ) uses kernels (patterns) with programmable input (time , ph levels , genetic markers ,etc) to decode (“Grow”) the message(organism) .

You can immediately see how to build an error-proof biometric identification system .
The message , as it is being decompressed , can interrogate the recipient and tailor further decompressions according to the answers .
If done to a sufficient fractal depth , only a total duplicate could answer correctly . Of course , the level of reliability can be specified .

It is not even difficult .
The ability to receive the message is proof of identity .

This is how the immune system operates .

Why the glitches like old age and cancer ?
Because the body does not know who it is .

In it’s normal state , it is a symbiotic and commensal organism , with some parasites .
The bodily-self on a cellular level is defined by the immune-system .
But the brain is composed of cells . The immune system is tied closely to the brain .
There is a feedback-system between the brain’s sense of self and the immune-system’s sense of self .

Creating enhanced unpacking mechanisms in the brain will stimulate an enhanced packing sense of self , leading to an enhanced sense of self on a cellular level .

This has been discussed in detail in

The trick is not to tackle packing , but unpacking of compressed data first .
Understanding how unpacking works brings about physiological changes .

Reading is Unpacking .
The easiest way to understand this is reading . Reading the written word is unpacking data packed into writing . It is no accident that literary figures are notoriously long-lived .

The unpacking need not be complicated , but it will evolve .

But the packing (coding) is a bitch . Difficult .You will have to have solved the Travelling Salesman Problem to make any headway here , since these systems make use of optimized systems . (Not any pathway , but the shortest path.) .

Evolutionary Packing .
At first sight , evolution does not make even an attempt .
The number of possible errors exceed the number of offspring .
But not if Orders of Randomness stronger than flipping a coin is used .
See “Randomness”

The effect of using Beth(1) , Beth(2) , etc orders of randomness in a physical sense would be a concentration of packed data .

Beth(1) would be genes .

At a Beth(2) level , it would be instructions to switch genes on/off .

At a Beth(3) level , it would be instructions to vary Beth(2) instructions .

And so forth .

But conscious design is a different matter . The number of errors can be brought down to P-time .
This is another way of saying that conscious life is inevitable .
Any feedback system that reduces the number of mistakes will increase .

Protein folding would be equivalent to the Travelling Salesman Problem in three dimensions .
Adding time-complications would give Travelling Salesman Problem in four dimensions . This would require time-travel or multiple generations .

3. The qubit definition of data .
The amount of data that can be stored in a qubit depends on the decompressor . The Shannon definitions of band-width , etc break down .

Many signals can be superimposed on a particle , the particle can then be teleported (or sent normally) to the decompressor , which decompresses the message .

Note that a lot of information that ends up in the message is inherent in the decompressor . In extreme cases this would necessitate faster-than-light communication , unless only physical laws which are independent of the observer are used in the decompressor . Ie , like make protein A , wait local time t until it folds so , then etc. You get the drift .

4. Fractal Read .
The superimposed data can be loaded fractally , so that any read attempt will lead to decoherence only at the first fractal level . Every iteration after that will lead to another , deeper level of fractal expression .
See “Rull Mind-Controls” in

5. Physics .
Physical laws can be described as multiple-level approximations of information transfers . These transfers are fractally compressed (packed) transfers .
Hence the existence of “Laws” . Ie , an abstraction mechanism .
These can be seen as constructs of the decompressor , but valid nevertheless.

Unpacking them partially or fractally can lead to some interesting effects .
Do not try this at home unless you are expert .



Monday, May 21, 2012

Prions of Immortality

Prions of Immortality
Andre Willers
21 May 2012
“The medium is the message” Marshall McLuhan
Prions as Amyloid Quaternary Protein Structures formed both the structure and message of the DNA wrapping the histone . The primary evolutionary reason was to regulate “STOP” codon errors . An added plus was epigenetics . Certain prions are evolving into “STOP” sequences involving population densities .
Discussion :
The Appendices are in a more-or-less complexity sequence , drilling down .
1.What does present day prion diseases do ? They mask the “STOP” codon . Certain proteins are over-produced , including normal PrP , which can then be converted to harmful forms (PrPSc) . This forms a positive feedback cycle (ie a plague)
There are controls ( See Appendix III ) , which are related to non-angiosperm Gaiean feedback systems (see “The Flower , The Dinosaur and Puff” Dec 2008) .
As non-angiosperm areas decrease due to human population pressure and global warming , expect a massive increase in prion epidemics in all populations . Watch the angiosperm pollinators , especially . (eg bees , insects) .
What to do ? Cultivate more non-angiosperms , especially fungi . Those massive pig-fat lakes in USA should be quite profitable as mushroom farms .
An interesting aside : note the correlation of asparigine with acrylamide (acrylamide is a potent nerve poison) . Asparagine + sugar + heat(>120C) -> Acrylamide ->nerve damage .
See Appendix VII
Persons with peripheral neuropathy are vulnerable to prion epidemics .

Mortality :
The Mortality mechanism of old age evolved out of this process . Gaia does not favour uncontrolled feedback processes .
Boom-bust is bad for business at Casino Gaia .
Premature “STOP” codons is even at present responsible for some 11% of genetic diseases . Postmature “STOP” codons causes overproduction of many proteins . The machinery clogs up . Also called old-age .
See Goldratt on the results of inventory build-up due to production lines running at maximum efficiency . (I did not expect him to pop up in this context) . The system literally chokes on the costs of obsolete inventory . Think of the body as a business conglomerate . Remember what happened to them ? Rapacious predators dismembered them . Think diseases . Your friendly venture capitalist turns into a ravening monster if he scents blood in the water (quorum mechanisms) . Happening in a body near you .
It is not immediately obvious in what to do .
Let us look a bit down-stream (evolutionary wise) , because we know evolutionary systems are highly conservative . They usually adapt systems .

