Wednesday, March 07, 2012

Cold Adaptation in Real Time

Cold Adaptation in Real Time
Andre Willers
7 Mar 2012

“She asked me why
I was such a hairy guy “ Hair

We use established epigenetic pathways to trigger cold-adapted genes in every cell , even in mature individuals .

Discussion :
The Analogue : Architecture of a computer system
Think of the DNA code as the Operating System Kernel and the Histone System as the Application Interface .

We know that mammalian DNA has cold-adaptation genes (ask any bear)
We know that epigenetic markers plays a role in cold adaptation .
(See NewScientist 4 Feb 2012 p8 “ Ice age survival:clues in fossil DNA .” Some nifty biochemical detective work by Alan Cooper found definitive methylization in fossilized bison bones 26 000 years old from an ice age)

There are at least ten epigenetic mechanisms . See Annexure I

But we also know that ordinary seasonal temperature changes trigger different parts of the genome being activated in every cell . All over .
Eg animals become more hairy , pelt color changes , degrees of aggression, etc , etc .

These are epigenetic changes .
To use our model , an Application Program is accessing the Operating System Kernel .

This Application Program has been refined by evolution , and can be activated by a few Hot-Keys .
We merely have to find them .

Cold Adaptation Syndrome .(CAS)
Hot-Key 1
Temperature on glabrous skin surfaces .
See Appendix II below .
Small arboreal animals (ie our distant ancestors) could regulate their temperature by friction (heating) or quiescence (cooling) while in contact with with the heat-sink of the branch , all the while regulating the greatly variable bloodflow under the glabrous skin .

The glabrous (hairless) skin is the palms , soles , inner genitals , parts of the digestive system , especially the mouth , parts of the breathing apparatus .

The inner genitals are interesting . Peeing in sub-zero temperatures sends very definite signals to the system as far as temperature and pressure is concerned .
Cicumcised men would a better cold-adaptation in areas where daily temperatures fluctuate around freezing .(eg desert)

Hot-Key 2:
Pressure on skin surfaces .
See Appendix II below .
Reduced pressure on glabrous skin will increase bloodflow . In an cold environment , the heat-loss will trigger an element of the Cold Adaptation Syndrome .

Increased Pressure :
A surprising finding . We know that increased pressure on muscles increase the efficiency of the lactate metabolism . It is actually a cold-adaptation See Appendix III below .
Cold weather shrinks the hide and tendons .

Hot-Key 3
“It ain't over until the fat lady's teeth chatter”
Compression waves from teeth-chattering is the final trigger .
See previous posts on about the Click language .
As previously described , this can be optimized as
“Double teeth click , double tongue click , repeated at least three times”
No need to wait until you are half-frozen .

Hot-Key 4
Availability of biologically active sulfur .
See Appendix IV

Putting it all together :
Three Hot-Keys are the minimum sufficient , but sulfur is really a pre-requirement .

How to program your epigenetic Cold-Adaptation Syndrome
The poor man's way , without fancy , expensive equipment :

1.Take MSM (about 1000 mg) with about 300 mg Vit C at least one hour before .
This gives gives sufficient sulfur for hibernation triggers .

2.Take three heat-conducting rods (eg iron pipes) about a foot long , coat them with a sticky syrup (honey is fine) . Put them in the freezer .

3.When they are frozen , put on the pressure-bands on the voluntary muscle groups :
elastic bands on the upper arms , thighs , mid-torso and forehead .

4.Drink a glass of iced water .

5.Douche penis glans or inner labia with cold water . (Optional)

6.Open the freezer compartment , grip the sticky pipe and open and close your hands while it remains cold and sticky . This reduces the pressure on the palms , stimulating glabrous blood engorgement while cooling it . About three times per pipe for the three pipes should be sufficient .

7.Simultaneously , breathe in cold air from the freezer compartment through the nose .

8.Simultaneously , double-click teeth , then double-click tongue , while doing this . At least 0 times . (Essential)

9.Pregnant women should not do this .

