12 Jan 2012
Commercially available desensitization technologies are now available for Milk , Peanut and DustMite allergies .
1.This involves skin-patches , exposing the organism to prolonged exposure to the allergy-producing chemicals , but at such low levels that anaphylactic shock is not induced .
2.But , the learning systems of the Immune system are engaged (Dentritic cells)
See Appendix I
3.At least , some clinical testing of the three products available (milk , peanuts , dustmite asthma) is being done .
4.This is but a high-tech approach to the old-age approach to test for poisons . Put a sample of the material to be tested on the skin . Watch what happens .
Used from Neolithic times . And present day doctors for allergies .
5.The Trick :
The skin usually prevents deleterious amounts of the allergy –producing chemical from passing through .
6.Plant-Herbivore Wars :
Some plants have developed ways of bypassing this barrier . Contact poisons . Like itching thistles , stinging nettles , etc.
Do not use the patches if you might be exposed to stinging nettles or their ilk .
7.Opportunity : Instant safe reprogramming .
These poisons can be used to deliver nano-levels of active allergens directly to the dendritic cells . Shortening the training period to fractions of a second .
8.This opens a whole new can of worms .
Near-instantaneous reprogramming of the immune system will have obvious shock effects . But this can be quite useful in things like melanoma's .
See Appendix II .
Since only nanograms of the allergen is required , addition of the nettle-bypass chemicals will flood the dentritic cells with maybe too much information . (It is not a smart system).
But in the case of overproduction of particular allergens , these will train the immune system . Like cancers .
Note that the gut-system is but internal skin .
9.The buccal interface :
This will take place mostly in the mouth .
Very little survives the stomach acid-bath .
So swirl the nettle-soup in the mouth .
See Appendix III A
Your mother was right . Don't gulp it down .
10 . Nettle-active capsules
Nettle-active Capsules that only dissolve past the stomach will need some thorough testing .
Buccal systems have some strong safeguards (they handle garlic (Allicin) , after all . One of the most proficient cell-killers)
But something like this would of great use in Crohn's Disease and other intestinal auto-immune diseases .
For the active chemicals , see Appendix V A
11.Auto-immune Diseases :
These are obvious candidates . Especially that nasty Arthritis . A nettle-system patch combined with an alternate target like dust-mites (available) can make short work of arthritis .
See Appendix III for a cure
You will also need Phene Systems : see Appendix IV
The exact molecular mechanism of Insulin docking to the Cell-wall has recently been worked out . It is an active system .
Portions of the Insulin molecule folds out to match portions of the cell-wall that also outfolds to latch together .
Which is why you need phene-systems .
The trigger seems to be formic acid .
See Appendix V A .
Formic acid is used extensively by insects and plants to bypass phene barriers . A simple molecule (as expected . It is very old-about 3 billion years)
It is an azeotrope (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azeotrope
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An azeotrope (pron.: /əˈziːətroʊp/ ə-zee-ə-trohp or pron.: /ˈeɪziətroʊp/ ay-zee-ə-trohp) is a mixture of two or more liquids in such a way that its components cannot be altered by simple distillation. This happens because, when an azeotrope is boiled, the vapor it produces has proportionate constituents as the original mixture.
These chemicals are favoured by evolution because they are invariant to phase change . They keep on working at any state.
Used extensively in hibernation systems to bypass cellular barriers . See Appendix VI A .
The molecule seems to have only five nexi , yet it seems able to collapse quantum – wavefronts ( see http://andreswhy.blogspot.com/search?updated-min=2012-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&updated-max=2013-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&max-results=50 )
Can it be simpler ? I don't know . Four nexi will have to be designed , but I might be wrong .
Formic acid seems to be a sine-qua-non for multicellular organisms .
Quite surprising .
13, To get back to Diabetes II
We use the Buccal Transform :
Make a solution of Formic Acid < 2% , with a dash of serotonin and histamine . Add the active thingie you want the immune system to learn about .
13.1 Diabetes II
Add about 1 teaspoon of sugar/20 ml of lukewarm water . Stir and rinse the mouth extensively . See Appendix II A .Spit it out .
The spitting out is vital . The pulse of sugars must not reach the descending duodenal .
What is happening ?
The preparation system is notifying the descending duodenal system (see Appendix III A ) . A lot of sugar is coming . Then it does not arrive .
This is a pretty stupid system . After 3+1 iterations it stops believing the incoming signals and stands down .
Ordinary phene systems apply . A quick cure .
13.2 Other intestinal problems can be handled in an analogous fashion .
14.Outer-Skin problems .
Use Formic acid , serotonin and histamine patches(in correct proportion) plus target chemical .
Simple . Quick , too , with the Formic Acid .
14. Who would have thought ?
Ants are caught in a terrible cellular trap . They are forced into a communal mind by formic acid .
An interesting aside :
Bioengineering ants not to excrete formic will have interesting results . I would recommend Biolevel 5 Controls
15. Oxytocin and Formic Acid
Oxytocin is an expanded version of formic acid . Compare the molecular structures
Oxytocin has only one ring , so is topologically equivalent to dopamine .
16 .Does any molecule not collapse quantum-wavefronts ? It only seems like it . We are looking at a very specific sub-group .
Who would have thought that eating ants kick-started human evolution ?
"Feeling antsy is the beginning of wisdom " Buddha-Ant
About VIASKIN® Technology
When the VIASKIN® patch containing a specific allergen is applied to the skin of a patient with an IgE-mediated allergy - such as peanuts or milk - the allergens are deposited locally on the skin and are captured specifically by the skin's immuno-competent cells. This triggers the modulations of the immune responses. The epicutaneous exposure is non-invasive: the skin naturally prevents the allergen from entering the bloodstream and thereby dramatically reduces the risk of inducing anaphylaxis. The VIASKIN® patch is designed to be easily and painlessly applied by healthcare professionals and also by the patient or his/her parents at home, which facilitates compliance with the treatment.