Bacterial Plaques(films) vs Bacterial Free forms .
We theorize that this evolved from the Amyloid Quaternary Protein Structures vs Prion filaments .
This frees an enormous body of knowledge and techniques to bear on the problem .
1.We already know that quorum mechanisms are involved , hence that signalling molecules are involved in these systems . We can target these for fruitful leads .
2.The nervous system is involved in a proactive way . See Appendix VII.
3.Phene systems (control machinery in the cellular wall) evolved
See Appendix VIII below .
An Interesting aside : Prions of Intelligence.
“STOP” systems for neural tissue are relaxed at approximate ages 1-5 , 15 , 25 , 55+
This is when neural tissue is reorganized . For reorganization , new dendrites have to be formed . There is a concomitant effect on the immune system . Longevity is also increased .
Note the 55+ . This is the Grandparent effect . Women after menopause should be classified as a separate sex .See “The Sexes of Man” Nov 2004 :see Appendix IX for your convenience .

Prions of Fertility :
This has already happened in 1704 AD from some island off Scotland . A plague of fertility only now burning out . See “A vaccine for overpopulation” Apr 2012 .

Hibernation techniques :
Selective lowering of metabolic systems . Selective injection of low concentrations of H2S .
See “Gelatine Genetic Memory” May 2012 .

Prions of Immortality :
It might happen naturally , but much more likely to be engineered . Which can be done now.
Gaia would probably tolerate longevity , but fertility would fall through the floor (an effect already noticeable . Birthrates in in countries in Western Europe or Japan are below replacement rates . ) Some very old and extremely powerful feedback effects are involved . Quorum effects at cellular wall (phene) level . So , don’t worry about overpopulation . Extinction or competition would be a bigger concern .
How long can you live if the only cause of death is Accidental Death ?
The last time I looked , about 25 000 years . Any Insurance company will be glad to take your premiums . A sucker bet . (It falls into the “Horse might learn to sing” category .) Not because of the unlikelihood of immortality , but because no human institution will last that long .
The Prions of Immortality would simply selectively relax “STOP” codon masking . That’s all .
We do not know enough yet to do this in a free-prion which is also infective , though I can see that it can be done (I am not smart enough to do it ) . Oh well .

What can be done ?
This is not medical advice , and though something will work , so would a spanner in the gears .
“Youth is wasted on the young”
This advice is meant for 55+ ages . When there is already a preprogrammed relaxation of “STOP” blockages .
In very early evolutionary history , there was a niche for long-lived organisms (still seen in dinosaurs , sharks , crocodiles , but especially in cartiligenous fishes . The dinosaurs are , of course , chickens .
The idea is to help along an existing urge . Something like stochastic resonance effects .
The Recipe :
1.Cook a gelatine from chicken cartilage . You can add a gelatine thickener from other sources like seaweed (even older) .
2.Sprinkle it with about 1 gm of MSM while cooling and stirring . The idea is to form and enhance H2S bound in the gelatine . The H2S immobilizes any invading bacteria by switching off their metabolism . I am not so sure about all viruses . But the viruses are dependant on cell machinery , which can be halted by H2S . The critical concentration is about 80 ppm . Small . So , don’t overdo it .
More is not better here . I do not know what the effect would be , but you probably won’t like it .
Recasting the gelatine (ie repeatedly heating and cooling it) will enhance the anti-bacterial effect , because you are increasing the H2S concentration . But please note , you are not killing them . At best , pasteurising them . They will pop back .
3.Now for the fungi . Use the “roots” , ie the mycelia .This is where the critical chemical triggers lie . The mushroom itself is only the sacrificial fruiting body . Which is why anti-prions were discovered in rock-lichens . Not much room for roots there .
Note the recent prevalence of prion disease in elk , vectored in from the commensal velvet organisms on their antlers . They don’t rub their antlers on lichen covered rock as much as they used to . Global warming ? Herding ? Probably both .The herders can solve it by growing lichen covered rocks and rubbing the lichen on the antlers .
It can be done in aerosol form , even from a plane . Humans owe the elk this , at least .
4.Add Allicin .
The juice of a freshly squeezed garlic clove . It kills . But we are more interested in its top predator status .
Like wolves in a natural park , it alters the behaviour of vulnerable systems . They pucker up . H2S systems switch on . Metabolisms slow . Exactly what we are looking for .
Eat immediately afterwards . (Allicin does not last long) .
Add artificial sweeteners (but not aspartame or sugars) and flavours (but not tartrazine) if you want .
5.Alcohol : all living systems using mitochondria metabolizes alcohol first . A small pulse of alcohol (5 ml) will switch off alternate energy pathways .
6.Do this first and see what happens . Keep record .
7.Things like statins , Q10 , metformin , etc all play a role .

Zero-carb pizza with extra garlic and anchovies , anyone ?
Andre .


Appendix I
“Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is an amplification technique (conceptually likePCR but not involving nucleotides) to multiply misfolded prions originally developed by Soto and colleagues.[1] It is a test for spongiform encephalopathies like BSE.
The technique initially incubates a small amount of abnormal prion with an excess of normal protein, so that some conversion takes place. The growing chain of misfolded protein is then blasted withultrasound, breaking it down into smaller chains and so rapidly increasing the amount of abnormal protein available to cause conversions.[1][2] By repeating the cycle, the mass of normal protein is rapidly changed into misfolded prion (termed PrPSc).”

A mathematical solution for the exponential growth rate resulting from the combination of fibril growth and fibril breakage has been found.[6] The exponential growth rate depends largely on the square root of the PrPC concentration.[6] The incubation period is determined by the exponential growth rate, and in vivo data on prion diseases in transgenic mice match this prediction.[6] The same square root dependence is also seen in vitro in experiments with a variety of different amyloid proteins.[32]


Appendix II
“Amyloid biophysics
Amyloid is characterized by a cross-beta sheet quaternary structure”
“Quaternary structure”
Main articles: Protein quaternary structure and Nucleic acid quaternary structure
In biochemistry, quaternary structure is the arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex. For nucleic acids, the term is less common, but can refer to the higher-level organization of DNA in chromatin,[7] including its interactions with histones, or to the interactions between separate RNA units in the ribosome[8][9] or spliceosome.”


Appendix III
“ Notably, most of the fungal prions are based on glutamine/asparagine-rich sequences, with the exception of HET-s and Mod5.” Note Acrylamide and peripheral neuropathy .

