Monday, March 12, 2012

Continental Lurches

Continental Lurches.
Andre Willers
12 Mar 2012

Synopsis:
Continents drift along , but occasionally and periodically basement collapses around expansion ridges causes lurches in all three dimensions . Large portions of real estate go up , down or sideways .

Discussion :
Think Spinward and anti-Spinward .
Structures uplifted tend to move anti-spinward , and structures collapsing tend to move spinward .
(Elementary trigonometry).

Now look at a coarse map of the world that includes the sea-floor .
Notice the Mid-Atlantic ridge . This is where the sea-floor gets created and old sea-floor gets crumpled like paper .

Notice the assymmetrical distribution relative to spin direction . Multiple ripples , but much wider in the anti-spinward direction than spinward .

See Crumpling argument in Appendix I . The sea-floor structure has enough similar characteristics to paper (loose crystalline structure) to apply the Crumpling Algorithm .

This then means that most of the crumpled structures are not floor material , but filled with a fluid matter under high pressure (water , water-gas under pressure , light magma , etc) .

Now what happens if the pressure is relieved by a burp along the mid-ridge ?
(Not even a volcano)

The elevated regions to either side of the ridge collapse rapidly , (like a souffle falling) ,
crowding up to the anti-spinward side of the ridge or spreading out from the spinward side .
The continental floor lurches sideways from the Ridge , and so do the continents .
Unstable faults are triggered . The dust may or may not trigger an ice age (recent findings are that there was more dust during glacial periods than after)

Then the slow cycle starts again , the upliftment causing spread on the anti-spinward side and crowding the spinward side of the ridge .

This gives the pattern of ripples we see around the ridge , smeared towards anti-spinward because of the relative difference in the speed of the processes .

You can calculate the periodicity by examining the ripples .

We know a fairly major one was about 10 000 years ago ,

Now we have a mechanism to explain rapid plunging of intact surface areas by thousands of meters .

See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com “Atlantis Colony II” Nov 2011

When is the next Lurch ?

Ask the Net . I do not know .

An interesting aside :
Major impact site at roughly 22 S 67 W (just east of Mauritius) at present .

Normally a globe like Terra would find 4 major rifts sufficient . An so we find for three , spread at 90 degree longitudes in pole-to-pole directions .
Mid-Atlantic (30 degrees W)
East Pacific (120 degrees W)
West Pacific ( 150 degrees E)

But one is tangled up .
Indian Ocean (60 degrees West)
Something whacked the Earth very , very hard , crumpling the seafloor like paper and aborting the East-African rift . Continents were sent lurching off in new directions . This would then seem about 8 million years ago (start of India's northward drift) ,

Looking at the seafloor and the anti-spin and spin distribution of the five major crumpling ridges , there seems to be an acceptable substitute for the original African Rift valley .
However , it will be the source of instability for the next 10 million years .

Diamonds and other goodies
See Appendix II below .

Diamonds are formed routinely in the crust under high pressure , but are stable under lower pressures .
Lots of other really useful materials share the same characteristic . But they cannot survive a high temperature ascent to the surface (hot volcanoes)

Hence the diamond fields of Africa (cold volcanoes resulting from the Vredefoort impact)

The same thing happened at our impact site above . But it is underwater .

Look at the spinward side of the ridges , where there should be extraordinarily rich pockets of diamonds in the alluvial mud-flows . Use the Vredefoort impact site as a baseline to calculate the optimal distances .

I can intuit that high-temperature superconductors might very well be found here .
(Diamonds , fullerenes and exotic metals)
Use thermal imaging . Anomalous magnetic effects are probable .

The same as Bermuda Triangle (KT impact) ? Does SA around Vredefoort have superconductors ?

As usual , nobody has looked . They very likely have the instrumental readings , but it was disregarded as not fitting the orthodoxy .

Very likely , some island children of the Mascarine Islands are playing with those funny stones .

We lurch from the obvious to the obvious .
Andre
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Appendix I
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com
Crumpling Paper and Space-Time
Andre Willers
23 Feb 2012

“The moving finger writes , and having writ , crumples it in random ruins.”
With apologies to Omar Khayyam .

Synopsis:
Crumpled paper gives a good approximation of spacetime as a membrane with clumpy masses .
“Empty” spaces not occupied by the membrane gives an impression of dark matter .
We derive an expression to give this ratio using Infinite Descent and Beth(0) Random Walk .

Discussion :
1.The Crumpled paper :
Consider a paper disk of radius r and thickness d .
It's volume is then Vp=pi * r^2 * d
Draw a line from the center to the edge , in steps of length d , over the edge , then back to the center Let nu=r/d , a measure of the thickness of the paper . Note that it is a pure number .