Congratulations !
You have now epigenetically programmed all your cells .

Some interesting asides :
1.Athletes who have used the apparatus as described in Appendix II (LA footballers) .
Some of them must have had children since starting . Are these children cold-adapted ?
And have these footballers themselves become cold-adapted ?

2.Does the pressure reduction in a gecko's feet as it hangs from the ceiling play a role in it's temperature regulation ?

3.Will this put hair on your chest , or , more importantly , on your bald pate ?

Hirsutely yours


Annexure 1
From Wikipedia
. Modifications of the tail include methylation,acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, citrullination and ADP-ribosylation. The core of the histones H2A, H2B and H3 can also be modified. Combinations of modifications are thought to constitute a code, the so-called "histone code".[9][10] Histone modifications act in diverse biological processes such as gene regulation, DNA repair and chromosome condensation (mitosis


Annexure II
The Mile-High Effect .
Andre Willers
11 Nov 2011


Flying makes you randy .

Naturally hairless (glabrous) skin have subcutaneous vascular systems that are used in mammalian thermoregulation . See Appendices A,B,C .

The blood supply to labia minora (women) and glans penis(men) also involves sexual arousal and excitation .

A jet aircraft rapidly ascends , but cabin pressure is stabilized at about 7 000 ft altitude (about a mile high ) .
This rapid ascent decreases the air pressure around the passenger , resulting in blood rushing into these vascular pockets in the hands , feet , lips and genitalia .

Reverse feedback :
The body-state influences the mental state . A well-known effect , and used extensively in therapy .

What happens with aircraft :
1.Randiness .
Engorgement of genitals :
The body-mind senses this and thinks there must be some reason . Autonomous sexual arousal mechanisms in the genitalia and brain are initiated . Very old and robust mechanisms . Especially if fear is involved .
Young , healthy passengers get extremely aroused . Inhibitions vanish like the clouds outside .
They are elevated to the mile-high club .
Women in the fertile part of their cycle would be especially vulnerable .(Cf recent case of female's over-exuberant sexual approach to a airline steward .)
Alcohol will worsen things , apart from relaxation of inhibitions . Alcohol also relaxes peripheral blood vessels , which increases engorgement even more .

2.Feeling cold :
2.1Sensing the blood rush to the hands and feet , the brain thinks the body must be cold . A feeling of cold results , hence the cabin temperature is thus kept elevated and blankets dished out . This can cause problems on long flights , as the homeostatic mechanism adjusts . Hyperthermia and heatshock can result .
2.2Short-term hypothermia can be problem , especially if a lot of alcohol is consumed . Typical hypothermic symptoms like hallucinations , etc . Google it . A real effect .

3.All that blood rushing hither-and-yon will tax the vascular system , especially in unfit persons not used to aerobic exercise . Turbulence in the veins and arteries , especially as they are also dilated by the decreased pressure , causes a greater threat of blood-clots forming . The longer limbs like the legs are more vulnerable . Hence DVT(deep vein thrombosis) on flights . Or roughness on vascular walls (like with plaques) .

4.Pressure in the brain .
Humans simply have not evolved to handle rapid external pressure changes . The only serious research has been done by the military . Note that Grahn and Heller has major military contracts .
But it will have some effect , major if the passenger has some brain abnormality and/or the Eustachian tubes are blocked .

5.Feet will swell .
Don't wear tight shoes . Try not to cling to the baggage racks with your toes .

6.Fingers will swell
(See Appendix B : ventral portions of the fingers are glabrous)
This will decrease musical abilities across the board .
Many sports and other abilities depending on tactile rhythm and pattern perception (tennis , violin , darts , cricket , surgery , etc) will take some time to recover after a flight .
How long ?
I don't know . Research is really needed .
At present , I would refuse to be operated on by a doctor that has flown within the last 24 hours .
See “Human Nails” Aug 2007

7.Fluctuating atmospheric pressures over selected body areas .
Humans have evolved to associate hyperbaric with heat and hypobaric with cold .
(Meteorolgical systems)
Interesting effects can be obtained by varying these over selected portions of the human anatomy , especially if heating or cooling is also selectively applied .