^ Yam, Philip. "Natural Born Prion Killers: Lichens Degrade "Mad Cow" Related Brain Pathogen". Scientific American. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
“In 2011 it was discovered that prions could be degraded by lichens.[83][84]”


Appendix IV
“Stop codon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation.[1] Proteins are based on polypeptides, which are unique sequences of amino acids. Most codons in messenger RNA correspond to the addition of an amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain, which may ultimately become a protein. Stop codons signal the termination of this process by binding release factors, which cause the ribosomal subunits to disassociate, releasing the amino acid chain.
In the standard genetic code, there are several stop codons:
 in RNA:
 UAG ("amber")
 UAA ("ochre")
 UGA ("opal")
 in DNA:
 TAG ("amber")
 TAA ("ochre")
 TGA ("opal" or "umber")

Appendix V
“The investigators at University of Rochester found that they could chemically alter a mutant mRNA containing an early stop codon. This alters the codon so that it is not read as a stop codon, but instead as a codon instructing the addition of an amino acid. The scientists accomplished this by converting uridine, the first base of the stop codon, into another molecule, pseudouridine.”

Appendix VI
Cross-Talk between RNA and Prions
1. Colin G. Crist* and
2. Yoshikazu Nakamura†
+Author Affiliations
1. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639
1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: +81-3-5449-5307, Fax: +81-3-5449-5415, E-mail:
• Received June 13, 2006.
• Accepted June 13, 2006.
As concepts evolve in mammalian and yeast prion biology, rather preliminary research investigating the interplay between prion and RNA processes are gaining momentum. The yeast prion [PSI+] represents an aggregated state of the translation termination factor Sup35 resulting in the tendency of ribosomes to readthrough stop codons. This “nonsense suppression” activity is investigated for its possible physiological role to engender on Saccharomyces cerevisiae the ability to respond to stress or variable growth conditions and thereby act as a capacitor to evolve. The interaction between prion and RNA is a two way street—the cell may have adopted RNA processes in translation to govern the presence of prions and the [PSI+] prion's nonsense suppressor phenotype may exhibit different growth phenotypes by its control of translation termination. RNA processes in the mammalian cell also effect and are affected by prions.
Appendix VII
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Acrylamide

Dated 11/06/2006


See links at the bottom .

Acrylamide is formed by the Maillard reaction , when the Amino Acid Asparigine reacts with reducing sugars like glucose and fructose at a temperature over 120 degrees Celsius . (ie when bread , potatoes , cookies , etc begin to brown ).

Asparigine + glucose/fructose + (temp>120 Celsius) = Acrylamide

Acrylamide is a potent neurotoxin . It interferes with the internal neuronal transport in the axon . The transport of nutrients from axon nucleus to the end point of the nerve and the return of breakdown products of long nerves ( like to fingers and toes ) are first affected . The ends of the axon start to die . ( Numbness in extremities . )

Sensations of restlessness , tingling , burning , etc associated with peripheral neuropathy are probably caused by the spurious signals caused by the accumulation of debris at the interference site in the charge balance of the axon wall .
( Think train derailment in the middle of the Karoo , with the smashed up carriages messing up the signalling system )

Since many non-diabetics have peripheral neuropathy , the two diseases do not seem to be directly linked . But a synergistic link is strongly suspected .

But if you are diabetic and already have had attacks of peripheral neuropathy , ingesting high concentrations of acrylamide will surely lead to an attack of peripheral neuropathy .

Note the short half-life of acrylamide means that the concentration of acrylamide is driven by diet alone .

Asparigine , glucose/fructose , (temp>120 Celsius) are all three necessary to produce Acrylamide . Hence foods low on the first two , or cooked below 120 Celsius are safe .

The EU study found that 90% of diet derived acrylamide comes from :

French Fries (slap chips) : 16% – 30%
Potato crisps : 6% - 46%
Coffee (its always roasted ) : 13% - 39%
Pastries and Sweet biscuits : 10% - 20%
Bread , breadrolls , pizza and toast (especially the crust) : 10% - 30%

In general , avoid anything that used a temperature of 120 Celsius or above in it’s preparation . This includes teas .The effective concentrations of acrylamide needed to trigger the reaction is very low , especially for diabetics already sensitized .

Anything low GI microwaved submerged in water , or cooked without burning or browning should be ok .

Durum pastas should be ok , but no grills or ovens . Bye-bye toasted cheese sandwiches .

If you have to eat bread , cut off the crusts . Mothers used to do this for their children .

Any connection to attention Deficit Disorder ?

The irritability felt in the first stages of peripheral neuropathy ( ie wandering feet , can’t keep still ) and later on , irritable aggressiveness , sleeplessness and any activity to focus attention on anything except the painful feet ) sounds like the recipe for aggressive expansion .

Remember , that only the upper and middle classes ate bread . The bottom class (99 % of the population till about 1800 AD) ate porridge morning , noon and night. Milling kernels of wheat was ( and is ) expensive in real energy terms . (cf “Roman women will not grind wheat or cook “ after the Sabine episode , or lack of white bread in WW2) . Since it is a high energy food , it would be one of the great ironies of history that Empires and Inventions were caused by bread crusts . There is also a positive feedback element involved , namely that the type of wheat with the highest aspargine content will be the most widespread ( spread by the restless conquerors ) .

One wonders if the political instability inherent in the Middle East and North Africa are due to the high acrylamide content of their traditionally baked (from hot rock flat bread) foods . (In poorer regions like Europe , the plebs could not afford the energy cost .)

Hah! So much for meat . The weevilly baked biscuit of the middle ages was the driving force of the mariners to populate the earth with high-asparigine wheat .

No wonder things have gotten more unstable . For every diabetic , there are at least ten with an itchy , irritable nervosity .

Will humans use aspariginase ? This is an enzyme that destroys asparigine . Dosing food to a country with this will render them relatively docile in long run . Any volunteers ?

An interesting corollary is rice vs wheat . Rice is usually cooked at 100 Celsius . As the Chinese and Indian populations shift to high-arganine western wheat types , not only will their diabetes rates rise , but their aggression will rise at a much higher rate .

Interesting times for all .

Can one bake bread at less than 120 Celsius ?