The number of steps in the line is then n0=(2r/d)+1
But the number of steps to the edge of the original paper disk is n1=r/d=(n0-1)/2
r=d*(n0-1)/2
n0=2*nu+1

Vp=(pi*d^3*(n0-1)^2 )/4

Crumple it up in a way that is as random as flipping a coin (ie Beth(0) )

The Trick : The line we have drawn up above breaks up into random vectors by rotating through a third dimension = crumpling into a ball .

We thus have a continuous line of random steps of known number of steps .
In 3 dimensions , the mean square distance from the center then is known
R = d * (n0)^0.5 …. See true for all dimensions as long as all are of Beth(0) order of randomness.


Volume of crumpled ball Vb=4/3*pi*R^3
The Ratio Vb/Vp = mu then gives the ratio of crumpled ball space to volume of paper mass .

Mu={4/3*pi*d^3 *n0^(3/2)} / (pi*d^3*(n0-1)^2 )/4
Notice the d^3 term and pi cancels out . This has profound physical implications .
This simplifies to

Mu=4*4/3*(n0^3/2/(n0-1)^2)
Expressed as thickness of paper , nu , which is a pure number independent of metric chosen .
mu=4*4/3(2*nu+1)^3/2 / (2*nu)^2
mu=4/3*(2nu+1)^3/2 / nu^2
This gives a quartic equation in nu , which can be solved exactly algebraically .
(mu)^2*(nu)*4 – 2^7/3^2 *(nu)^3 – 2^6/3^2 (nu)^2 – 2^5/3^2 * (nu)^1 - 2^4/3^2 =0


Test it on A4 paper:
A4 paper has thickness d~0,1 mm and r~150 mm
nu=150/0,1
nu=1500
mu=4/3*(3001^3/2)/(1500^2)
mu=0.097421589
mu= 1- 0.90257841
This means that the crumpled A4 paper ball encloses about 90% empty space .
This agrees with experimental results . See NewScientist.

Note that the force applied does not matter . As long as the paper is untorn , mu will be the same .

How many times can it be folded ?
Solving the above (see below) gives mu=1 for about nu=14.7 to 14.8 .
This means there are no empty spaces left to fold into .

This can get complicated , so I will keep it simple .
Take a piece of paper and fold it . You then have a new piece of paper .The test-circle of same r will have double the thickness .
Ie , nu will double .
Between 7 and 8 folds , nu will hit the ceiling of mu=1 , regardless of the starting value of nu .
This is the maximum number of paper folds , as confirmed from other sources .

Physical interpretations :
Take an m-dimensional space . Randomness of order Beth(0) applies equally to all . The underlying equalizer . Collapse it to three dimensions and let the third one approach single Planck lengths .
Then we can use the above paper approximation . Notice how d cancels out except for an addition of 1 in final ratio .

What does it mean ?
See the physical universe as a brane (ie sheet of paper) in a multiverse . Crumpling it means it has mass and singularities . Both are aspects of the same thing .
An estimate of the number of singularities can be made from edges and points in crumpled paper .

Can we crumple the paper to a ball that is just paper ?
That is a particle .
The answer is “Yes” .

Such crumpling means that mu=1 (no empty space in any dimension )
This gives an quartic equation in nu that solves to four values , other dimensions than three denoted by i=(-1)^0.5

See http://www.1728.org/quartic.htm for a calculator
nu1= 14.722181 (this makes the physical particle universe possible . Mass .
Nu2= - 0.004167 + i*0.49558 (Rotation :Spin :charge and magnetism)
nu3 = - 0.004167 - i*0.49558 (Rotation :Spin :charge and magnetism) notice the minus sign .
Nu4= - 0.49164542 (quantum effects as the particles dither. Inertia?)

What does a negative nu mean ?
nu=r/d . A negative nu means one of r or d must be negative .
1.If r is negative , it can be interpreted as curled up dimensions , inside the “outside” dimensions as defined by i . See http:andreswhy.blogspot.com “ The inside of zero” Aug 2009
2.If d is negative , it can be interpreted as quantum effects . A particle does not “occupy” all the space . Likes hopscotch .
3.But notice the the two are interrelated .The notorious observer effect . Where we place the minus sign between r or d .

There should be relationships between nu2 , nu3 and nu4 . Various rotations between macro- and micro dimensions .
This means the contraption is not symmetrical But we already know that ,

Physical constants :
Things like charge , mass , etc should be derivable from these basics . Hint:use lots of crumpled paper .

