## Saturday, September 07, 2013

### SpaceTime as Molasses

Space-Time as Molasses .

Andre Willers
7 Sep 2013
Synopsis :
A variety of non-linear space drives .

Discussion :
1.Been done .
See Appendix C . And quite a number of them too . Your alien spacedrives will have a fair number of alternatives .

2. A molasses space-time is functionally equivalent to a Newtonian-Einsteinian-Quantum (NEQ)  Space-Time .
All the gooy bits glue it together .

3. Thesis , Antithesis , Synthesis , FrankenThesis .

4. Humans get to Synthesis . The System they created then moves to FrankenThesis .
5. The cracks seal themselves .
6.Those little bugs in Appendix C that nevertheless move in a very low Reynolds number universe , in our terms use non-linear , some reactionless drives .
7.If bacteria can do it , humans can too . Directed movement in molasses . A universe of very low Reynolds Number .
8.Any particular universe will then have a general Reynolds number .How gooy it is . Parts of it will be more or less gooy .
9 Reynolds number of our universe :
See Appendix E :The early universe . A gooy place indeed . 0<=Reynoldsnumber< 10^ spread < 1 .
A handy way of classifying universes .
10. The Trick !
Momentum transfer to rotating systems .
Definition[edit source | editbeta]
Reynolds number can be defined for a number of different situations where a fluid is in relative motion to a surface.[n 1] These definitions generally include the fluid properties of density and viscosity, plus a velocity and a characteristic length or characteristic dimension. This dimension is a matter of convention – for example a radius or diameter are equally valid for spheres or circles, but one is chosen by convention. For aircraft or ships, the length or width can be used. For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical objects have an equivalent diameter defined. For fluids of variable density such as compressible gases or fluids of variable viscosity such as non-Newtonian fluids, special rules apply. The velocity may also be a matter of convention in some circumstances, notably stirred vessels. With these conventions, the Reynolds number is defined as
where:
·         is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s)
·         is a characteristic linear dimension, (travelled length of the fluid; hydraulic diameter when dealing with river systems) (m)
·         is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s or N·s/m² or kg/(m·s))
·         is the kinematic viscosity () (m²/s)
·         is the density of the fluid (kg/m³).
Note that multiplying the Reynolds number by  yields , which is the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces.[7]

Wow !!
It could also be considered the ratio of the total momentum transfer to the molecular momentum transfer.
If uvL is large (which we can engineer) , and switch it back again , we have a non-linear spacedrive .

11. This means that there is continual switching of energy between linear and rotational momentum systems . But now we can calculate it exactly . And  the Reynolds Number for any particular volume can enable us to calculate the momentum transfers exactly .
12. There goes Dark Matter .
“It was a masky friend , but it served us well “
13. High blood pressure :
It also means there are molecules in the blood that translate pressure into rotation . See Dinosaurs , giraffes ,
14 .Why does the dog cock it’s head ? Or you ?
It lowers blood pressure and thus anxiety because of the above momentum transfer considerations .

!5 A simple anti-anxiety remedy :
Tic your head  up and left or right  . The motion is the key .

16. An interesting aside .
Functioning telempaths will have the move of their heads and upper bodies continuously in harmony .
See any orchestra , especially violinists .
Conversely , body language involving frequent moves of the head even have a special term “coquettish”.
It signifies low-stress , higher probability of acceptance .
If you roll tour eyes (a typical hominid look-at-the-canopy ) , roll left preferably .

17. An Exercise for the Dear Reader .
Calculate the range of Reynolds Numbers for universes that are sufficiently gooy for life .

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Appendix A
In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions.
Low Reynolds numbers means a very viscous fluid . See Appendix B
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Appendix B
“ A liquid's viscosity depends on the size and shape of its particles and the attractions between the particles.