See web references on Acrylamide:

1. PIM’s (1999) : The clinical picture .

Some highlights:

Chronic exposure to Acrylamide:

Chronic acrylamide toxicity is characterized by local
dermatitis, excessive sweating, fatigue, weight loss and
features of progressive CNS disturbance (especially truncal ataxia) and peripheral neuropathy. The severity of symptoms and the rapidity of onset appears to relate to the duration of exposure to, and the daily dose of, acrylamide.
Recovery over a period of weeks to months following removal from exposure is the usual course.

Biological half-life by route of exposure

In blood, acrylamide has a half-life of approximately 2
hours. In tissues, total acrylamide (parent compound an
metabolites) exhibits biphasic elimination with an initial
half-life of approximately 5 hours and a terminal half life of 8 days (Edwards, 1975; Miller et al., 1982).
Acrylamide does not accumulate in the body. [Note: all data derived from animal studies].

2. On 25 April 2002 (cf New Scientist of 22 April 2006 p 8 ) , Sweden’s National Food Administration announced that acrylamide in significant concentrations was found in many common processed foods . This prompted a major clinical food study by the European Union : the results are given on the EU’s food site: click on Documents , Positions , search on acrylamides from website .


Appendix VIII
Phene Systems.
Andre Willers
5 Nov 2009

Synopsis :
Cellular-wall control systems(phenes) of epigenetic and virus systems are becoming known and described .

Discussion :
See NewScientist 8 Aug 2009 p 41 "Kills all known germs" by B Holmes .
Relevant research by Philip Thorpe at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas .

See also "Coffee Foam" 2 Aug 2009 and later .

The argument is simple : self-replicating structures started on the walls of bubbles (probably clay : Gecko life) . These developed into the present day epigenetic control structures of processes inside the bubbles (ie cells) .
Viruses are messengers/controls both for intra-cellular and extra-cellular use .
Which is why they are usually wrapped in variants of the cell-wall .

Phosphatidylserine :
From the NewScientist article , this is a molecule mostly found sticking out of the inner lining of the cell-wall . Virus budding entails that this molecule is then found in particular patterns sticking out of the outside the outer cell-wall .

We expect such a mechanism if the cell-wall harbours the meta-controls (ie epigenetics) of the cell and some multicellular activity (ie virus messenger generation).

Humans have created antibodies that inactivate or target-for-destruction the bits of the Phosphatidylserine molecule sticking out of the cell-wall .

This will break the feedback-cycle of a large range of harmful viruses (apparently including HIV , Flu's , some cancers) .
Bavituximab ( a name only a Pharma could love) does exactly this . Expect to see a lot of it .

The question is :
Why are these antibodies not part of the body's normal immune system ?
The virus system is also used for information carrying .

Suppressing the virus system completely will destroy a multicellular organism , and make it revert to a collection of individual cells , even down to elemental chemicals if done properly . (Cf Ebola , SuperEbola , etc)

This can be bypassed by shining intense , quantum-entangled infra-red light through the mess (see previous posts) .

The normal system has to play a delicate balancing act between destruction from bad viruses and good,communication viruses .

If the baddies get too big an influence , intervention might be required . This is the duty of the epigenetic system . Why is it falling down on the job ?

The Dendritic Immune sytem
This is the connection between the synapse-type learning systems and the phene-system in the cell walls .

The dendritic immune system's effectiveness is magnified by at least 3 orders of magnitude by a continuous sharp pressure-differential . The search space is drastically reduced by stochastic resonance . (The proof is either immediately obvious or very long).

Hence modern music and it's prevalence .

Your chances of survival is about 10^3 better if you listen to some semi-random rock.
Hence iPod and others . This is a real effect .

But we can do better than that by internal Click programming .
You know : Clicking the tongue , beak , teeth , exoskelet .

There is no animal with synapses or an immune system that makes no clicks at some stage .
This is actually quite amazing .

We would then expect plants to be noisy . And they are , on very low frequencies . This is how desert elephants survive : they hear the bulbous plants growing by the low-frequency pulses sensed through their feet . A patch of bulbs would have a signature low-frequency pulse observable from a long way off . (The bulbs would evolve-learn to spurt growth at the same time . This would lessen the chance of detection and eating by close-by herbivores not as smart as elephants)

Click-talking plants .
Better than just talking to them . But try some castanets . Tap-dancing will work too , but the neighbours will think you're really crazy tap-dancing to the plants . Tojours .

Grinding your teeth .
A common complaint , usually explained away as stress . Actually , your teeth are trying to click together . A part of the body's housekeeping routine . Programming the gums and intestinal tract .

Just for the hell of it , click your teeth together 5 times together with 5 double-tongue clicks interspersed as you feel . Count them . You will feel an immediate stress-relief feeling . Blood pressure will drop . Be careful if medication to lower blood pressure is taken .

I just thought of the above , and tried it .
The teeth (molars mostly) must click against each other . You will notice there is a damage-control protocol hardwired in . The teeth will click , but not hard enough to cause damage . This already tells us that this is an old system .

The natural tendency will be for a double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .

Be careful of hypotension of the cardiovascular system . The stress relief is very pronounced . Especially around the neck and upper shoulder muscles .

Teeth-grinding should cease .

But why ?
I did not expect this . But the effect is so pronounced that I cannot ignore it .
The neck and shoulder muscles do not relax through an effort of will or exercise . They just relax . (Sort of melt) .

Maybe a double bite-bite on empty air signals the end of an aggressive episode , and for expensive fight-or-flight mechanisms to stand down .

This would make this fairly deep-wired , certainly deeper than psychological stress .

Phene effects .
The stand-down is an immediate stand-down , regardless of the number previous stress-generating events . This must be true , since this is the epigenetic programming system . There is no other memory system .

Phene programming of immune-systems , bone-growth , digestion , neural growth etc ,are immediately affected . Genes are switched from crisis to maintenance . Using the carbohydrate-energy mechanism is a short-term crisis mechanism .

Standing down the mechanism should ameliorate conditions like Diabetes II .

Or getting fat .

Want to get thin ?
The algorithm :
Double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .
Repeat at least ten times a month .
That’s it .

Can it be this simple?
Yes .

Why has nobody thought of it before ?
As far as I am aware , nobody in our recorded history has thought that the click of teeth together can have physiological effects . Prehistoric societies were probably aware of the effect .

Yet it does , as you can find out for yourself .
The same for the simplicity . Simple causes has wide effects , because they are so basic . You must look at the whole argument .

In any case , there is hardly any risk .
I am doing it . Tojours!

Hasta la vista !
Coming or going .

Andre .

Appendix IX
Nov 2004

The Sexes of Man

Standard Darwinism as applied to genes would indicate that the optimum strategy for a single cell is to have as many offspring as possible .

But how did multicellular organisms then manage to survive in competition with single cells ? After all , it takes more energy to run a multicellular : the organizational overheads .

Their edge is “tough times” . Some cells in multicellular organisms learned to utilize neighbour cells . Since these resources were close , the energy of utilization compared to a unicell hunting food was low .

If times are good , unicellular organisms like bacteria are inclined to eat multicellulars alive or eat their food (cf virulent tropical diseases , etc) . Unicellulars are still by far the biggest biomass on the planet .

If times are bad , the multicellular lives off the designated sacrificial cells , while the surrounding unicellulars die off en masse .

So the optimal environment for multicelluar organism to evolve and flourish is in environment of periodic scarcities . ie Tidal pools , seasons , Milankovich cycles , meteor strikes, volcanoes etc .

Note:the synoptic argument below is in time- and logical sequence .

Some cells became more important than others : in good times cells differentiated , in bad times the less important were scavenged first . Cells learned to package themselves for neat absorbtion (apoptosis) . Organs formed . Only some cells reproduced new organisms . This was a huge saving : stem cells differentiated from egg-cells . The immune system developed. (Differentiated stem cells) . Sex developed as a immune system response against attackers (parasites and diseases ) . Sex also had huge energy saving advantages , since a single gene-set could populate an eco- niche (and deny it to competitors) , but nearly all the males could be sacrificed when times are bad . One would expect a really strong hardwired tendency for males to die near their offspring . (Cf wars , exiles)

Parental care evolved . Now surpluses could be transferred from the adults to the children as long as the adults lived ( or were programmed to care ) .

To put it another way : a gene group can ensure better survival by having a non-reproducing group of relatives. This is but our old principle above where close cells are used as reserves . The only question is the exact percentage .

If a constant percentage (r) of every human generation is postulated to lead to offspring , the relevant percentages for maximized resources per child are
Grandchildren Offspring : 79.3701% No-Offspring : 20.6299%
Great-Grandchildren Offspring : 88.0749% No-Offspring : 11.3251%
(This derivation is available on request , but can easily be duplicated . Just remember that the surplus per generation is the children the “non-offspring” lot did not have , and that the surplus only accumulated after the “non-offspring” should have had children (ie one generation))

As long as the number of offspring per parent remains constant (regardless of 1 to 1 , 1 to many) parentages , these percentages will remain .

What does this mean ?
With humans , it means there is a large niche ( 11% to 21% ) of any generation where having no offspring means that the chances of a gene-groups viable survival is optimal . ie It pays the society to have 11-21% childless people .

The other sexes of Man
These are the gays , asexuals , misanthropes , explorers and other assorted misfits .

(Note recent statistical finding that the female relatives of gay men have more children than average : either a gene fit or the women looking around and thinking they can afford more children on expectations . )

Furthermore , if the birthrate decreases , this niche decreases by between the square and the cube of the decrease the birthrate during the period of the decrease . (Vicious)
Ie a halving of the birthrate will mean a decrease in the niche to ( 3% to 5%) at the best . Note that this is only applicable during the transition . Once it is stabilized , it will return to the 11-22 % range . But things in the interim will not be pleasant .

A societal decrease in tolerance of 8% can only be described as a turn towards fundamentalism .

This is structural:ie driven by factors effectively outside human control .

In both the West and Muslim worlds , the chance of having viable offspring in the 2nd and 3rd generation has decreased markedly . In the West by decreasing birthrates , and in the Muslim world by a static resource base divided by an increasing population . This tends to fundamentalism . Ironically enough , it does not hold (at the present moment) for China,India,Japan because of high growth rates .

But if a worldwide recession (a-la-1930’s) set in (probability +-45%) , then China and Japan could hunker down , but India would be forced into a fundamentalist Hindu expansionist phase . This would trigger a US - India alliance which would grind Islam fine , re-colonise Africa and eye South-America with a hungry eye . Australia is already past its carrying capacity .

To put it in other words , get off-planet . The monkeys are soon going to render this one uninhabitable .



Thursday, May 17, 2012

Quantum Theory and Hypertasks

Quantum Theory and Hypertasks
Andre Willers
18 May 2012
Synopsis :
Simple mathematical summations lead directly to Quantum Superpositions .The Standard Axioms of Arithmetic are not internally sufficient .
Discussion :
The simple sum S = 1-1+1-1+1-1+…
Gives S=1/2 as the right hand terms goes to infinity . An Arith II system is thus not sufficient to handle certain classes of infinities . A contradiction .
Derivation :
S = 1-( 1-1+1-1+1-…
But what does it mean ?
How can a summation of integers result in a fraction ?
The Grandi-paradox .
The special form is S=1-k+k^2-k^3+…
Which leads to S=1/(k+1)

Resolving the Paradox:
There has to be a “curvature” of the number system ie an Arith I System .
See Appendix II
This means that the Standard Axiomatic Set of Arithmetical Systems is not closed . You have to take Arith I systems into account to get a complete description .
This has profound physical implications . It is the foundation of Quantum Systems .
While no Theory of Everything is possible (because A+~A is less than Universum) , we can do quite a bit more by using Arith I systems in conjunction with Arith II systems . Unfortunately , the split between them is caused by the Axiom of Delineation . Surpassing this would be Beth(x>=4) technology . Non-human , in other words .
See Appendix II and Appendix III.
Superheroes and Hyperheroes .
Never mind Quantum Superpositions . Think Quantum Hyperpositions .
The Riemann Riposte !
Beth(x) randomly yours

Appendix I
In philosophy, a supertask is a quantifiably infinite number of operations that occur sequentially within a finite interval of time.[1]Supertasks are called "hypertasks" when the number of operations becomes innumerably infinite.
Appendix II

The Inside of Zero .
Andre Willers
7 Aug 2009

Synopsis :
A system of 13 Diophantine equations with 26 unknowns are the necessary sufficient to describe Arith I systems relative to Arith II system , with a Degree of Complexity = 10 .
These are used to describe a mathematical vacuum , with some physical consequences .