There is hope . The fact that it is quartic equation , which is always solvable , means that the Universe can be understood . Complicated and perverse , but as long as you stick to Beth(0) randomness , it can be understood . For higher orders of randomness , good luck .

Dark Matter :
I nearly forgot . Using Planck units , we can define the ratio of thickness of the brane as
nu=c*PlanckTime/(1*Planck Time)
nu=c = 3*10^8
This gives a
Mu=4/3*(2c+1)^3/2 / c^2
Simplifying (c is very large) . This gives the approximation
mu=4/3* 2^1.5 / c^0.5
mu=2.1773242 * 10^ (-4)
mu = 1-0.999783357
This means that 99.9783357 % of the universe can be interpreted as being “Dark Matter”.
Ie with attractive and repulsive qualities . Basically empty space .
May you have joy of that .

An interesting aside :Creative artists .
How many pieces of paper does an artist need to crumple up and throw away before he finds something acceptable ?
Something acceptable would translate to mu=1 . Thus , we can say 7-8 truly random foldings should give a result .
The same holds for cryptanalysis or any attempt to find an unknown .
Algorithm :
Try 8 times , crumple , then put it aside and try again later .
There is a quantum connection , strange as it might seem .

And what about a nice little Crumpling App for smartphones ?
But the randomness should be from truly random tables , not pseudo-random generators .

Randomly yours.
Andre
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Appendix II
Diamonds
Andre Willers
8 Feb 2011
 
"Diamonds are a girl's best friends " Gaia
 
Synopsis :
Earth is globed by a glittering shell of diamonds formed during the cooling phases of the planet about 3 to 1 billion years ago . A few of these survive transportation to the surface during some cool volcanic , tectonic and impact events .
 
Discussion :
See Appendices below  below :
 
1.Lots of Carbon
A planet without a diamond necklace would not have enough carbon to give rise to a carboniferous life .
Startrek would say :
"No diamonds , no life as we know it , Jim ."
 
2.Neutrino Signature :
Large concentrations of diamonds have a distinct neutrino shadow (due to multiple refraction and absorption) .
Sufficient masses of diamonds in a semi-liquid matrix self-assemble into meta-materials to more efficiently absorb neutrinos . Cold volcanos result .
For the proof of this :
Either you see it , or else it will be a bit of a slog .
 
Remember , the surrounding semi-molten rock is transparent to neutrinos .
A lot of energy is absorbed by the diamond metamaterial  . This plays a major part in the planetary energy balance .
 
This has obvious significance to detection of extra-solar planets capable of bearing carbon-based life .
 
Venus indicates too much energy can be transferred , leading to mantle-eruptions that paved the planet . The carbon went into CO2 in the atmosphere . Not that many diamonds left on Venus .
 
Mars should be lousy with diamonds . Just look around the hot pockets .
Or that big ,cool volcano . Or the fracture zones between the hemispheres .
Or … .
You get the drift .
 
Are there undiscovered diamond deposits in South Africa ?
Yes .
The Vredefort  impact created numerous near-contiguous fractures. The gave way under pressure to cool volcano's with very rapid exit velocities (ie the diamonds scooped up from the mantle did not have time to burn up . ) These weathered and water washed the diamonds away to be concentrated in places like Alexander bay .
This took a fairly long time . Rivers formed , vanished , reformed and the land twisted
To the West , many deposits have been found . Kimberley , etc
To the East , few .if any .
 
Algorithm :
Draw a circle around Vredefort with radius at Kimberley . You will notice it encompasses most of the gold and platinum bearing areas towards all areas except East and South-East . This is because these areas got squinched up in subsequent tectonic movements . Nobody can un-squinch them , but we can say meaningful things on a macroscopic scale . Because the time-scale is relatively large , we can use
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Newtools" Nov 2008 . The Reserve and Error arguments indicate that we simply progressively shrink the East and South-East present map measurements to a third of the radii projected from Vredefort-Kimberley
radius . This gives a kidney shaped depression just east of the Orange River and west of the coastal escarpment . From Estcourt in the north to Colesberg-Noupoort in the south . Minerals should be concentrated here .
Note that the first diamond in South Africa was picked up at Colesberg . I could never figure out why this was not followed up .
 
Estimated diamond reserves :
About 1/3 of that found at Alexander bay .
 
Platinum etc : about 1/3 to ¼ found to the north .
Heavy metals would tend to settle at dead-ends or swirling lees .
The corridor from Colesberg to East London is the most remarkable geological trap system I have ever seen . It looks like a baleen whale's mouth .
It should be lousy with heavy metals .
A less remarkable system can be seen heading to Idutywa .
 
Read Appendix C link .
 