This is possible because so few , highly delimited areas are involved .

Glabrous is glamorous .

A new Dimension of reality in virtual reality , having real physiological effects .
Lots of money in really cool effects in games .

This is already being applied .
The mile-high club is one example . The usage incidence of hypobaric chambers is unknown .

But we are all familiar with the spam about “penile enlargement” involving low-pressure .
Sigh . This does not work too well , because it sends contradictory signals to the body .
The glans engorgement signals both coldness and arousement to the body . The body decides which is which on the basis of temperature , mostly . If the apparatus is not at least 1-2 celsius warmer than body mean (38 C) , it concludes “It's cold outside , babe” and shrinks accordingly . The rest of the body gets conditioned to associate sex with coldness .
Not exactly what was in mind .

Spontaneous combustion is known , but spontaneous refrigeration ?

The mind (and other parts) boggle .

Andre .


Appendix A

Incorporating Variable Vascular Heat Exchangers Into Models Of Human Thermoregulation
Dennis A. Grahn, Howard L. Davidson, H. Craig Heller

Last modified: 2011-03-20

Models of human thermoregulatory function generally assume that heat transfer across the skin surface is uniform. However, only glabrous skin regions contain unique vascular structures that enable a large volume of blood to flow immediately below the skin surface. These are the body’s radiators. We are constructing a novel model of thermoregulatory function that incorporates heat transfer across the glabrous skin regions as separate from heat transfer across the general skin surface.

Appendix B
On the human body, glabrous skin is external skin that naturally is hairless. It is found on theventral portion of the fingers, palmar surfaces of hands, soles of feet, lips, labia minora, and glans penis.

Appendix C
Patent Watch
Patent No. 7,947,068

Controlled heat transfer with mammalian bodies: In the 1990s Stanford University biologists Dennis Grahn and H. Craig Heller discovered a novel way of treating patients with a condition known as postanesthetic hypothermia, in which patients emerging from anesthesia are so cold that they shiver for up to an hour. The condition develops in part because anesthesia reduces the body’s ability to control its own temperature. Applying heat alone does not always help, so Grahn and Heller tried another approach: they increased the volume of blood flowing to the skin of patients’ hands and then applied heat to the same area. “These people were fine within 10 minutes,” Grahn says. “Then the question was, ‘What the heck is going on here?’”
They had stumbled on a feature of mammalian biology that can be manipulated for a wide array of other applications, including ones requiring cooling. Among these uses is increasing athletic endurance, because overheating is one of the primary factors limiting physical performance. One of the main ways the human body regulates internal temperature is by controlling the amount of blood flow through nonhairy skin areas, such as the palms, the cheeks, the nose and the soles of the feet. Underneath the skin of these areas are unique vascular structures designed to deliver large volumes of blood to the surface. When the body needs to release heat, it expands these vessels and floods the area with blood, throwing off heat through the skin. The body holds in heat by constricting blood flow to these areas.
Patent No. 7,947,068 outlines a variety of ways to manipulate these processes. One, called the Glove, is already in use by the San Francisco 49ers. Players stick their hand into the coffeepot-size device, which creates an airtight seal around the wrist. The Glove then uses a pressure differential to draw blood to the palm and rapidly cool it, which leads to an overall decrease in body temperature. The device can be used at any point during a game and takes only a few minutes to work. Tests in the lab, Grahn says, have shown that devices like the Glove can dramatically increase athletic output and reduce heat stress. 

Annexure III
Spandex and Fat
Andre Willers
22 Feb 2012

Elastic Bands at small pressure reduces lactate concentrates faster , as well as persuading the body to store fats elsewhere.

Discussion :
Lovell of University of Queensland , AU , “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research”
NewScientist 21 Jan 2012 p14

They measured lactate levels in the muscles of athletes after fixed exercise . Those with Spandex had significantly lower levels of lactate .
In other words , they were not as fatigued.