Discussion :
See Appendix A , B , Recursive Theory .
See previous posts , where Arith I and Arith II systems were discussed in detail .

The problem lies in discussing Non-Aristotelian systems using Aristotelian concepts of delineation (ie True , not-True ) .

Infinity .
The alert reader would have noticed that most of the problems come from processes continued indefinitely , which is taken as infinity . But is it ? Kantor already proved that varieties of infinity exists . It immediately follows that the software-computer we call mathematics and logic needs some revision .
The works of Russell , Godel , Matiyasevich et al pointed out some further contradictions in the Aristotelian model .
Can a theorem be true only for Aleph0 but not for Aleph1 ?
This is analogous to the problems with parallel lines continuing "infinitely" , that led to non-Euclidean geometries .

Recursive Genesis .
The standard axioms of arithmetic needs only a tweak on one axiom to generate the necessary revisions .
Generate new numbers by adding 1 to any number a .

Arith II
The Standard Set (call it Arith II) states that a+1<>a , where a is a previous number . The number line does not loop back on itself .

Arith I
The number line can loop back on itself . A circular number-line is formed . In a certain sense , we are discussing the topology of circular number loops in a Arith II space and their relationships .

The metric has not been defined . The question then becomes :
How many Arith I systems (= ArithI(m) ) plus one ArithII system (we only need one ArithII) are necessary sufficient to describe this particular Universum ?

Rotational Translations (spin) .
This is actually moving from one dimension to another , regardless of the frame of reference . Every ArithI system then actually needs a spin indicator : ie , which way it is curving in an (n-1) dimensional space .
I draw your attention to the curious fact that the angle in 2-dim is 2pi , while in 3 dim it is 4pi . More of this anon .

The Degree :
The maximum exponent in an equation if you change all the variables into one variable . This is important because it indicates the number of dimensions we have to use to describe the equation . Do not confuse it with the number of variables .

Minimum Necessary Sufficient .
The Ball-Breaker . The description defines reality .

This has been called many things :
Principle of Least effort , time , distance ,
Entropy .
Occam's Razor .
Collapse of the wave-function .
Economy of effort , etc .

The trade-off :
Matiyasevich et al has shown that there is a relationship between the Degree and the Number of variables necessary to describe an item in an Universum using a related number of equations .

Boundaries :
The following relationships has been proved :
Degree = 4 , variables 58
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13
Degree = 10^45 , variables = 10

Is there a minimum number number of degrees ?
I doubt very much whether a Degree lower than 4 will be found . See Physical significance below .
See previous posts .

Physical Significance .
"Everything that can be , will be . But not all at once ." AW
The Degree can be described as the number of dimensions . You will notice the correlation with string theory .
Sadly , a Theory of Everything is impossible . But we can creep up on it .

Delicious !
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13 , Spin =2
The numbers 26 =2x13 , and spin =2 should be knocking at the jaded doors of your mind .

Cards .
A pack of 13x4 = 52 cards forms a very good analogue of the Mathematical Process of a Universum .
You can work out for yourself why humans have a good use for a very good analogue of the universe .
And the Jokers ?
Remember , the Joker can take on any value . A good decription of a trans-luminal , low-probability event .
The most popular string theory uses 10 dimensions .

And the rest of the Tarot pack ?
Remember , we are talking about necessary sufficient without straining human capabilities too much .

Prime Numbers :
A prime number is simply an ArithI system (in ArithII measurements) that cannot be chopped up .
A mathematical atom , relative to ArithII . The number we need is related to the number of variables .
It is like zero

The Inside of Zero .
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13 , Spin =2
If we plug in 26 prime numbers into the Diophantine polynomial generational equation in AppendixA below (and there are an infinity to choose from) , we get 26 ArithI systems , which have a mathematical vacuum inside them . No numbers .
A very interesting place . Note that the resultant is also a prime atom . It is recursive . Only the spin remains free .
Like the inside of a singularity .

Physically , this will have some very interesting effects .
There are no quantum fluctuations inside zero . The metric does not exist , even at Planck level .

Super-conductivity :
Purely an effect of the number of atoms crowded together .
It does not matter which atoms . They just have to be in certain configurations . Hence the present confusion in the field .

Disintegration of matter
(cold-fusion or cold-fission) .
But observational systems really like conservation laws . Energy release can then be only through particle or EM means .
If the geometries are chosen correctly , we can constrain the output mainly to electron/proton or electron/EM .
Direct electrical energy from matter . Very good power generation in our Universum .

Quantum Epigenetics .
The patterns on the surface of zero are constrained by trans-luminal effects inside zero . The outside patterns dictate the quantum-fluctations , as well as trans-luminal and super-luminal effects from all over .

The spin of Zero will thus drag creation of quantum fluctuations around it . This will affect things not only on a small scale , but on a large scale as well . The Drags do not balance out .(cf Relativistic rotation drag)
This can actually easily be calculated in the standard way by wave functions and General Relativity .

Rotating around a point
Note that there is a difference between spin and a particle rotating about center .
This can be constrained by using the fact that angular radians in 2 dimensions is 2pi and in 3 dimensions is 4pi .
Physically , in our descriptions , it means the particle does not really know whether it is orbiting in 2 dimensions or is spread over a surface in 3 dimensions (cf h/2pi)) , but we can constrain the geometries (and do in our quantum devices !)

God's sense of humour .
Degree = 10 , variables = 26 , equations =13 , Spin =2
Each degree (ie dimension) can take on +1, 0, -1 spins . Thus 10^3 number of states .
(We do not worry about minimum necessary sufficient spins , only state what is .)
This gives a polynomial of 27 integers of degree 10 with a value of 3 spins . See Appendix A below .