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Appendix C
HOW TO SWIM IN MOLASSES
Have evolved entirely different ways of swimming.
Microorganisms’ two most common solutions to the problems
posed by low Reynolds numbers are cilia and ﬂ agella. Short, hairlike projections called cilia coat the surfaces of paramecia and
other single-celled protozoans, which are distinct from bacteria.
To move, paramecia constantly row their cilia like miniature oars,
albeit in an unusual way. During the power stroke, the cilia are
fully extended, creating a lot of drag; during the recovery stroke,
however, the cilia ﬂ ex and curl into little question marks, creating
much less drag. Because of this di erence in drag, the power
stroke pushes the microorganisms forward more than the recovery stroke pulls them back—so they swim.
Many species of bacteria, such as the extensively studied
Escherichia coli, propel themselves with helical, whiplike ﬁ laments of protein called ﬂ agella. Flagella look like long cilia but
behave quite di erently. Instead of rowing, a bacterial ﬂ agellum
rotates, pushing the cell to which it is attached through a ﬂ uid
somewhat like a corkscrew boring into a cork. When the ﬂ agellum turns counterclockwise, the bacterium moves forward in a
straight line; quickly switching to clockwise rotation allows a
microbe to tumble and change directions.
don’t have any ﬂ agella.”
Fusilli-shaped bacteria in the genus Spiroplasma, for example, swim through the juices of the plants and insects they infect,
although they have no swimming appendages of any kind. Joshua W. Shaevitz, now at Princeton University, and his colleagues
think that Spiroplasma bacteria have evolved a rather kinky
way of moving.
The spiral-shaped Helicobacter pylori has evolved an even
more impressive way to reduce viscosity. A bacterium that makes
its home in the human stomach, the ulcer-inducingH. pylorifaces two major challenges: first, it must survive the stomach’s caustic soup; second, it must cross a thick layer of mucus to reach the
stomach’s epithelial cells, its preferred niche. To solve the first
problem, H. pylori secretes the enzyme urease, which catalyzes a chemical reaction that
turns urea in the stomach into ammonia and
carbon dioxide, neutralizing hydrochloric
acid. Biologists have always assumed that H.
pylori relies on the power of its spinning flagella to bore its way through mucus. Yet when
NEWTON's law “force is proportional to acceleration“ seems to contradict many every-day experiences.
Observing, for example, the motion of bodies under the influence of friction, the description „force is
proportional to velocity“ rather gets to the core of the matter, e.g., in order to keep a constant speed when
riding on a bicycle, strength has to be used indefinitely. If you want to travel at a faster speed indefinitely,
then you have to pedal more vigorously which indefinitely requires more strength.
Actually, many mechanical processes in which friction plays a role can be satisfactorily described with
the ansatz „force ~ speed“. This is true, for example, for the influence of friction on falling balls in fluids
and gases. Two important examples for such falling processes are the deposition of dust particles or water
droplets (fog) from the air and the motion of minute oil droplets as used in the MILLIKAN experiment for
determining the elementary electronic chargeJonathan Celli, now at the University of Massachusetts Boston, and his colleagues deprived
H. pylori of urea in the laboratory in 2009, it
could not move through imitation mucus.
The same chemical reaction that neutralizes
acid in the stomach, Celli’s research suggests, also changes the conformation of proteins in mucus, transforming it from a virtually solid gel into a more navigable fluid.
All around
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Appendix D
Der Gooy Trick!

NEWTON's law “force is proportional to acceleration“ seems to contradict many every-day experiences.
Observing, for example, the motion of bodies under the influence of friction, the description „force is
proportional to velocity“ rather gets to the core of the matter, e.g., in order to keep a constant speed when
riding on a bicycle, strength has to be used indefinitely. If you want to travel at a faster speed indefinitely,
then you have to pedal more vigorously which indefinitely requires more strength.
Actually, many mechanical processes in which friction plays a role can be satisfactorily described with
the ansatz „force ~ speed“. This is true, for example, for the influence of friction on falling balls in fluids
and gases. Two important examples for such falling processes are the deposition of dust particles or water
droplets (fog) from the air and the motion of minute oil droplets as used in the MILLIKAN experiment for
determining the elementary electronic charge.
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Appendix E
Reynolds numbers in the early Universe
11/2011;
Source: arXiv
Reynolds numbers in the early Universe
(Submitted on 16 Nov 2011)
After electron-positron annihilation and prior to photon decoupling the magnetic Reynolds number is approximately twenty orders of magnitude larger than its kinetic counterpart which is, in turn, smaller than one. In this globally neutral system the large-scale inhomogeneities are provided by the spatial fluctuations of the scalar curvature. Owing to the analogy with the description of Markovian conducting fluids in the presence of acoustic fluctuations, the evolution equations of a putative magnetic field are averaged over the large-scale flow determined by curvature perturbations. General lessons are drawn on the typical diffusion scale of magnetic inhomogeneities. It is speculated that Reynolds numbers prior to electron-positron annihilation can be related to the entropy contained in the Hubble volume during the various stages of the evolution of the conducting plasma.
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