What is going on ?
From a purely mechanical viewpoint , pressure would reduce bloodflow , thereby reducing lactate reduction . The opposite is happening . Why ?

The “Feel-Good” Factor .
Endorphin catalysis.
We know from experience that moderate biceps enlargement induces a positive-feedback .
The pressure triggers are on the insides of the upper arm and torso .
Even 20 moderate weight-lifts engenders a feel-good endorphin reaction , and can be sensed on the upper arms .

These trigger points have long been identified by trial and error :
Watch any action movie .
The heroes have bands on the upper arms , upper thighs , mid-torso , upper-forehead .
These essentially reduce muscle fatigue .

Elastic Bands :
Since the trigger is pressure sensors in the skin , a mild elasticity would be more effective than a simple band . The emphasis is on mild . The band should not be too tight . Tighten it every day using velcro .

The effect :
Enhanced endorphin release . The body wants more at a cellular level . Local fat reserves are shifted elsewhere (or used) . There is some evidence that the endorphins act as catalysts in fat release and utilization .

Historically :
Garters spring to mind . Slimming upper thighs .
Upper arm bracelets . Gone out of fashion after the disarming of the common people .
Belts : wide corset belts have shrunk for the same reason .
Hats , berets , etc used to fill the function of headbands . Still does in the military.

Putting it all together :
How to get rid of the flab on upper arms , thighs and belly , while increasing endurance .

1.Headband : an elastic beret is socially acceptable . If you want to make a statement , wear an elastic headband with a suitable slogan . Beret or cap .Works on the frontalis muscles-group .

2.A wide elastic band on the upper arm . Widely available . Worn inside or outside of shirts .
Immediate endorphin feedback .

3.Garters on the upper thighs . For males , spandex underpants would probably be most acceptable . Unless you are a Knight of the Garter .

4.Belts : a mild elastic belt about 3 inches wide worn just below the navel . Tighten as needed .
This is not meant as a support or a corset . Merely a argument to convince the body to move the fat cells elsewhere .

There are other surfaces , but you get the drift .

You will note that I did not tell you to exercise . The endorphin release will take care of that .

Synergistic effect:
The sum is much larger than the parts . Try it .

The Spandex Bonsai Strikes Again !