The Fine structure constant of our universe is
1/alpha = h/2pi * c / e^2
=137.035 999 070 (98)
where h is Planck's Constant , c is lightspeed in vacuo (see above) and e is electron charge , all in dimensionless electrostatic units . The value is dimensionless (ie the same for any definition of units)
It shows the relationship between h (Plancks constant , which includes the definition of mass) , spin (the pi , but there has to be compensation for dimensional drifting between dim2 and dim3 as discussed above) , observational speed (c ) and electric charge (e) .
It means that spinning mass and charge are intimately related to the number of dimensions it has to rotate through .
So , it is no surprise to find that
Beta = (1/10 + 1/27) * 10^3
=1000*(0.1 + 0.037037037…)
= 137 . 037 037 …
The difference in the sixth decimal can be attributed to drag effects and dimensional compensations , which have not been taken into account .

Biological Epigenetics .
The same type of argument can be applied to biological cells and denizens of multicellular organism . While they might not rotate , they definitely do partially rotate to-and-fro .

Three magnetic fields at right angles to each other or twistor-EM waves will have definite biological effects .
Do not try this at home .

Does nothing matter ?
The Zero knows .

Andre .


Appendix A

From http://mathworld.wolfram/com/PrimeDiophantineEquations.html
Formula based on a system of Diophantine equations
A system of 14 Diophantine equations in 26 variables can be used to obtain a Diophantine representation of the set of all primes. Jones et al. (1976) proved that a given number k + 2 is prime if and only if the following system of 14 Diophantine equations has a solution in the natural numbers:
α0 = wz + h + j − q = 0
α1 = (gk + 2g + k + 1)(h + j) + h − z = 0
α2 = 16(k + 1)3(k + 2)(n + 1)2 + 1 − f2 = 0
α3 = 2n + p + q + z − e = 0
α4 = e3(e + 2)(a + 1)2 + 1 − o2 = 0
α5 = (a2 − 1)y2 + 1 − x2 = 0
α6 = 16r2y4(a2 − 1) + 1 − u2 = 0
α7 = n + l + v − y = 0
α8 = (a2 − 1)l2 + 1 − m2 = 0
α9 = ai + k + 1 − l − i = 0
α10 = ((a + u2(u2 − a))2 − 1)(n + 4dy)2 + 1 − (x + cu)2 = 0
α11 = p + l(a − n − 1) + b(2an + 2a − n2 − 2n − 2) − m = 0
α12 = q + y(a − p − 1) + s(2ap + 2a − p2 − 2p − 2) − x = 0
α13 = z + pl(a − p) + t(2ap − p2 − 1) − pm = 0
The 14 equations α0, …, α13 can be used to produce a prime-generating polynomial inequality in 26 variables:
ie: PrimeNumber = (k+2) ( 1- a0^2 - … a13^2) )
This is equal to the polynomial
(k + 2)(1 −
[wz + h + j − q]2 −
[(gk + 2g + k + 1)(h + j) + h − z]2 −
[16(k + 1)3(k + 2)(n + 1)2 + 1 − f2]2 −
[2n + p + q + z − e]2 −
[e3(e + 2)(a + 1)2 + 1 − o2]2 −
[(a2 − 1)y2 + 1 − x2]2 −
[16r2y4(a2 − 1) + 1 − u2]2 −
[n + l + v − y]2 −
[(a2 − 1)l2 + 1 − m2]2 −
[ai + k + 1 − l − i]2 −
[((a + u2(u2 − a))2 − 1)(n + 4dy)2 + 1 − (x + cu)2]2 −
[p + l(a − n − 1) + b(2an + 2a − n2 − 2n − 2) − m]2 −
[q + y(a − p − 1) + s(2ap + 2a − p2 − 2p − 2) − x]2 −
[z + pl(a − p) + t(2ap − p2 − 1) − pm]2)
> 0
is a polynomial inequality in 26 variables, and the set of prime numbers is identical to the set of positive values taken on by this polynomial inequality as the variables a, b, …, z range over the nonnegative integers.
In other words , we have a single Diophantine polynomial equation with 27 variables based on 14 sub-equations .
Eliminating one variable (n) as discussed above , leaves us with 26 variables based on 13 equations , but the Exponential Order (Degree) is unchanged .
A general theorem of Matiyasevich says that if a set is defined by a system of Diophantine equations, it can also be defined by a system of Diophantine equations in only 9 variables. Hence, there is a prime-generating polynomial as above with only 10 variables. However, its degree is large (in the order of 1045). On the other hand, there also exists such a set of equations of degree only 4, but in 58 variables (Jones 1982). Jones et al 1976 , Riesel 1994 p40
Appendix B
Diophantine set
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In mathematics, a Diophantine set of j -tuples of integers is a set S for which there is some polynomial with integer coefficients
f(n1, ..., nj, x1, ..., xk)
such that a tuple
(n1, ..., nj)
of integers is in S if and only if there exist some (non-negative) [1] integers
x1, ..., xk with
f(n1, ..., nj, x1, ..., xk) = 0.
Such a polynomial equation over the integers is called a Diophantine equation. In other words, a Diophantine set is a set of the form
where f is a polynomial function with integer coefficients. [2]
Matiyasevich's theorem, published in 1970, states that a set of integers is Diophantine if and only if it is recursively enumerable. A set S is recursively enumerable precisely if there is an algorithm that, when given an integer, eventually halts if that input is a member of S and otherwise runs forever. This means that the concept of general Diophantine set, apparently belonging to number theory, can be taken rather in logical or recursion-theoretic terms. This is far from obvious, however, and represented the culmination of some decades of work.
Matiyasevich's theorem effectively settled Hilbert's tenth problem. It implies that Hilbert's tenth problem is unsolvable. This problem is the challenge to find a general algorithm which can decide whether a given system of Diophantine equations has a solution among the integers. David Hilbert posed the problem in his celebrated list, from his 1900 address to the International Congress of Mathematicians.
• 1 Examples
• 2 Matiyasevich's theorem
o 2.1 Proof technique
• 3 Application to Hilbert's Tenth problem
o 3.1 Logical structure
o 3.2 Refinements
• 4 Further applications
• 5 Footnotes
• 6 References
• 7 External links

