Thursday, June 05, 2014

KiloNova Update I : Extinction Level Event .

KiloNova Update I .

Andre Willers .
5 Jun 2014
Synopsis :
Things at Galactic Central Black hole SGR A* just got more complex . Extinction Level Event for Earth probability suddenly much bigger .
Discussion :
1.Infalling gas cloud ( See Appendix AA) dynamics complicated by VERY strong magnetic fields around black-hole jets . See Appendix BB .
The magnetic effects are on the order of gravitational black-hole effects .
2. The jets would be about perpendicular to the galactic plane , but the magnetic field spirals around the jets are nearly in the galactic plane .
3.Very strong burps of x-rays or particulate beams have a very strong probability of sweeping along the galactic plane . Synchroton-like effects .
4.These would be very bad news for any planet like earth .
Do you feel lucky ?
Andre .

Appendix AA
KiloNova at Galactic Core ?

Andre Willers .
2 May 2014
Synopsis :
A kiloNova at our galactic core would sterilize Earth . This could happen this year .

Discussion :
1. Sgr A* and the newly discovered magnetic neutron star, SGR J1745-29, which appears to be in orbit around the black hole, are dishing out lots of interesting science, See Appendix B .
2.There “is” a gas cloud spiralling into Sgr A*  . See Appendix B . The lightspeed results are becoming visible now .

A simulation of the gas cloud G2's encounter with the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The blue lines mark* the orbits of the so-called "S" stars that are in close orbits around the black hole.
Credit: Image by ESO/MPE/Marc Schartmann

3.Enormous magnetic fields are created , spiralling around the jets from the black hole .

4.These interact with the magnetic neutron star SGR J1745-29 , influencing its orbit . The geometry of field-strengths means that the neutron star will start spiralling into the black hole . Time – unknown .

5.The collision of a black hole and neutron star is a KiloNova . See Appendix A
This energy release will sterilize a good portion of the galaxy , even outside any jets .

6. See Appendix C . This was expected earlier , but things have been delayed by the magnetic neutron star interacting with gas cloud . (Momentum transference via magnetic fields . Strong x-ray bursts to be expected)

7. Nothing says goodbye like a Gamma Ray Burst .
Andre .

Appendix A

Celestial mergers between black holes and super-dense neutron stars could produce short-lived gamma-ray explosions in space and can explain the origin of chemical elements such as gold and platinum, scientists said.
The latest discovery, which appeared in a special online edition of the journal Nature on Saturday, was made based on last month’s observations by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble detected a fading fireball from a new kind of stellar blast called a “kilonova,” an incident that was followed by a brief short gamma-ray burst, or GRB, in a galaxy almost four billion light-years from Earth.
Scientists said that a kilonova has long been predicted by astronomers to accompany a short-duration GRB but had not been seen until now. Such an explosion is so powerful that it can be 1,000 times brighter than a typical star explosion, called a nova. On the other hand, a typical supernova, the self-detonation of a massive star, could be 100 times brighter than a kilonova.
“Many astronomers, including our group, have already provided a great deal of evidence that long-duration gamma-ray bursts (those lasting more than two seconds) are produced by the collapse of extremely massive stars,” said Nial Tanvir of the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom, the study's lead author, in astatement.
Appendix B

Watching for a black hole to gobble up a gas cloud: Gas cloud's fate illuminates growth of supermassive black holes
April 4, 2014
Northwestern University
G2, a doomed gas cloud, is edging closer to Sgr A*, the hungry supermassive black hole at the Milky Way's center The closest approach between the two is predicted to occur any day now. Astrophysicists have been watching closely, and the data do not show enhanced emission in the X-rays.
"Sgr A* and the newly discovered magnetic neutron star, SGR J1745-29, which appears to be in orbit around the black hole, are dishing out lots of interesting science," Haggard said. "We've detected the brightest X-ray flare yet observed from Sgr A* and gathered data that are causing us to overhaul of our understanding of the neutron star population in the galactic center."

Appendix C

Friday, January 13, 2012
Blast from the Past
Blast from the Past
Andre Willers
13 Jan 2012

High intensities of gamma- and X-ray radiation on Earth from the center
 of our galaxy can be expected during 2013 AD , due to an infalling gas cloud into the central Milky Way black hole .

Discussion :
The discovery was made by Stefan Gillesson of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
in Garching , Germany .
References :
1. “Nature” , DOI 10.1038/nature10652
2. “New Scientist” 17 Dec 2011 p16 “Cloud suicide could transform black hole”

A gas cloud of an estimated three earth masses is expected to impact the supermassive , rotating black hole at the center of our galaxy (“Sagittarius A*”) in 2013 AD . Note that radiation from this event can be expected shortly afterward in local time .

large part of this mass will be converted to electro-magnetic energy .

Now , three earth masses is not a lot of energy in the galactic scheme of things , but the way it is distributed does .