Nettle soup is a traditional soup prepared from stinging nettles. Nettle soup is eaten mainly during spring and early summer, when young nettle buds are collected. Today, nettle soup is mostly eaten in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe, but historically consumption of nettles was more widespread. Nettle stew was eaten by inhabitants of Britain in the bronze age, 3000 years ago.
Appendix II A
Swilling Red Wine
30 Nov 2012
Sniffing , then swilling red wine in the mouth even without swallowing it significantly enhances the absorption of Resveratrol and other anti-oxidants .
1.Sniffing it :
Alcohols and flavonoids pre-prepare the mouth cavity to absorb transient flavonoids .
A well-known neurological effect . Drooling , in effect .
2.Swilling it in the mouth .
This is where the tyre hits the tarmac . Delicate aromatic compounds that would be destroyed by the acidic meat-grinder of the stomach gets absorbed by the body at this stage .
Nitpickers will say that Resveratrol and other ephemerates are not very water soluble . But they are in a alcohol-water solution , as well as unknown enzymes stimulated by the sniffing preparation .
Just swilling the red wine around in the mouth and then spitting it out will not raise uric acid levels (allergic responses might be triggered in a very small number of cases) .
I am going to try it . Cheaper and more enjoyable than expensive Reservatrol capsules . I can sneak up by swallowing the occasional mouthful . No distilation by cooking , though .
4.Coffee and Tea :
The same holds for the flavonoids in coffee and tea .
Cold Brewing for both is strongly recommended , with some sort of sniffing and swilling ceremony .
See Appendix II
5.Long-lived waiters .
Ancient , doddering waiters are stock in trade of period comedies . Like all clichés , they were based in fact .
You don't think they threw the leftovers away , did you ?
The most fertile ground for a biologist is the expectorants by wine-tasters . Chock-full of enzymes that enhance smell , taste and the uptake of anti-oxidants .
6.An Interesting aside :
Old boozers can patent the enzymes and relevant genomes that they have developed over the years of Darwinnian Selection . Sell their Taste .
This was more interesting than I thought .
"This is a modest little wine , more distinguished by it's exit than it's entrance ."
Buccal delivery is 250 times more effective than swallowing it .
One way of administering resveratrol in humans may be buccal delivery, that is without swallowing, by direct absorption through tissues on the inside of the mouth. When one milligram of resveratrol in 50 ml 50% alcohol/ water solution was retained in the mouth for one minute before swallowing, 37 ng/ml of free resveratrol were measured in plasma two minutes later. This level of unchanged resveratrol in blood can only be achieved with 250 mg of resveratrol taken in a pill form.[
A Really good cup of coffee .
26 Jul 2009
Capture the volatile essences of coffee through cold-brewing and microwaving .
Even revitalize stale ground coffee .
The Theory :
The food-preparation stage of coffee is done during the peeling , fermentation and especially roasting stages .
The grinding and brewing is to prepare it for ingestion via drinking . In these processes , a large percentage of the volatiles are lost (of about 800 distinct compounds at least .)
As discussed before , some are of distinct medical advantage ( see http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Aroma and Caffeine)"
Cold brewing .
This is a widely used cold-brewing method . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toddy_coffee
This retains many volatiles lost by high temperature water brewing methods .
As discussed by many plain coffee-lovers , cold brewing gives the best tasting coffee of all . Because it retains many of the volatiles unnecessarily lost in the hot-water process .
But how to retain the volatiles when reheating the concentrate ?
The Microwave .
Put the coffee concentrate in cup , top up with cold water , cover with cling-wrap or splash/pressure guard and heat in the microwave until just below boiling (about 92-98 Centigrade)
How does it work ?
Shaken , but not stirred .
Like James Bond .
The cold brew is made by putting about 0.25 g of coffee grounds in one ml of water . This forms a coffee quicksand . Hence the shaken , not stirred . The volatiles are internally trapped by the coffee particles themselves , and dissolved in the water . This ratio is quite critical . Stirring it releases the volatiles , instead of trapping them .
This is left for about 12 hours . This can be hastened , but not without losing some of the tasty volatiles .
Boltzmann strikes again ! (Although covered pulsing is used by instant coffee manufacturers)
The Trick !
Put the resultant filtered concentrate in a cup and top up with cold , repeat cold water , cover with cling-wrap or splash/pressure guard and heat in the microwave until just below boiling (about 92-98 Centigrade)
The volatiles dissolve directly into the excited water molecules , without having much chance to escape .
Your coffee tastes like a freshly brewed cuppa .
Light sediment .
As you might have noticed , there is no heavy filtering . Light sediment still retains many molecules of flavour stuck to the walls (cf water molecules on dry sand) . The microwave process releases these , revitalizing even stale coffees .
I do not know what would happen with heavy sediment , but I suspect oily residues and tastes .
Sigh . I wish I could patent this . Even this little bit is worth a lot of money .
I tried this .
I took some very old ground coffee in the freezer (about 2 years old:stale) . Plonked them into a coffee plunger with cold water and left them for about 14 hours . Then simply decanted through a paper filter (not really necessary) .
Then about 6 tablespoons of concentrate per cup , microwaved as per above , gave a beautiful cup of coffee . The flavour and acidity came through perfectly , and there was no stomach acidity . The caffeine was noticeable , but not as heavy as with instant .
It Worked !
The stale coffee was revivivied !
A Dracula Special .
Speeding up the process .
You can try pulsing microwaves . About 5 seconds at a time .
Freezing has been done ad nauseam .
It is called instant coffee . The freezing process breaks some essential bonds on some of the more volatile chemicals .
Hint , hint :
By entangling the ends of some special molecules , during the freeze-drying process , a bias towards similar attachments can be formed during re-hydration . Simple lasers at special frequencies will suffice . Since the binding energies are low , even diode lasers will suffice . Cheap and tasty .
Sigh . This will be much easier with potato chips .
Hello Quantum Chips .
Especially with coffee , already proven to have easily-manipulated quantum characteristics .
And you thought I was joking .
Appendix III A
A Cure for Diabetes
31 May 2012
The control-system short-circuit that causes diabetes can be interrupted in humans by a simple surgical procedure . This cures diabetes , insulin resistance and high blood pressure . We try to trace why .
1.Read Appendix I . This is a succinct summation of the state–of-play as at May 2012 .
2.Why should bypassing the duodenum have such drastic effects ?
Because the system outsmarted itself . Too many vital feedback loops are being controlled by the same chemicals . (A similar effect is observed in brain-stress and body-stress systems) . Inappropriate responses are triggered . The system is unstable .
2.1Peristaltic action in the duodenum is accompanied by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) release, a marker for inhibitory neurotransmitter release . See Appendix III . (Note the effect on blood pressure )
But this and PHI release (see Appendix II) affect the Prolactin system ,(see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolactin ) which is tied to at least 300 other biochemical processes , as well as the prion system (see http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Prions and the Amygdala" May 2012) .
This whole mess is an unstable system , that can and does go wrong in a large number of ways . And the original trigger can be impossible to trace .
2.2To add insult to injury , the original trigger can cause an amygdala reaction : ie a memory remains in the system , and there few , if any , "OFF" switches . Hence nasties like insulin resistance . There are doubtlessly many more . Amygdala's are notoriously stupid . It is the function of other systems to reprogram them .
See Appendix IV for the ratchet-effect on bloodpressure .
2.3Milk and milk-products can be identified as one of the factors that should cause the system to destabilise .Lactogen breakdown products interfere with some of the feedback loops in the energy metabolism . The result will be idiosyncratic according to individual metabolism , but insulin resistance will ratchet up . (A calf-protection system short-circuits)
What to do ?
Surgery seems a bit drastic . All we want to do is inhibit peristalsis in the duodenum . Food can be massaged through to the jejenum . I can't find a drug that does this selectively , but I am sure there are some .
But in the meantime we are stuck with something like Loperamide (Imodium) . It is like stopping an enormous factory to fix some small problem at the front-end of the production lines .
The following is not medical advice , and you proceed at your own peril .
Use the pulse principle .
1.Fast until the duodenum is empty , (+-6 hours) . No water .
2.Take Loperimide (Imodium) .. This stops peristalsis and release of neuro-markers .
3.Exercise (walking , jogging – this moves food without peristalsis ) . I have no idea what effect this will have on digestion . But no lying in bed allowed .
4.Then eat and drink mildly on low-carb foods . Appetite will be sharply decreased as alternate demand pathways kick in (Cf Atkins , etc) . Drink when thirsty (cf Noakes) . No milk products of any kind .Verboten
5. How often ? I noticed when writing this that this regimen is remarkably similar to religious regimens like Ramadan , Jewish , Christian , Hindu and Buddhist fasts . Two weeks to a month per year seems adequate . This should reprogram some of the systems to at least a modicum of initial states .
6.Monitor blood glucose about 2 hours after eating .
Interesting Asides :
1.Excessive alcohol intake paralyses the pylorus valve between the stomach and the duodenum . The same effect as fasting , in that food does not enter the duodenum to trigger peristalsis . Typically bloated feeling , with big "beer bellies" . Since alcohol is a product of carbohydrates , this is a fascinating adaptation to high carbohydrate intake .
To put it another way , agricultural farming only took off because periodic alcoholic binges enabled re-normalization of glycemic systems . As this dwindled , so diabetes increased .
2.Milk and Cheese : as use of these increased , systems increasingly crashed in the Prolactin areas . Energy metabolisms became unstable , and auto-immune diseases increased .And you can't reinstate the original system simply by stopping milk products : amygdala's have to be reprogrammed .
These are but the a sketch of the bare bones of complex mechanism . But at least some indication of where to go or where not to go .
But I refuse to countenance a system that does not allow toasted cheese sandwiches .
There must be a better way .
Cristina Iaboni had the dubious distinction of being not quite obese enough. For all the pounds on her 5'5" frame, she did not meet the criteria for bariatric surgery to help control her type 2 diabetes.
Yet six years of medications and attempts at healthy living had failed to rein in her blood glucose, leaving Iaboni terrified that she was on course to have her kidneys fail "and my feet cut off" -- common consequences of uncontrolled diabetes.
Then the 45-year-old Connecticut wife, mother of two and head of human resources for a Fortune 500 company, lucked out. In 2009 she met with Dr Francisco Rubino of Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York. He had just received approval to study experimental surgery on diabetics with a relatively lean weight-to-height ratio, or body-mass index (BMI). Iaboni was among his first subjects.
Three years on, she has dropped 50 pounds to reach a healthy 145 and has normal blood pressure without medication. That isn't too surprising: Weight loss is the purpose of bariatric surgery and often reduces blood pressure. More remarkable, Iaboni no longer has diabetes.
She is not the first patient with diabetes, which can be triggered by obesity, to be cured by weight-loss surgery. But she is a rarity for having it with a BMI well below 35 and over. That's the level at which the American Diabetes Association says surgery "may be considered" and that Medicare and some private insurers cover. And Iaboni's diabetes disappeared months before she shed much weight.
Her experience has raised an intriguing possibility: that some forms of bariatric surgery treat diabetes not by making patients shed pounds. Instead, by rerouting part of the digestive system, they change what signals the gut sends to the brain and the brain sends to the liver, altering the underlying causes of diabetes.
If proven, bariatric surgery may help people with type 2 diabetes who are less obese, overweight or even of healthy weight. And it might be effective against the currently incurable type 1, or "juvenile," diabetes, too.
"Every textbook says that diabetes is chronic, irreversible, and progressive," said Rubino. "But we have thousands of patients who once had diabetes and now do not."
Bariatric surgeons have long been prone to declaring victory against diabetes way too soon, before large-scale, long-term data proved their case. "The evidence for the success of bariatric surgery in patients with a BMI below 35 is not very strong," said Leonid Poretsky, director of the Friedman Diabetes Institute at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. "Most of the studies have been very small and not well controlled."
The American Diabetes Association rates the evidence that bariatric surgery can cure diabetes as "E," the lowest of four grades. It calls data on patients with a BMI below 35 "insufficient," and says the procedure cannot be recommended except as part of research.
The immediate risks of bariatric surgery are small -- a 0.3 per cent chance of dying within 30 days of the procedure. But a small fraction of patients develop infections, leaking from the stomach into the abdominal cavity, or gallstones, and it can cause nutritional deficiencies: There is less intestine to absorb vitamins and minerals, raising the possibility of osteoporosis and anemia.
Despite these red flags, the surgical option is attracting intense interest because the quest to cure diabetes has become almost desperate. In type-1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, a hormone that moves the glucose in food into cells. In type 2 diabetes, cells become resistant to insulin. In either case, glucose remains in the blood, damaging cells and blood vessels, sometimes severely enough to cause blindness, kidney failure, or gangrene requiring foot or limb amputations.
In 2010, 8.3 per cent of adults worldwide had type 2 diabetes (11.3 per cent did in the United States), resulting in direct medical costs of $376 billion ($116 billion in the United States). By 2030, the global incidence is projected to rise to 9.9 per cent, partly because of the rising obesity rate, with costs reaching $490 billion.
The possibility that bariatric surgery could cure diabetes emerged about a decade ago. A long-term study of thousands of patients in Sweden reported in 2004 that both gastric bypass and banding improved diabetes in many subjects. A 2008 study of 55 obese patients found that 73 per cent of those who underwent gastric banding saw their diabetes disappear after two years, compared to 13 per cent undergoing standard medical treatment such as medication, diet and exercise.
In 2009, surgeons at the University of Minnesota analyzed 621 mostly small studies of bariatric surgery in obese, diabetic patients. Their conclusion, reported in the American Journal of Medicine: 78 per cent no longer needed medication to control their blood sugar. They'd been cured. Lap banding had the worst results, worsening diabetes in some patients.
But most patients in these studies were obese, many morbidly so. (The average BMI was 48.) The improvement in glucose control could therefore be credited to the patients' weight loss, which averaged 85 pounds.
CLUES FROM THE PAST
Rubino had a hunch that something else was at work. As a research fellow in diabetes at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York in 1999, he was reviewing the medical literature one day for guidance on how to best perform bariatric surgery on a man with a BMI of 80. He found papers from the 1950s and earlier reporting that surgery for peptic ulcers had cured diabetes.
Ulcer surgery removes a portion of the stomach and reconstructs a connection to the intestine, much as gastric bypass does. Few diabetes experts had noticed the old papers; they were published in surgery journals, which endocrinologists seldom read.
His serendipitous find led Rubino to other papers describing operations on the digestive tract that cured diabetes, something that, according to medical textbooks, was unthinkable.
"Within two weeks of surgery and sometimes sooner, these patients were off their insulin, off their diabetes drugs, and with normal blood glucose levels," said Rubino. "That was too fast to explain by weight loss."
Yet that's how experts explained bariatric surgery's effect on diabetes, especially as the procedure took hold in the 1990s. Few surgeons focused on how quickly the condition disappeared, said Rubino, "or they speculated that patients weren't eating much after the surgery, and that's what cured their diabetes."
He began pursuing the idea that surgery might improve diabetes directly, rather than through weight loss. "I was ignorant of diabetes, so I wasn't burdened by too much knowledge," Rubino said. "Something that might have seemed heretical didn't seem impossible to me."
Rubino modified the popular gastric bypass surgery, called Roux-en-Y, to test his idea on diabetic lab rodents. In the classic operation, the stomach is pinched off so it can hold less food. Surgical cuts keep the rest of the stomach and the top of the small intestine, called the duodenum, from receiving any food. Instead, the stomach empties directly into the bottom of the small intestine, the jejunum. In Rubino's variation, called duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), the stomach is untouched, but the rest of the procedure is the same.
The rats that Rubino operated on beginning in 2000 were cured of diabetes much more quickly than their weight fell. It was the first rigorous evidence, from a well-controlled study, that gut surgery has an anti-diabetes effect.
In 2006, Rubino was ready to move from rats to people. Two patients, with BMIs of 29 and 30, underwent his procedure. Their blood sugar levels returned to normal within days, though they lost no weight. In his most recent trial, reported in March in the New England Journal of Medicine, Rubino and colleagues at Catholic University in Rome performed standard gastric bypass surgery or a procedure similar to DJB on people with type 2 diabetes. After two years, 15 of 20 bypass patients and 19 of 20 DJB patients no longer had diabetes.
Curiously, although patients shed pounds, there was no correlation between weight loss and blood glucose, the key marker of diabetes. "Bariatric surgery is more effective on diabetes than obesity," said Rubino. "Patients don't become lean, but they do not have diabetes anymore."
FROM GUT TO BRAIN
Research from the University of Toronto, reported online this month in Nature Medicine, may finally explain why. It examined the effects of bypass surgery on rats with type-1 diabetes, which is considered even harder to treat than type 2. Normally the jejunum receives only digested mush, as nutrients have already been absorbed in the duodenum, explained lead researcher Tony Lam.
Bypassing the duodenum allows the jejunum to receive an influx of nutrients for the first time, said Lam. Sensing them, the jejunum sends a "got glucose!" signal to the brain. The brain interprets that as a sign of glucose overabundance and orders the liver to decrease glucose production. Result: The rats no longer have diabetes.
"I believe that similar mechanisms are taking place in surgery for type 2 diabetes," said Lam. "It strengthens the case for the surgery treating diabetes independent of weight loss."
His rat study shows why lap banding and stomach stapling are less effective against diabetes than gastric bypass. Banding causes diabetes to go into remission in about 50 per cent of patients, probably due to weight loss, said endocrinologist Dr Allison Goldfine of the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston.
In contrast, the diabetes-remission rate after Roux-en-Y is 80 to 85 per cent. "The improvements in blood glucose with Roux-en-Y appear to occur very early, by day three after surgery, so patients are being discharged with no medication," she said. Something other than weight loss "must be going on."
Goldfine has launched a study of diabetics with BMIs of 30 to 42 to compare outcomes after lap band surgery, Roux-en-Y, and intense medical management.
A year ago, Rubino began the first large study for type 2 diabetes patients with a BMI as low as 26, where "overweight" begins. The cost of the bypass surgery is covered by a grant from Covidien Plc, which makes laparoscopic instruments and surgical staplers. He aims to enroll at least 50 patients, following them for five years; he has operated on 20 so far.
© Copyright (c) Reuters
1. peptide phi
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exactamino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is foundin the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Neurotransmitters Mediating the Intestinal Peristaltic Reflex in the Mouse
- Address correspondence to:
Dr. J. R. Grider, Department of Physiology, P.O. Box 980551, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298. E-mail: email@example.com
The motor, modulatory, and sensory neurotransmitters that mediate the peristaltic reflex in the mouse colon were identified by direct measurement, and their involvement in various pathways was determined by selective receptor antagonists. Mucosal stimulation in the central compartment of a three-compartment flat sheet preparation of mouse colon elicited ascending contraction and descending relaxation in the orad and caudad compartments, respectively. Ascending contraction was accompanied by substance P release, a marker for excitatory neurotransmitter release, into the orad compartment and was partly inhibited by atropine and spantide, and abolished by a combination of the two antagonists.
Descending relaxation was accompanied by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) release, a marker for inhibitory neurotransmitter release, into the caudad compartment,
and was partly inhibited by VIP10-28 and NG-nitro-L-arginine, and abolished by a combination of the two agents. Somatostatin release increased during descending relaxation: immunoneutralization of somatostatin or blockade of its effect with a selective somatostatin type 2 receptor antagonist inhibited descending relaxation. The δ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole augmented descending relaxation and ascending contraction. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release increased in the central compartment and was mediated by concurrent release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) because its release was blocked by a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist. Both the latter and the CGRP antagonist CGRP8-37, inhibited ascending contraction and descending relaxation. Thus, the reflex in mouse like that in rat and human intestine is initiated by mucosal release of 5-HT and activation of 5-HT4 receptors on CGRP sensory neurons and is relayed via somatostatin and opioid interneurons to VIP/nitric-oxide synthase inhibitory motor neurons and via cholinergic interneurons to acetylcholine/tachykinin excitatory motor neurons.
Peptides. 1984 May-Jun;5(3):593-606.
Co-existence of peptide HI (PHI) and VIP in nerves regulating blood flow and bronchial smooth muscle tone in various mammals including man.
By immunohistochemistry it was found that PHI- and VIP-like immunoreactivity (-IR) occurred in the same autonomic neurons in the upper respiratory tract, tongue and salivary glands with associated ganglia in rat, guinea-pig, cat, pig and man. VIP- and PHI-like immunoreactivity was also found in similar locations in the human heart. The N-terminally directed, but not the C-terminally directed, PHI antiserum or the VIP antiserum stained endocrine cells in the pig duodenum. This suggests the existence of an additional PHI-like peptide. Ligation of nerves acutely caused marked overlapping axonal accumulations of PHI- and VIP-IR central to the lesion. Two weeks after transection of the nerves, both types of immunoreactivities were still observed in accumulations both in the axons as well as in the corresponding cell bodies. The levels of PHI- and VIP-IR in normal tissues from the cat were around 10-50 pmol/g with a molar ratio of about 1 to 2. Systemic administrations of PHI and VIP induced hypotension, probably due to peripheral vasodilation in both guinea-pig and cat. Furthermore, both PHI and VIP caused an inhibition of the vagally induced increase in respiratory insufflation pressure in guinea-pig. PHI and VIP relaxed the guinea-pig trachea in vitro, suggesting a direct action on tracheobronchial smooth muscle. VIP was about 5-10 times more potent than PHI with regard to hypotensive effects and 2-3-fold, considering respiratory smooth muscle-relaxant effects in the guinea-pig. PHI was about 50-fold less potent to induce hypotension in the cat than in the guinea-pig. Although species differences seem to exist as regards biological potency, PHI should also be considered when examining the role of VIP as an autonomic neurotransmitter.
Appendix IV A
Phene Systems II
4 Feb 2011
Cellular meta-control mechanisms (Phenes) situated on the cell- and nucleus wall are expanded on in more depth .
The article "The Inner life of the Genome" by Tom Miseli in the Feb 2011 Scientific American (p46) pulled together a number threads previously discussed in this blog .
Briefly , he found that DNA is organized in the following physical arrangements in a working cell-nucleus :
DNA -> Wound around Histone Spools -> Histone Spools fold to form Chromatin strings -> Heterochromatin strings (a very tightly folded Chromatin strings) (see para 6 below)
Heterochromatin is so tightly wound that the DNA is inaccessible to transcription factors (ie inert , switched off) . They are found mostly near the nucleus wall . The Chromatin strings form delineated tangles , with preferred positions in the nucleus space .
Near the center are volumes called Transcription factories .
This is where the rubber hits the tar .
Volumes rich in aggregations of cellular components , polymerase enzymes and transcription factors . How did they get there ? See point 4 below about Chaperones and Self-organization .
Genes on the outer Heterochromatin string , on activation from the Phene system , unwinds to make the DNA accessible . The chromatin string simultaneously also migrates inward to a transcription factory (presumably triggered by the phene signal) and gets expressed .
This has been described as the Histone Code forming the epigenetic system
From evolutionary considerations , meta-control systems on cell-level and nucleus level are taken to be related .
Not only are they descended from the same ur-mechanisms , but if they were not related , that would add another expensive translation layer between cell-wall and nucleus-wall , with concomitant chances of error .
Evolutionary pressures would have elided any such mutation .
(Sounds logical , but is it true ? I suspect it is usually true , but exceptions will be found .
The perversity of animate matter exceeds that of inanimate matter by orders of magnitude)
The Histone System can then be seen as an important subset of the Epigenetic System
But the epigenetic system can have signals that are not relevant to cells .
See "Tunneling nanotubes"
See the following main threads :
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Rife and the Histone Code" Jan 2011
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Phene System" Nov 2009 (reproduced in Appendix A below for convenience .)
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "ATP as a neurotransmitter" Jan 2010
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Tunneling nanotubes" Nov 2010
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Coffee foam" Aug 2009
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Intralipid II" Feb 2011
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Chaperones , Unpacking and Asthma" Aug 2008
Points to note :
1; "Distributed viruses" as theorized in "ATP as a Neurotransmitter" can be better described as pleomorphic organisms as set out in "Rife and the Histone code"
2;Intralipid is important because of its ability to hide epigenetic triggers . Notice the importance of phosphatydilserine (see "Phene Systems") . What would be the effect of phosphatydilserine with Intralipid-type mechanisms ?
3; Switching off genes near the cell-wall is a typical evolutionary fail-safe control .
(A process is inhibited , unless that inhibition is inhibited in turn)
4; When a gene in the outer-tangle of Heterochromatin strings is activated , the loop it is in drops in nearer to a Transcription factory .
How does it know where to go ?
One theorizes that initially it is self-organizing (ie a hit-or-miss affair) . But various Beth levels will force an evolution of chaperones (see http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Chaperones , Unpacking and Asthma" Aug 2008 )
So , one envisages a mixture of chaperones(2/3) and self-organization (1/3) (http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "NewTools reserves" Nov 2008 . Error arguments.)
5; Chromosome abnormalities (like cancer) . Without a chaperone the dangling loop is vulnerable to breaking and then joining up with an unsuitable partner . Like in any bad marriage , the children suffer .
6.Stem Cells :
The above description is for a mature , functioning differentiated cell .
Things are different just before and after divisions .
In Embryonic stem-cells , there are no Heterochromatin strings .
All the genes are active , but the shebang is not very robust .
On receiving a phene-signal to differentiate the cell , lamin proteins are formed and fold Chromatin strings -> Heterochromatin strings and also tether them to the nucleus wall . The nucleus becomes much more robust .
Lamin proteins can then be classified as chaperones .
But notice how easily nearly any cell can be turned back into a pluripotent cell .
The body does this all the time (lately , stem cells have been created out of cells found in urine .This is very unlikely for a storage mechanism .)
From Wikipedia :
"The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. Thelamin family of proteins make up the matrix and are highly conserved in evolution. During mitosis, the lamina matrix is reversibly disassembled as the lamin proteins are phosphorylated. Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression."
The lamins are thriftily reprocessed during mitosis . This means there is an programmed biological pathway to reverse differentiation (ie create stem cells) . Which why stem cells are so easily created .
The only problem now is why the body does not do it more frequently (ie why grow old?) It seems that the phene system has a memory , and the new cells after mitosis are reprogrammed .
Any helpful suggestions are welcome .
(Old age sucks.)
7; Heat pulses and Timing .
From para 4 above (Self-organization) , random movement due to heat promotes self-organization .
The molecules creating timing mechanisms are evolutionary very old (recent findings) . Heat pulses at harmonics of the diurnal rhythm should entrain the self-organizing process and reduce copying errors quite drastically .
(Remember , a modest 10 degree Celsius rise in temperature doubles chemical activity on a molecular level)
The Tea Ceremony .
An existing and proven technology .
The number of seconds in a day = 3^3 * 2^7 * 5^2 = 86 400
Sipping a very hot liquid every x seconds will pulse with resonances at
X= 2,3,4,5,6, 8,9,10,12.15,16,18,20,24, 25,27,30,… seconds
About 2-3 seconds per sip seems doable . The liquid must be kept hot and the sip rate maintained . This is ok for stomach systems .
We know long-term nerve potentiating is about 10 minutes , so if nervous system is targeted , sip slower (but not longer than 6 seconds between sips) and the tea must be kept at the same temperature . Eg for 6 seconds between 2.5 ml sip , you will drink 10*60/6*2.5 = 250 ml (about one cup .)
Will a Tea Ceremony with iced tea have the same effect ?
If the nervous system is targeted , yes . Entrainment is the goal . So the bigger the temperature difference , more the body will notice . Remember the caffeine .
The maximum effect if you want to target the nervous system (relax, etc) would be then to do the Tea Ceremony and make each alternate sip iced tea and very hot tea as described above . Each in a demi-tasse .
I'm afraid Tea Ceremony purists in Japan and China will not welcome this conclusion
In other cases , you can experiment , but I estimate that hot alone will work .
Bar flies , hot chocolate and hot/iced coffee I leave for enthusiastic students .
Or else you can pulse infrared at these rates and frequencies derived from Rife's work
Or else sit in the sun with a shade that fluctuates (old style Eastern potentate , or rotating sun-umbrella with variable panels)
Or else watch TV . Heat radiation on old cathode-ray TV's will resonate at 25 , 27 ,30 times per second .
Children sitting close will be more susceptible .
Watching TV on CRT's makes them healthier ? Some independent verification is required here .
Computer screens and games ditto .
That was fun !
5 Nov 2009
Cellular-wall control systems(phenes) of epigenetic and virus systems are becoming known and described .
See NewScientist 8 Aug 2009 p 41 "Kills all known germs" by B Holmes .
Relevant research by Philip Thorpe at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas .
See also http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Coffee Foam" 2 Aug 2009 and later .
The argument is simple : self-replicating structures started on the walls of bubbles (probably clay : Gecko life) . These developed into the present day epigenetic control structures of processes inside the bubbles (ie cells) .
Viruses are messengers/controls both for intra-cellular and extra-cellular use .
Which is why they are usually wrapped in variants of the cell-wall .
From the NewScientist article , this is a molecule mostly found sticking out of the inner lining of the cell-wall . Virus budding entails that this molecule is then found in particular patterns sticking out of the outside the outer cell-wall .
We expect such a mechanism if the cell-wall harbours the meta-controls (ie epigenetics) of the cell and some multicellular activity (ie virus messenger generation).
Humans have created antibodies that inactivate or target-for-destruction the bits of the Phosphatidylserine molecule sticking out of the cell-wall .
This will break the feedback-cycle of a large range of harmful viruses (apparently including HIV , Flu's , some cancers) .
Bavituximab ( a name only a Pharma could love) does exactly this . Expect to see a lot of it .
The question is :
Why are these antibodies not part of the body's normal immune system ?
The virus system is also used for information carrying .
Suppressing the virus system completely will destroy a multicellular organism , and make it revert to a collection of individual cells , even down to elemental chemicals if done properly . (Cf Ebola , SuperEbola , etc)
This can be bypassed by shining intense , quantum-entangled infra-red light through the mess (see previous posts) .
The normal system has to play a delicate balancing act between destruction from bad viruses and good,communication viruses .
If the baddies get too big an influence , intervention might be required . This is the duty of the epigenetic system . Why is it falling down on the job ?
The Dendritic Immune sytem
This is the connection between the synapse-type learning systems and the phene-system in the cell walls .
The dendritic immune system's effectiveness is magnified by at least 3 orders of magnitude by a continuous sharp pressure-differential . The search space is drastically reduced by stochastic resonance . (The proof is either immediately obvious or very long).
Hence modern music and it's prevalence .
Your chances of survival is about 10^3 better if you listen to some semi-random rock.
Hence iPod and others . This is a real effect .
But we can do better than that by internal Click programming .
You know : Clicking the tongue , beak , teeth , exoskelet .
There is no animal with synapses or an immune system that makes no clicks at some stage .
This is actually quite amazing .
We would then expect plants to be noisy . And they are , on very low frequencies . This is how desert elephants survive : they hear the bulbous plants growing by the low-frequency pulses sensed through their feet . A patch of bulbs would have a signature low-frequency pulse observable from a long way off . (The bulbs would evolve-learn to spurt growth at the same time . This would lessen the chance of detection and eating by close-by herbivores not as smart as elephants)
Click-talking plants .
Better than just talking to them . But try some castanets . Tap-dancing will work too , but the neighbours will think you're really crazy tap-dancing to the plants . Tojours .
Grinding your teeth .
A common complaint , usually explained away as stress . Actually , your teeth are trying to click together . A part of the body's housekeeping routine . Programming the gums and intestinal tract .
Just for the hell of it , click your teeth together 5 times together with 5 double-tongue clicks interspersed as you feel . Count them . You will feel an immediate stress-relief feeling . Blood pressure will drop . Be careful if medication to lower blood pressure is taken .
I just thought of the above , and tried it .
The teeth (molars mostly) must click against each other . You will notice there is a damage-control protocol hardwired in . The teeth will click , but not hard enough to cause damage . This already tells us that this is an old system .
The natural tendency will be for a double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .
Be careful of hypotension of the cardiovascular system . The stress relief is very pronounced . Especially around the neck and upper shoulder muscles .
Teeth-grinding should cease .
But why ?
I did not expect this . But the effect is so pronounced that I cannot ignore it .
The neck and shoulder muscles do not relax through an effort of will or exercise . They just relax . (Sort of melt) .
Maybe a double bite-bite on empty air signals the end of an aggressive episode , and for expensive fight-or-flight mechanisms to stand down .
This would make this fairly deep-wired , certainly deeper than psychological stress .
Phene effects .
The stand-down is an immediate stand-down , regardless of the number previous stress-generating events . This must be true , since this is the epigenetic programming system . There is no other memory system .
Phene programming of immune-systems , bone-growth , digestion , neural growth etc ,are immediately affected . Genes are switched from crisis to maintenance . Using the carbohydrate-energy mechanism is a short-term crisis mechanism .
Standing down the mechanism should ameliorate conditions like Diabetes II .
Or getting fat .
Want to get thin ?
The algorithm :
Double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .
Repeat at least ten times a month .
That's it .
Can it be this simple?
Why has nobody thought of it before ?
As far as I am aware , nobody in our recorded history has thought that the click of teeth together can have physiological effects . Prehistoric societies were probably aware of the effect .
Yet it does , as you can find out for yourself .
The same for the simplicity . Simple causes has wide effects , because they are so basic . You must look at the whole argument .
In any case , there is hardly any risk .
I am doing it . Tojours!
Hasta la vista !
Coming or going .
Appendix V A
The recipe for bypassing skin and cellular wall barriers .
The nature of the toxin secreted by nettles is not settled. The stinging hairs of most nettle species contain formic acid, serotonin and histamine; however recent studies of Urtica thunbergianaimplicate oxalic acid and tartaric acid rather than any of those substances, at least in that species.
Appendix VI A
Hibernation and Cryogenics
19 Nov 2008
Jessica Palmer pointed out on the 16th Nov 2008 that the primary problem with cryogenics seems to be in the re-establishment of metabolic processes after un-freezing .
But we have an already existing template for doing exactly that .
See Appendix A
The evolutionary explanation is that during the transition-phase from methane/sulfur to oxygen atmosphere (circa 1.5 bn years ago) , there was a major advantage in suspending oxygen-driven systems if the organism found itself in a non-oxygen environment . It went into hibernation .
At the same time , alcohol was being excreted as a poison (like oxygen) . The ancestors of mitochondria (who could use low concentrations of oxygen or alcohol ) sought refuge in cells whose cell-walls were resistant (but not impervious) to alcohol transition .
Remember , alcohol is completely soluble in water , but oxygen is not . This difference drove the process . Alcohol concentrations in water could grow large , but oxygen-concentrations could not .
Mitochondria earned their keep by mopping up alcohol first and later converting oxygen to ATP . (The glucose and ketone metabolism came after this) . The ketone metabolism has never been very popular , because of the high loss-rate in excretory products , but has been kept as a third string on the bow . (Utilization of fat and protein-muscle reserves during low-glucose periods. )
Mitochondria thus has an exclusive preference of usage : alcohol , glucose , ketones in that order .
From experimental evidence (see Appendix A) , there is a genetic switch sensitive to the concentration of H2S to bring both the host cell and the mitochondrium to a state where all programmed molecular activity is suspended . (The power is switched off) .
But , of course , random beth(0) molecular activity due to temperature does not cease . Uncontrolled and anaerobic reactions still occur .
We get rid of most anaerobic organisms first .
Lots of sulfur , VitC and alcohol (fermented berries or carbohydrates in the stomach . A low acidity is required in the run-up to hibernation)
Then freeze .
Starting the contraption up again is a bit of a problem .
1. The power-plant :
The mitochondria needs to be primed with their preferred fuel (alcohol)
Oxygen needs to be infused .(Hyperbaric chamber)
2. Garbage disposal
The cellular garbage-disposal systems need to be activated . ATP from the powerplant needs to be allocated to breakdown-product disposal before the ATP is allocated to DNA/RNA production processes .
The garbage-disposal uses mechanisms that use sulfur to create the various vacuoles and ropes (cf mitosis) . Enough sulfur is vital .
Once again , oxygen and alcohol is used . Both are recognized by all systems as poisons to be removed as a first priority . They activate a quite sophisticated garbage-disposal system as H2S concentrations decrease .
3 . Flushing
All that garbage has to flushed away , preferably not through the kidneys or liver .
Use machines .
As H2S concentrations decrease , damage might occur due to PH fluctuations . Acidity (H2SO4 , etc) Buffering would be advisable .
Lots of water at 105 to 107 Fahrenheit for mammals , pulsing at pulserate(about 90 cycles per minute .)
This is to activate the chaperone systems and discourage opportunistic viruses .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Music"
Play harmonious music so the vibrations can be felt throughout organism being thawed . This enhances timing-procedures by orders of magnitudes . Emergent order .
(A Beth(0.x) effect . )
The de-hibernization process must have an exact program at molecular level to reboot the cellular metabolism . Precisely what you need after a cryogenic procedure .
But its efficiency (ie your chance of survival) can be boosted by orders of magnitude by using the steps above .
- Do hibernating animals like bears use alcohol-producing cells in their bloodstream to time hibernation? This can be tested .
- Are there cold-chaperone molecules ? There should be .
- Hibernation is easy . Nature has done all the hard work . Keeping the mechanism ticking over at a very slow rate enables cellular-garbage clearing for a relatively short period (6-8 months)
- De-cryogenics is a bit harder , Beth(1) intervention is needed .
- Alcohol-concentrations : we are talking about 1% to 2% imbibing . About 0.06% inside the cell . Ie , the cell-wall protects by a factor of about 30
- Pulse-Cryogenics : alternate freezing and hibernation to get a better survival factor . For those who are too stupid to design a zero-entropy system .
Try : Life=negative entropy . Non-life = positive entropy . Design it so the sum is zero .
From http://andreswhy.blogspot.com " Birdflu Update-4" dated 29 Oct 2005
Suspended Animation (the real thing!)
In 2005, Mark Roth and other scientists from the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle demonstrated that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation by applying a low dosage of hydrogen sulfide (80 ppm H2S) in the air. The breathing rate of the animals sank from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell from 37 °C to 2 °C above ambient temperature (in effect, they had become cold-blooded). The mice survived this procedure for 6 hours and afterwards showed no negative health consequences.
Such a hibernation occurs naturally in many mammals and also in toads, but not in mice. (Mice can fall into a state called clinical torpor when food shortage occurs). If the H2S-induced hibernation can be made to work in humans, it could be useful in the emergency management of severely injured patients, and in the conservation of donated organs.
As mentioned above, hydrogen sulfide binds to cytochrome oxidase and thereby prevents oxygen from binding, which apparently leads to the dramatic slowdown of metabolism. Animals and humans naturally produce some hydrogen sulfide in their body; researchers have proposed that the gas is used to regulate metabolic activity and body temperature, which would explain the above findings
Dosages of H2S:
Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation (because of the high alkality of the SH- anion), a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks. Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Higher concentrations of 700-800 ppm tend to be fatal.
- Do hibernating animals like bears use alcohol-producing cells in their bloodstream to time hibernation? This can be tested .
- 0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic rotten egg odor of hydrogen sulfide 
- 10-20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation.
- 50-100 ppm leads to eye damage.
- At 150-250 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger,
- 320-530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death.
- 530-1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing;
- 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposition (LC50).
- 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposition (LC50).
Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.