Minus Kelvin and Superconductivity.
10 Sept 2008
How can minus Kelvin be possible ?
The same way a negative refractive index is : meta-materials .
What is a meta-material ?
Designer matter .
It is a number of atoms or molecules that mimic the effects of a single atom or molecule .
(This has actually been manufactured for the “cloak of invisibility” : ie negative refraction .)
Found in metamaterials (at low temperatures for simple metamaterials)
Random vibrations according to classical definition .
Zero degree Kelvin is when random beth(0) vibrations stop .
But what order of Randomness?
Beth(0) , which by definition is omnidirectional .
But , we know for a fact (see proofs at http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “ Orders of Randomness” ) that higher orders of randomness exist .
The metamaterial can be seen as creating Beth(n>0) randomness .
This is directional for n>0 , unless carefully designed .
A conductor (of electricity or heat) can be seen as lots of short stretches of superconductors (eg beth(1) domains) stitched together .
A long superconductor has chaperones to act like catalysts over the gaps between the interfaces between the shorter lengths .
This is why we find all those funny , exotic elements in these compounds : anything unusual will do . If it is not available , a meta-material is manufactured (called enzymes or neurotransmitters in bio-systems) .
Hence the success of phonons , an energy transference and recoupment process . Ie a , a meta-catalyst . A chaperone .
But note that the phonon is a relative phenomenon (ie it cannot exist on its own) . This one of the defining characteristics of Beth(2+) phenomena .
The major energy storage mechanism of the chaperone .
(As a clumsy first approximation , spin can be used , but it is out by several orders of magnitude.)
Standing Sonance Spin Waves and Maxwell’s Demon .
To get Standing Sonance Spin Waves , you need Beth(2+) . Thus , it is no surprise that the Second Law of Thermodynamics is violated .
In other words , heat can be transferred into linear momentum .
(Beth(0) motion can be channeled into Beth(1+) motion.)
I am tired of explaining the obvious .