[edit] Examples
The well known Pell equation
X^2 – d(y +1)^2 = +- 1
is an example of a Diophantine equation with a parameter. As has long been known, the equation has a solution in the unknowns x,y precisely when the parameter d is 0 or not a perfect square. In the present context, one says that this equation provides a Diophantine definition of the set
consisting of 0 and the natural numbers that are not perfect squares. Other examples of Diophantine definitions are as follows:
• The equation a = (2x + 3)y defines the set of numbers that are not powers of 2.
• The equation a = (x + 2)(y + 2) defines the set of numbers that are not prime numbers.
• The equation a + x = b defines the set of pairs (a,b) such that (a<=b)
[edit] Matiyasevich's theorem
Matiyasevich's theorem says:
Every recursively enumerable set is Diophantine.
A set S of integers is recursively enumerable if there is an algorithm that behaves as follows: When given as input an integer n, if n is a member of S, then the algorithm eventually halts; otherwise it runs forever. That is equivalent to saying there is an algorithm that runs forever and lists the members of S. A set S is Diophantine precisely if there is some polynomial with integer coefficients f(n, x1, ..., xk) such that an integer n is in S if and only if there exist some integers x1, ..., xk such that f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0.
It is not hard to see that every Diophantine set is recursively enumerable: consider a Diophantine equation f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0. Now we make an algorithm which simply tries all possible values for n, x1, ..., xk, in the increasing order of the sum of their absolute values, and prints n every time f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0. This algorithm will obviously run forever and will list exactly the n for which f(n, x1, ..., xk) = 0 has a solution in x1, ..., xk.
[edit] Proof technique
Yuri Matiyasevich utilized an ingenious trick involving Fibonacci numbers in order to show that solutions to Diophantine equations may grow exponentially. Earlier work by Julia Robinson, Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam had shown that this suffices to show that every recursively enumerable set is Diophantine.
[edit] Application to Hilbert's Tenth problem
Hilbert's tenth problem asks for a general algorithm deciding the solvability of Diophantine equations. The conjunction of Matiyasevich's theorem with a result discovered in the 1930s implies that a solution to Hilbert's tenth problem is impossible. The result discovered in the 1930s by several logicians can be stated by saying that some recursively enumerable sets are non-recursive. In this context, a set S of integers is called "recursive" if there is an algorithm that, when given as input an integer n, returns as output a correct yes-or-no answer to the question of whether n is a member of S. It follows that there are Diophantine equations which cannot be solved by any algorithm.
[edit] Logical structure
Here an argument taking exactly the form of an Aristotelian syllogism is of interest:
(Major premise): Some recursively enumerable sets are non-recursive.
(Minor premise): All recursively enumerable sets are Diophantine.
(Conclusion): Therefore some Diophantine sets are non-recursive.
The conclusion entails that Hilbert's 10th problem cannot be solved. The most difficult part of the argument is the proof of the minor premise, i.e. Matiyasevich's theorem, which itself is much stronger than the unsolvability of the Tenth Problem.
[edit] Refinements
Later work has shown that the question of solvability of a Diophantine equation is undecidable even if the equation only has 9 natural number variables (Matiyasevich, 1977) or 11 integer variables (Zhi Wei Sun, 1992).
[edit] Further applications
Matiyasevich's theorem has since been used to prove that many problems from calculus and differential equations are unsolvable.
One can also derive the following stronger form of Gödel's first incompleteness theorem from Matiyasevich's result:
Corresponding to any given consistent axiomatization of number theory,[3] one can explicitly construct a Diophantine equation which has no solutions, but such that this fact cannot be proved within the given axiomatization.
[edit] Footnotes
1. ^ The two definitions are equivalent. This can be proved using Lagrange's four-square theorem.
2. ^ Note that one can also use a simultaneous system of Diophantine equations to define a Diophantine set, because the system
f1 =0 , …,fk =0
is equivalent to the single equation
f1^2 + f2^2 + … + fk^ = 0
3. ^ More precisely, given a -formula representing the set of Gödel numbers of sentences which recursively axiomatize a consistent theory extending Robinson arithmetic.
[edit] References
• Yuri Matiyasevich. "Enumerable sets are Diophantine." Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 191, pp. 279-282, 1970. English translation in Soviet Mathematics. Doklady, vol. 11, no. 2, 1970.
• M. Davis. "Hilbert's Tenth Problem is Unsolvable." American Mathematical Monthly 80, pp. 233-269, 1973.
• Yuri Matiyasevich. Hilbert's 10th Problem Foreword by Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam, The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13295-8
• Zhi-Wei Sun, Reduction of unknowns in Diophantine representations, Sci. China Ser. A, 35:3 (1992), pp. 257–269.
[edit] External links
• Matiyasevich theorem on Scholarpedia.
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Categories: Diophantine equations | Hilbert's problems
Appendix III
Tarot .
Andre Willers
7 May 2010

Tarot is a finite representation of complexity to up Beth(4) level .

1.Can infinite manipulations be represented by finite rules?
Yes . Done all the time with the finite rules of differentiation and integration in mathematics.
Postulate an infinity of delineated entities interacting . Two varieties of interactions can be found : Euler (ie infinitesimal with e as basis . Newtonian or Einsteinian systems)
or Fibonacci , (a finite change interaction . Also known as Quantum systems).
Both self-generate finite rules for infinite processes .
These finite rules are known as archetypes .
And there are a finite number of them . And we can enumerate them .
Also known as the Power Law . Infinite feedback systems of delineated entities self-combine to form hierarchical systems below Beth(4) levels .
See "AI"
Quantum systems , by definition , can only be enumerated in qubits .
An Image to illustrate this :
Imagine a hologram of n dimensions sliced by a plane . The plane is a computer screen or your 2-dimensional mental screen .
Past Beth(4) , the mind is acting in it's native mode , which is quantum mode .
The n-tuple entendre is standard for information transfer .
Information bleed-through from quantum systems leads to a finite number of rules .
Sigh . I cannot make it simpler than this .
Why there are 40+16=56 minor cards I have discussed before . It is intimately tied to ArithI and prime numbers .
Why there are only 22 major arcana cards to handle the rest of the infinite feedback systems up to Beth(4) levels I will have to think about . At the moment , I simply do not know why there are so few . But there it is .
See "Betablockers and Trauma memory"
Tarot cards represent a finite (less than 100) images's and procedures of infinite processes below native quantum processing .
Happy hunting!