27 May 2012
Rats can hear bats . so can some young humans Why ?
Rats and humans must have some mechanism for generating and hearing 50 kHz sounds . Even for bats this requires special equipment . How can a rat do it ?
We suspect the same as insects : the friction between hard , rough surfaces , namely the teeth . The rat chitters in ultrasonics . And you can do the same by using Click languages . Discussed ad nauseam in previous posts .
The biological effects are profound . Sounds at about 50 kHz (chirped) initiate stand-downs in stressors . Predators like bats use it to slow down prey in the final approach .
Sigh . See appendix III . Humans did notice this , but swept it under the carpet . They kept the CD sampling rate at below 44 kHz , because of the anomalous emotional responses above that . See Appendix II
Now the fashion is back to analogue vinyl , without knowing why .
An interesting aside:
The dehuminization of human culture was heavily influenced by the lack of higher frequencies in the 50 kHz range in radio and TV media . Hitler et al . Notice the 60 Hz hum of background AC radiation from the power distribution networks . Calms the savage beast to some degree .
But why 50 kHz ?
It must have some significance on a fundamental level , but I do not know what it is . Only that it is there .
It probably has something to do with the rotation rate of the mitochondria .
Why is 50 kHz so important ?
Because there is a resonance with mitochondrial rotation . A factor of ten .Mitochondria rotate at about 400 000 a minute . About 666 times per second . Or about 66 times per tenth of a second . Slow in terms of the relevant speeds . Resonances occurs around 55-66 times per second. This slows up or speeds up the mitochondrial revolution .
Fluorine metabolisms :
Fast-forward pockets will put large demands on Mitochondria . This should be detectable from a mitochondrium spinning about 6-7times faster than normal (ie 2.5 million times a minute)\
Or zap them with anti-fluorines or excess fluorines . (Remember the 80 ppm boundary for sulphur and fluor)
An interesting aside :
While petroleum as such as a small fluoride component , the extraction processes are heavily contaminated with fluorine . Whether this will activate or deactivate prions in the mega-ton range I leave to you
And so it rotates .
Playback of 22-kHz and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations induces differential c-fos expression in rat brain.
Sadananda M, Wöhr M, Schwarting RK.
Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps University, Gutenbergstr. 18, D-35032 Marburg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations, which serve as sensitive measures in a number of relevant individual and social behaviours, have become increasingly interesting for biopsychological studies on emotion and motivation. Of these, high frequency (50-kHz) ultrasonic vocalizations can index a positive emotional state, and induce approach, whereas low frequency (22-kHz) ultrasonic vocalizations can induce avoidance and may index anxiety, since they are emitted during various unconditioned and conditioned aversive situations. While cholinergic and dopaminergic systems have been implicated, specific neural substrates that sub-serve these vocalization-dependent states remain to be elucidated. Using c-fos immunocytochemistry, we revealed neural activity in brain areas of naïve male Wistar rats in response to playback of 22-kHz and flat and frequency-modulated 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations. Presentation of background noise or no acoustic stimulus at all constituted the controls. Playback of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations led to approach behaviour. Acoustically stimulated animals demonstrated differential activation in auditory areas, with a frequency-dependent activation in the auditory cortex. Specific forebrain, thalamic, hypothalamic and brainstem areas were also activated differentially. While 50-kHz playback induced sparse fos-like immunoreactivity in frontal association cortex, nucleus accumbens, thalamic parafascicular and paraventricular nuclei, 22-kHz playback elicited c-fos expression in the perirhinal cortex, amygdalar nuclei and the periaqueductal gray. This study unveils neural substrates that are activated during ultrasonic playback perception, which could sub-serve the affective states elicited by these vocalizations
What do bats sound like?
The sounds produced by heterodyne bat detectors may vary depending upon the main characteristic of the call being used by the bat. A short burst of constant frequency sounds like 'smack', a longer burst of constant frequency like a 'warble', a steep frequency sweep like a sharp 'click' or a 'tick' and a shallow sweep like a 'tock'.
The pipistrelle is the first bat you are likely to come across, and these are usually listened for with the bat detector set to 50kHz. There are three types of pipistrelle in the UK, but fortunately for bat workers they have different 'best listening' frequencies: one at 45kHz, another at 55kHz and the rarer Nathusius pipistrelle echolocates at about 37kHz. Pipistrelles' calls usually sound like irregular 'smacks' that tend to vary in the pitch and are at a medium repetition rate.
The noctule is entirely different and is usually best heard with the detector set to 20 to 25kHz. The sounds from the bat detector are usually alternate 'smacks' and 'tocks' at a fairly slow repetition rate which together sounds like a fairly irregular 'chip-chop'.
The Myotis bats, like the Daubenton's bat, all sound rather similar, generally coming out as a series of 'clicks' when listened to with the bat detector set to 45 to 50 kHz. The Daubenton's, Whiskered and Brandt's bats have fast repetition rates but the Natterer's bat tends to be even faster, quieter and more irregular. Long-eared bats have a similar sound to the Myotis species, but at a faster repetition rate. The calls of these bats are so quiet that they are generally nearly impossible to pick up.
Perhaps the most unusual sound from bats in the UK are from the horseshoe bats. These use a constant frequency call and rely more on doppler effects for their echolocation. These sound like a warble on a heterodyne bat detector. The greater horseshoe is best heard at around 80kHz and the lesser horseshoe at 115kHz.
Online bat sound library - This resource features recordings and descriptions of a variety of calls from UK bat species. You need to be an NBMP volunteer or Bat Conservation Trust member to access the library.
The only mammals that can fly are also the only mammals with a larynx that flexes at ludicrous speed, a new study shows. As bats flip and whirl toward their prey, they chirp at an accelerating rate, increasing their echolocating calls to 160-190 chirps per second. This is possible because their laryngeal muscles can contract up to 200 times per second, researchers say.
Bats start out with shorter-rate chirps, increasing their frequency as they approach their quarry and culminating in a superfast pulse called the terminal buzz. Watch the video below to see what this sounds like. Coen Elemans and John Ratcliffe at the University of Southern Denmark set out to study how bats produce this buzz. They also wanted to determine whether the upper buzz limit is a function of how quickly the bats can hear the return signals that bounce off their prey, or whether it’s because of the bats’ own call-producing abilities.
“ with specifications of 44,056 Hz sampling rate” ie with an upper limit if 44kHz .