Appendix IV
Hibernation and Cryogenics
Andre Willers
19 Nov 2008
Discussion :
Jessica Palmer pointed out on the 16th Nov 2008 that the primary problem with cryogenics seems to be in the re-establishment of metabolic processes after un-freezing .
But we have an already existing template for doing exactly that .
Hibernation .
See Appendix A
The evolutionary explanation is that during the transition-phase from methane/sulfur to oxygen atmosphere (circa 1.5 bn years ago) , there was a major advantage in suspending oxygen-driven systems if the organism found itself in a non-oxygen environment . It went into hibernation .
At the same time , alcohol was being excreted as a poison (like oxygen) . The ancestors of mitochondria (who could use low concentrations of oxygen or alcohol  ) sought refuge in cells whose cell-walls were resistant (but not impervious) to alcohol transition .
Remember , alcohol is completely soluble in water , but oxygen is not . This difference drove the process . Alcohol concentrations in water could grow large , but oxygen-concentrations could not .
Mitochondria earned their keep by mopping up alcohol first and later converting oxygen to ATP . (The glucose and ketone metabolism came after this) . The ketone metabolism has never been very popular , because of the high loss-rate in excretory products , but has been kept as a third string on the bow . (Utilization of fat and protein-muscle reserves during low-glucose periods. )
Mitochondria thus has an exclusive  preference of usage : alcohol , glucose , ketones in that order .
From experimental evidence (see Appendix A) , there is a genetic switch sensitive to the concentration of H2S to bring both the host cell and the mitochondrium to a state where all programmed molecular activity is suspended . (The power is switched off) .
But , of course , random beth(0) molecular activity due to temperature does not cease . Uncontrolled and anaerobic  reactions still occur .
We get rid of most anaerobic organisms first .
Lots of sulfur , VitC and alcohol (fermented berries or carbohydrates in the stomach . A low acidity is required in the run-up to hibernation)
Then freeze .
Starting the contraption up again is a bit of a problem .
1. The power-plant :
The mitochondria needs to be primed with their preferred fuel (alcohol)
Oxygen needs to be infused .(Hyperbaric chamber)
2. Garbage disposal
The cellular garbage-disposal systems need to be activated  . ATP from the powerplant needs to be allocated to breakdown-product disposal before the ATP is allocated to DNA/RNA production processes .
The garbage-disposal uses mechanisms that use sulfur to create the various vacuoles and ropes (cf mitosis) . Enough sulfur is vital .
Once again , oxygen and alcohol is used . Both are recognized by all systems as poisons to be removed as a first priority . They activate a quite sophisticated garbage-disposal system as H2S concentrations decrease .
3 . Flushing
All that garbage has to flushed away , preferably not through the kidneys or liver .
Use machines .
As H2S concentrations decrease , damage might occur due to PH fluctuations . Acidity (H2SO4 , etc) Buffering would be advisable .
4. Temperature:
Lots of water at 105 to 107 Fahrenheit for mammals , pulsing at pulserate(about 90 cycles per minute .) 
This is to activate the chaperone systems and discourage opportunistic viruses .
5. Music
See “Music”
Play harmonious music so the vibrations can be felt throughout organism being thawed . This enhances timing-procedures by orders of magnitudes . Emergent order .
(A Beth(0.x) effect . )
The de-hibernization process must have an exact program at molecular level to reboot the cellular metabolism . Precisely what you need after a cryogenic procedure .
But its efficiency (ie your chance of survival) can be boosted by orders of magnitude by using the steps above .
Interesting notes:
1. Do hibernating animals like bears use alcohol-producing cells in their bloodstream to time hibernation? This can be tested .
2. Are there cold-chaperone molecules ? There should be .
3. Hibernation is easy . Nature has done all the hard work . Keeping the mechanism ticking over at a very slow rate enables cellular-garbage clearing for a relatively short period (6-8 months)
4. De-cryogenics is a bit harder , Beth(1) intervention is needed .
5. Alcohol-concentrations : we are talking about 1% to 2% imbibing . About 0.06% inside the cell . Ie , the cell-wall protects by a factor of about 30
6. Pulse-Cryogenics : alternate freezing and hibernation to get a better survival factor . For those who are too stupid to design a zero-entropy system .
Try  : Life=negative entropy . Non-life = positive entropy . Design it so the sum is zero  .
Appendix A
From “ Birdflu Update-4” dated 29 Oct 2005
Suspended Animation (the real thing!)
In 2005, Mark Roth and other scientists from the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle demonstrated that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation by applying a low dosage of hydrogen sulfide (80 ppm H2S) in the air. The breathing rate of the animals sank from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell from 37 °C to 2 °C above ambient temperature (in effect, they had become cold-blooded). The mice survived this procedure for 6 hours and afterwards showed no negative health consequences.
Such a hibernation occurs naturally in many mammals and also in toads, but not in mice. (Mice can fall into a state called clinical torpor when food shortage occurs). If the H2S-induced hibernation can be made to work in humans, it could be useful in the emergency management of severely injured patients, and in the conservation of donated organs.
As mentioned above, hydrogen sulfide binds to cytochrome oxidase and thereby prevents oxygen from binding, which apparently leads to the dramatic slowdown of metabolism. Animals and humans naturally produce some hydrogen sulfide in their body; researchers have proposed that the gas is used to regulate metabolic activity and body temperature, which would explain the above findings
Dosages of H2S:
Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation (because of the high alkality of the SH- anion), a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks. Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Higher concentrations of 700-800 ppm tend to be fatal.
0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic rotten egg odor of hydrogen sulfide [2]
10-20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation.
50-100 ppm leads to eye damage.
At 150-250 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger,
320-530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death.
530-1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing;
800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposition (LC50).
Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.

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