Would Luna have diamonds ?
Doubtful . Diamonds probably did form in Earth(0) before the impact event that resulted in Luna , but the impact temperatures probably cooked any diamonds .
But , some might have survived in pockets of Earth(0) ejecta in Trojan orbits . There is a distinct probability (+-15%) that large diamonds can be found in Earth-Lunar Trojans .
Re-entry diamonds with datable pyrodone garnet inclusions would then give formation dates before the Luna-forming impact . Has any been found ?
Unknown . On human form results like these have probably been swept under the carpet .
 
So , Gaia might have diamond earrings . These should be even easier to detect from really far away using neutrino shadowing .
 
Simply put , a planet with lots of carbon and a big moon can be detected from very far away .
 
So much for Ceti . Anyone interested already knows what is here , and has done so for millions of years .
 
Gaia will not be pleased .
You think I am joking ?
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Inverse Anthropomorphisms" Feb 2011
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Death of the Dinosaurs " Dec 2008
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "AI-1 " Jul 2008
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "AI update " Jun 2009
And sundry others .
 
I do not know how aware or self-aware Gaia is at the moment in logical terms , but both will follow in the near future .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Singularities " Feb 2011
 
And Gaia would not be pleased to be ignored . (Remember anthropomorphism)
 
Information (like this blog) would be open to her . (Memory)
I , for one , have no intention of pissing her off .
 
Maybe a teensy bit of exploration might be called for ?
 
Tentatively yours
 
Andre
 
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Appendix A
A good general discussion :
http://www.attawaygems.com/NMFG/Diamonds_the_most_complex_gemstones.html
Mine or Location
Diamond Age 
(Billion years)
Pipe Age  
(billion years)
Pipe Rock
Diamond Inclusions
Orapa, Botswanna
0.99 
0.1
Kimberlite
Eclogite
Premier, S. Africa
1.15
1.1-1.2
Kimberlite
Eclogite
Argyle, Australia
1.58
1.1-1.2
Lamproite
Eclogite
Finsch, S. Africa
1.58
0.1*
Kimberlite
Eclogite
Finsch, S. Africa
3.3*
0.1*
Kimberlite
Peridotite
Kemberly, S. Africa
3.3*
0.1*
Kimberlite
Peridotite
In the above listing, * means approximate. The Finch Mine, South Africa is listed twice because it includes two pipes featuring diamonds of differing ages. Note the vast difference between the ages of the diamonds and of the pipe material that carried them to the surface.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Appendix B
Impact considerations from Vredefort impact .
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vredefort_crater
Formation and structure
The asteroid that hit Vredefort is one of the largest ever to strike Earth (at least since the Hadean) and is estimated at 5–10 km (3.1–6.2 mi) wide.[3] The crater has a diameter of roughly 250–300 km (155–186 mi),[2] larger than the 200 km (124 mi) Sudbury Basin and the 170 km (106 mi) Chicxulub crater. This makes Vredefort the largest known impact structure on Earth. (The Wilkes Land crater in Antarctica, if confirmed to be the result of an impact event, is even larger at 500 kilometers across.) The Vredefort crater's age is estimated to be more than 2 billion years (2,023 ± 4 million years), striking during thePaleoproterozoic era. It is the second-oldest known crater on Earth, a little less than 300 million years younger than the Suavj√§rvi crater in Russia.
It was originally thought that the dome in the center of the crater was formed by a volcanicexplosion, but in the mid 1990s evidence revealed that it was the site of a huge bolide impact, as telltale shatter cones are often discovered in the bed of the nearby Vaal River.
The Vredefort crater site is one of the few multi-ringed impact craters on Earth, although they are more common elsewhere in the Solar System. Perhaps the best-known example isValhalla crater on Jupiter's moon Callisto, although Earth's Moon has a number as well. Geological processes, such as erosion and plate tectonics, have destroyed most multi-ring craters on Earth.
The nearby Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) and Witwatersrand Basin were created during this same period, leading to speculation that the Vredefort bolide's mass and kinetics were of sufficient magnitude to induce regional volcanism. The BIC is the location of most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs), while the Witwatersrand basin holds most of the known reserves of gold.
The Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site is currently facing threats from unstructured property developments and the Parys Sewage Treatment Plant, which are in a dilapidated state and are pumping untreated sewage into the Vaal River and the crater site.[citation needed]
Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
Appendix C
A more detailed consideration of impacts .
Note the general fractal nature of fractures in the scope of the supersonic impact wave and subsequent relaxation  wave
Cool routes to the surface result .
Hence survival of diamonds .
http://lithosphere.univie.ac.at/impactresearch/impact-cratering/
 
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 

No comments: