Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Fall of Aksum

Fall of Aksum

Andre Willers
23 Jan 2014
Synopsis :
The disruption of gold from Mapungubwe in South Africa (circa 520 CE) led to military adventurism in Arabia . This destroyed Aksum .
Discussion :


Chronology at Mapungubwe
·         AD 350-450, first occupation
·         AD 450-900, Early Iron Age (mostly a hiatus at the site)

This is archaeological shorthand for one tribe conquering another . About 520 CE gold supplies from Mapungubwe were disrupted.

2.Aksum .

Lack of gold from Mapungubwe debased Aksumite coins . They mistakenly embarked on a conquest policy in the ruins of the Roman Empire .

I dislike this sort of co-incidence . How does the decline of the Western Roman Empire affect events in Southern Africa ?

Pirates in the Red Sea ? Withdrawal of Indian Dravidian merchants due to collapse of trade-demand ?
The whole spice-trade in the middle-east collapsed when Roman demand vanished .

Archeological evidence reveals that the quality of the Aksumite coins — both in terms of their metal content and sharpness of production — declined markedly during this period.[24] It's a clear sign that in addition to having abandoned centuries of largely nonpartisan policies, the Aksumites had also, in the process, reneged on their commitment to a sound currency in favor of inflationary war finance.[25]

Aksum was a Trading Empire . Debasing their currency through the lack of gold forced them into ill-considered wars of aggression .

 And in 520 CE, the Aksumite king Kaleb broke with centuries of tradition to pursue a course of action that would forever seal the kingdom's fate.

Upon receiving reports that across the Red Sea, the Jewish king Yusuf Asar was persecuting Christians, the Kingdom of Aksum launched a military invasion of Asar's territory in South Arabia. Asar's forces were defeated and an Aksumite client government installed under a viceroy, Sumfaya Ashwa.[22] But, as these things often go, within half a decade the puppet Ashwa was overthrown by Aksumite troops who had remained garrisoned in South Arabia after the initial invasion, raising Abreha, a Persian-leaning figure, to the throne. This triggered a second Aksumite invasion: this force defected and pledged loyalty to Abreha. Infuriated, Kaleb sent a third invasion force, which was summarily decimated. It was, in all, a disastrous affair accompanied by "over-expenditure in money and man-power, and a loss of prestige."[23]
3.Islam   c. 570 – c. 8 June 632
The Jewish tribes in Saudia Arabia converted to Islam because of this invasion .
See Appendix AA
Interesting times .
Could you do better ?
Appendix AA
Friday, October 09, 2009
Ansari Gens.
Ansari Gens.
Andre Willers
9 Oct 2009

Synopsis :
The Ansari Gens , as personified in the Ansari Prizes , is an attempt of the moderate Islamic world to rejoin humanity in the run-up to the singularity .

Discussion :

The Catastrophe :
The collapse of the Bronze age civilization , partially caused by overpopulation and accompanied by severe droughts and climatic disturbances (circa 3000 to 1000 BC) caused severe population disturbances in Egypt (Sea Peoples , abandonment of Sinai mines) , Middle East depopulation , Arabian Peninsula (depopulation) , Iran (invasion of Aryans) , India (Aryan invasion , displacement of South Indian civilizations to Yemen , and subsequent displacements to Africa . Abandonment of Zimbabwean colonies (see : Makgadigadi Sea" . )

Refugee populations from Southern India moved upward from Yemen into depopulated areas on the Red Sea coast of Arabian Peninsula . There they ran into the refugee herders and slaves from Egypt (ur-Hebrews) and survivors of the Egyptian mines in the Sinai (the Kenites) . Note that the Kenites were coppersmiths and metalworkers , reduced to nomadism as Egyptian support structures collapsed . Moses married the daughter of one during the Sinai wanderings .

It must have been desperate time for a bunch of pampered clients from the flesh-pots of Egypt .

The Ur-Aryan root word "banu" , meaning "junior offspring" still survives .
The morph:
Banu -> Ben -> Gen

Google "banu"

All three terms are still in general usage , meaning the same thing .
See Appendices B-D for Banu , Ben in Hebrew and Gen as in Roman genesis .
As expected , the Roman word would show the greatest mutation rate .

Genetic traces :
Alcohol :
Most of the Sinai metalworkers probably were descendant from South India
Ref Zimbabwe , Sheba .
Like most orientals , they lacked certain genes to handle alcohol breakdown products (note even present proneness to high blood pressure and diabetesII . )
See Appendix B about alcohol tolerance .

The Roman Empire .
The Arabian peninsula built up some capital during the empire . With the collapse of the western trade routes in the Empire around 500 AD , the huge over-production of wine in the Italian peninsula was routed to the Middle East at cut-throat prices . Concerned leaders and merchants were desperate . Hence the Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) 's proscription on the fruit of the vine .
That Kenite weakness for alcohol had come back to bite them . Jewish social systems (twice-weekly schull monitoring also check for this)

Islam :
As can be seen , the Hebrew tribes from Sinai and the Arabian peninsula predate the irruption into what is today Israel as the climatic systems slowly recovered . By about 600 AD the Arabian peninsula was populated by an amalgam of South Indian and Egyptian populations , organized into Banu's (Ben's , Gen's) .
Very aggressively mercantile . Yankee trader or Viking .

Mohamed did incorporate the Jewish tribes in the Arabian peninsula (see Appendix C and D , the "Treaty of Medina" ) and tried hard to get the Sanhedrin on board.. But , after 132 AD (Second Jewish Revolt), the Sanhedrin was just a rubber stamp for the Romans or Byzantines . So , we sit with the mess today .

Mongols , Crusaders and the Church .

Both Mongols and Crusaders saw the Islamic empire as a nice juicy nut for heavy armoured cavalry . The Military-Industrial Complex of the time (monastries) sent observers . A nice job .

The Mongols did the most damage , destroying the heartland of the nascent Islamic civilization and technology . They did it by switching horses and armour .

Each Mongol had at least 20 horses . Carrying different things . Armour , food , etc .A Mongol could change from a light cavalry to heavy armoured cavalry , or even very heavy armoured infantry at will .
Even a small force could punch at varying weights .

A matter of logistics . Eisenhower would have approved .

There were church observers like fleas on a hound-dog . Mostly from vertically-integrated companies like monasteries .Hence the explosion of specially bred horses , donkeys and especially mules to enhance the efficiency of a multi-purpose military force .
Mules and Monsanto go together .

The Crusaders of the time were very limited . Not only was their technology not up to it , but they were severely limited by logistics .

So why don't we speak mongol ?
Ho-Ho-ho !
Low birthrate . Caused by saddles and stirrups . The lack of a split groove ! Stirrups!
The balls and vas is positioned directly above the maximum thumps .

The invention of stirrups caused a big drop in the birthrate of the equites .

This is not at all obvious .

Too stupid to make a little pocket for their balls and tubes . Although , I have to say , it took a century for bicycle-riders to invent a split saddle . Not to mention chairs .
Still not general .
Humans .
Note that the Roman saddle-horns cannot center the testes as well as stirrups .

Shit . It does change just about any human interaction with technology in history .
Back to the drawing board .

Stirrup-riders without split saddles seem to stabilize populations . The Mongol population remained stable at 700 000 from 1000 Ad to 1800 AD.

Epigenetic effects
The stirrup effect can last for generations . It is a wonder we have any aristocracy left.
The birth figures do looked very skewed

I have had about enough of humans .

The rest is yours .



Appendix A
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According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kenites (or Cinites) were a nomadic clan in the ancient Levant, sent under Jethro a priest in the land of Midian.[1] They played an important role in the history of ancient Israel. The Kenites were coppersmiths and metalworkers.[1] Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, was a shepherd and a priest in the land of the Kenites and some accuse him of being a Kenite.[1] The Kenites apparently assimilated into the Israelite population,[2] though the Kenites descended from Rechab maintained a distinct, nomadic lifestyle for some time.
Moses apparently identified Jethro's concept of god, El Shaddai, with Yahweh, the Israelites' god.[1] According to hypothesis, Yahweh was originally the tribal god of Jethro, borrowed and adapted by the Hebrews.[1][3]


Appendix B
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Rechabites - the descendants of Rechab through Jonadab or Jehonadab. They belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the children of Israel into the holy land, and dwelt among them. Moses married a Kenite wife,[1] and Jael was the wife of "Heber the Kenite".[2] Saul also showed kindness to the Kenites.[3] The main body of the Kenites dwelt in cities, and adopted settled habits of life;[4] but Jehonadab forbade his descendants to drink wine or to live in cities.[5] They were commanded to lead always a nomad life. They adhered to the law laid down by Jonadab, and were noted for their fidelity to the old-established custom of their family in the days of Jeremiah (35); and this feature of their character is referred to by God for the purpose of giving point to his message to Judah.[6][7]
In 1839 the Reverend Joseph Wolff, who later went to Bokhara to attempt to save Lieutenant Colonel Charles Stoddart and Captain Arthur Conolly, found in Yemen, near Sanaa, a tribe claiming to be descendants of Jehonadab; and in the late nineteenth century a Bedouin tribe was found near the Dead Sea who also professed to be descendants of Jehonadab.[8]
The term Rechabites also refers to a religious order, similar in some ways to the Nazarites, and are mentioned by Eusebius of Emesa.[9]
In more recent times, the name has been used by Christian groups keen to promote total abstinence from alcohol, such as the Independent Order of Rechabites.

Appendix C


The Banu Najjar was one of the Jewish tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era.
They were included in point 31 of the Constitution of Medina as allies to the Muslims, being as "one nation", but retaining their Jewish religion [1].

Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era)
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There were several Tribes of Arabia that interacted with Muhammad.
The most prominent of such Arabian tribes were the Banu Quraish (Arabic for "Sons of Quraish") which were in turn divided into several sub-clans. The Qur'aish sub-clan of Banu Hashim was the clan of Muhammad, while their sister sub-clan, the Banu Abd-Shams became known as his most staunch enemies. After Muhammad, the Muslim nation was ruled exclusively through the Banu Quraish tribe, all the way until the Ottoman Turks came into power.
Other tribes include various ones that were centered on different cities, for example the Banu Thaqif and the Banu Utub.
Notable are the Jewish tribes that had settled in Medina, they would play a prominent part in Muhammad's life, this included the Banu Qurayza, Banu Nadir and the Banu Qainuqa, they participiated in the Battle of Bu'ath,although they had a truce and an agreement with Muslims not to join the opposing armies, but they broke them.
[edit] List
A list includes:
· Banu Quraish — prominent in the city of Mecca
· Banu Hothail —The Brothers of Quraish, and their neighbors in mecca [1]
· Banu Thaqif — the city of Ta'if, Urwah ibn Mas'ud
· Banu Jadhimah — the city of Ta'if
· Banu Utub — the city of Najd
· Banu Ghatafan — east of Yathrib and Khaibar
· Banu Tamim — central Arabia
· Banu Sa'ad
· Banu Amr — Umar and his companions stayed with them during the hijrah from Mecca.
· Banu Daws — south of Mecca, Abu Hurairah
· Banu Abs — Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman
· Banu Bakr ibn Abd Manat
· Banu Jumah
· Banu Kalb
· Banu Khuza'a — between Mecca and Badr
In Yathrib (later Medina)
· Banu Khazraj[2][3]
· Banu Aus (Banu Aws) [2][3]
· Banu Awf
· Banu Najjar
· Banu Harith
· Banu Sa'ida
· Banu Jusham
· Banu Thaalba
· Banu Jaffna
· Banu Shutayba
Jewish tribes:
· Banu Qainuqa the most powerful of all the Jewish tribes of the peninsula before Islam [4].
· The Al-Kahinan — they traced their descent from Aaron.[3]
o Banu Qurayza — sub-clan of the Al-Kahinan, Medina, "principal family"[3]
o Banu Nadir — sub-clan of the Al-Kahinan, Medina, "principal family"[3]


Appendix D

Abu Ayyub Al Ansari
Khalid ibn Zayd ibn Kulayb, known as Abu Ayyub Al Ansari, came from the Banu Najjar, and was a dear and close companion of Prophet Mohamed (PBUH).

He enjoyed a great privilege many of the Ansar in Madinah dreamt of having.

When Prophet Mohamed (PBUH), reached Madinah after the Hijrah from Makkah, the Ansar of Madinah greeted him with great enthusiasm, love and longing. Their hearts betted for him and their eyes surrounded him with great admiration and love. They wanted to receive him with the most hospital reception they could give.

Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) entered Madinah on his camel. The chieftains of Madinah walked next to him, each and every one of them hoping to get the honor of Prophet Mohamed’s stay at his house. They stood in the way of the procession and addressed the Prophet saying " O Messenger of Allah, please do accept our hospitable accommodation, for we are influential people who are great in number and wealth. We can also guarantee your support and protection.”

Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) mildly urged them to get out of the way of the camel, for it was ordered by Allah to stop at a certain place.

The camel stopped at an open space in front of the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. But Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) did not get off the camel. After a few minutes, the camel started moving once again, however, it turned around, retraced its steps and kneeled in the same place where it stopped before. Abu Ayyub’s face shone with joy and satisfaction. He went out to Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) and greeted him with great enthusiasm. He took the Prophet's baggage in his arms and carried them so close to his heart as if he was carrying the most precious treasure in the world.

It was not the first meeting between Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) and Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari. They had met before when the Madinah delegation journeyed to Makkah to take the oath of allegiance to the Prophet (PBUH).

Abu Ayyub's house had two floors. He prepared the upper floor for Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) to stay in. however Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) preferred to stay on the lower one.

Night came and Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) went to sleep. Abu Ayyub ascended to his room, but when he closed the door, he shook with regret and told his wife:

"Woe to us! What have we done? The messenger of God is below and we are higher than him! Can we walk on top of the messenger of God? Are we standing between him and the Revelation? If so, we are doomed."

They were extremely worried, and had no idea what to do. They got some peace of mind when they moved to the other side of the building where they were not above Prophet Mohamed (PBUH).

In the morning, Abu Ayyub said to the Prophet(PBUH):

"By God, we did not sleep all last night, neither myself nor Umm Ayyub."

"Why not, Abu Ayyub?" asked the Prophet.

Abu Ayyub told him how terrible they felt because he was staying below them.

"Don't worry, Abu Ayyub," said the Prophet. "We prefer the lower floor because we have a lot of visitors.”

"We submitted to the Prophet's wishes," Abu Ayyub related, "until one cold night, the roof was damaged and the water spilled on the upper floor. Umm Ayyub and I stared at the water. We only had one piece of velvet, which we used as a blanket. We used it to wipe the water fearing it would seep through to the Prophet. In the morning I went to him and said, 'I do not like to be above you,' and told him what had happened. He respected my wish and we exchanged floors."

The Prophet (PBUH) stayed in Abu Ayyub's house for about seven months until his mosque and his dwelling were built. Thus, he became the neighbor of Abu Ayyub.

Abu Ayyub loved Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) with all his heart and the Prophet also loved him dearly. There was no formality between them. The Prophet (PBUH) continued to regard Abu Ayyub's house as his own.

These are glimpses of Abu Ayyub's life during peacetime, but ever since the Quraish tribe began to fight against Islam, to raid Al-Madinah, the land of Hijrah, and to instigate tribes and organize armies to eliminate Islam, Abu Ayyub became a professional in warfare. He was in the front rows in Badr, Uhud, Al-Khandaq and the rest of the battles and wars. He devoted himself, his money, and property to Allah.

He did not stay away from any battle the Muslims fought from the time of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) till the time of Mu'awiyah unless he was engaged at the same time in another.

Even after Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) died, Abu Ayyub never turned his back on a battle that the Muslims were destined to fight in.

The slogan that he kept reciting to himself day and night, secretly and openly was that verse of the Qur’an “March forth, whether you are light or heavy”.

He never missed an expedition, except once. He refused to fight in an army, which was lead by a young Muslim assigned by the caliph. Abu Ayyub rejected this choice. This one and only mistake shook his innermost self, and he was always full of regrets as he repeated, “It is none of my concern whoever Ali appoints.” Ever since he made this mistake, he never missed a battle.

It sufficed him to live as a soldier in the Muslim army, fight under its slogan, and defend its sanctity.

The last battle Abu Ayyub took part in was the one prepared by Mu'awiyah and led by his son Yazid against Constantinople. Abu Ayyub at that time was a very old man, almost eighty years old. But that did not prevent him from joining the army and crossing the seas as a graze in the path of God. In this particular battle, he was wounded. The commander of the army went to check on him. He was breathing heavily as if his longing to meet Allah made him impatient with the few minutes left in his life. The commander, Yazid Ibn Mu’aawiyah, asked him, "Do you need anything, Abu Ayyub?"

I wonder if any of you can imagine what Abu Ayyub’s last wish was?

He asked Yazid to carry his body to the furthest point inside the enemy lands and bury him there, then to break through the enemy line until he reached his grave so that Abu Ayyub might hear the sound of the galloping Muslim horses clattering over it and realize that they have achieved victory. Do you think this is poetic verse? No, this not a poetic verse nor a whim of imagination. It really happened. It is a fact that the whole world witnessed one day, and stood there watching and listening, not believing that this could be true. Yazid carried out Abu Ayyub’s will to the fullest extent.

Finally, the body of this great warrior was buried in the heart of Constantinople — Istanbul nowadays.


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