11 Feb 2009
Negative degrees Kelvin temperature and high-density energy storage .
ScientificAmerican Nov 2008 p40
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is found to hold for linear momentum transfers , as long as non-equilibrium systems are examined in fine enough detail , though extra dimensions of descriptions have to be added .
The problem lies in transfers of linear momentum to angular momentum and vice-versa .
This is easiest shown with thought experiments :
1.The Maxwell Demons :
The Demons directs higher-speed molecules to one side and the lower-speed ones to the other side . After a large number of iterations , one side boils and the other side freezes .
2.The Andre Demons :
The Demons direct molecules onto target molecules to increase their spin (paddlewheel principle) . After a large number of iterations , you have a matrix of molecules with zero linear motion , where all the energy is locked into the spin .
This is a material at negative degrees Kelvin . Any impinging particle will first have to soak up some of the energy in the spin before influencing the linear momentum (especially if the rotating molecules are locked in a matrix) .
These are theoretical ideals .
Ironically , Andre demons are much more feasible than Maxwell demons .
We use existing technology , mainly magnetrons(as in microwaves) and laser tweezers for the finishing touches for really high-density storage .
How to make a strong energy storage capsule:
Take a very well temperature- and electronic insulated capsule of hot water , put a strong electrical field across it to give a directional bias to the linear momentum of the water molecules .
In the same direction as the electric field , chirp the output of a magnetron at decreasing harmonic frequencies of 2.45 gigaHz .
The chirp has to be integrated with the Doppler-feedback from the spinning water-molecules(like a laser tweezer) . Some fancy electronics might be required .
This feedback process satisfies the Beth(1) requirements .
This spins a statistically significant number of water molecules using heat vibrations .
The capsule's measurable temperature decreases .
Repeat until desired energy density is achieved .
To tap it :
We can use the Reciprocity Relation (for which Onsager received the Nobel prize) to get a burst of electromagnetic-waves (laser weapon up to gamma ray wavelengths ) , or tap the EMW for electrons like a battery .
Biological systems .
It bothers me that present theory allows only mitochondria to use rotations .
Biological systems use anything available .
What about things rolling around on the cell-surface between receptor sites ?
Most viruses (like HIV) follows a circular configuration . A simple physical block preventing rolling between the CD4 and CCR5 receptors might prevent HIV infection.
Or spin the HIV virus using electromagnetic radiation at a resonant frequency , reducing the incidence of docking .
This is a Beth(1) technology .
And so it twirls .