Briefly , the energy release is characterized by very short wavelenghts (gamma or x-ray) and lobe-shaped distributions of the pulse-wavefronts in the galactic ecliptic .

There is a combination of relativistic and quantum effects in the last few cm's before the event horizon .

1.There is a slingshot effect , because the gas cloud must be lumpy , even if only at atomic scale . The gas cloud vanishes in a few Planck -time units , emitting very short-wave radiation due to differential tidal friction .

2.But the black hole is large and rotating , which forms time-bands of slower time , which gives enough time for feedback . Depending on the size and rotation speed of the black hole , this will lead to 2n lobes of wavefronts on the rotation equator , where n=1,2,3,...

3.Hawking Burps .
This process in para 2 above “foams” the event horizon , leading to a drastically increased Hawking radiation . (The “foam” would be something like Sierpinsky chaotic triangles)
The density and time-band concentrations of energy separates particle-anti-particle pairs to give Hawking radiation .

This burp of energy sweeps matter from the neighborhood of the black hole and reduces the mass of the black hole , preventing black holes from swallowing everything . Elegant .

4.Turning a Hawking Burp into a White Hole .
There is a narrow window where the Burp becomes self-sustaining . A large black hole then evaporates in an awesome release of energy . Even the tiniest random fluctuation (eg matter-antimatter) will get magnified and perpetuated .
Not the place to take your mother for a picnic .

5.Foaming Space-time .
Well , space-time is already foamed , but only to a simple level . (Quantum foam)
Call it Foam(0)
We can churn this to higher orders of foam (Foam(1) , Foam(2) , Foam(3) ,...,Foam(b) )
where b can be derived from Kantor's Aleph classes combined with chaos theory .

Taken to the logical extreme , this leaves only Foam ordered into Branes .

The smile on the Cheshire cat just after he brushed his teeth .

So what does this mean to us ?
A full frontal impact from a lobe will give a definitive answer to Fermi's Paradox : “Where are they ?” Why , extinct .

More likely is an immersion in the higher radiation levels alongside the lobes for a long time .
Can be survived , given enough warning .
Apply to the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics for more .

Friday the thirteenth can be quite a gas .



Appendix BB
Surprisingly strong magnetic fields can match black holes' pull: Long-neglected magnetic fields have an unexpected presence
June 4, 2014
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
A new study of supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies has found magnetic fields play an impressive role in the systems' dynamics. In fact, in dozens of black holes surveyed, the magnetic field strength matched the force produced by the black holes' powerful gravitational pull.

  A computer simulation of gas (in yellow) falling into a black hole (too small to be seen). Twin jets are also shown with magnetic field lines.
Credit: Alexander Tchekhovskoy, LBL

A new study of supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies has found magnetic fields play an impressive role in the systems' dynamics. In fact, in dozens of black holes surveyed, the magnetic field strength matched the force produced by the black holes' powerful gravitational pull, says a team of scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany. The findings are published in this week's issue of Nature.
"This paper for the first time systematically measures the strength of magnetic fields near black holes," says Alexander Tchekhovskoy, the Berkeley Lab researcher who helped interpret the observational data within the context of existing computational models. "This is important because we had no idea, and now we have evidence from not just one, not just two, but from 76 black holes."
Previously, Tchekhovskoy, who is also a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, had developed computational models of black holes that included magnetic fields. His models suggested a black hole could sustain a magnetic field that was as strong as its gravity, but there was not yet observational evidence to support this prediction. With the two forces balancing out, a cloud of gas caught on top of the magnetic field would be spared the pull of gravity and instead levitate in place.
The magnetic field strength was confirmed by evidence from jets of gas that shoot away from supermassive black holes. Formed by magnetic fields, these jets produce a radio emission. "We realized that the radio emission from black holes' jets can be used to measure the magnetic field strength near the black hold itself," says Mohammad Zamaninasab, the lead author of the study, who did the work while at MPIfR.
Other research teams had previously collected radio-emission data from "radio-loud" galaxies using the Very Long Baseline Array, a vast network of radio telescopes in the United States. The researchers analyzed this pre-existing data to create radio-emission maps at different wavelengths. Shifts in jet features between different maps let them calculate the field strength near the black hole.
Based on the results, the team found not only that the measured magnetic fields can be as strong as a black hole's gravity, but that they are also comparable in strength to those produced inside MRI machines found in hospitals-roughly 10,000 times greater than the field of Earth itself.
Tchekhovskoy says the new results mean theorists must re-evaluate their understanding of black-hole behavior. "The magnetic fields are strong enough to dramatically alter how gas falls into black holes and how gas produces outflows that we do observe, much stronger than what has usually been assumed," he says. "We need to go back and look at our models once again."

Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The original article was written by Kate Greene. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:
1.     M. Zamaninasab, E. Clausen-Brown, T. Savolainen, A. Tchekhovskoy.Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holesNature, 2014; 510 (7503): 126 DOI: 10.1038/nature13399


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