20 Aug 2013
Early planetary formation geological processes and high U235 concentrations lead to explosive episodes . Large moons and life is commonplace .
1.Early planets are unstable as geological processes concentrate U235 in a shell around the core .
2.This leads to blow-offs : see Appendix A , Appendix B for various scenarions .
3.For Earth type planets , see Appendix B .
A part of the crust is blown off and reforms as a large Moon . Triggered by a large impact at the edge of criticality .
The Moon is critical in the evolution of life.
But instead of a rare event (like a large collision) , it now seems like the normal development pattern for small rocky planets with not too much water .
4.For Water-worlds , see Appendix A .
These should be detectable using present Extra-solar Planetary detection methods . The Uranium and Plutonium lines should be clear once somebody is looking .
5.Venus and Mars .
The water envelope keeps on getting blown off . Until no water is left .
Note the effect of a large Moon . This prevents the escape of too much water .
Luna should have large deposits of water in it’s interior . So should Phobos and Deimos . They seem to be the same age as Mars .(?)
7.The missing moon of Venus .
This seems to be Mercury (See Appendix D) . The mass of the Mercury moon was too big by a factor of 5.5 (Venus/Mercury ~14.74 compared to Earth/Luna ~81.29)
The paving-over of Venus was a direct result of the loss of this water . The Mercury-moon of Venus scavenged too much water .
There should be some missing mass at the Intra-Mercurials . Can be seen in appendix D para 2 below .(0.188888 AU) . Possible shepherd planets
8.The opposite happened with Mars .
The ratio of the mass of surviving moons (Phobos + Deimos)/Mars ~ 5x100 000 . The rest of the mass seems to be spread over the next Titius-Bode orbital . (ie Asteroid belt) See Appendix D .
Mons Olympus and the rest were the result . Supervolcanoes as fissiles concentrated and exploded . A sort of inverse of Appendix A .
9 Just call me Von Velikovsky .
If there are pockets of nuclear stability in the supra-plutonium range , they will be found on the peripheries of Terran , Venus and Mars expact craters .
11.An Expact Crater is where something erupts violently . The inverse of an Impact crater .
12. Diamonds :
A handy guide is diamonds .
See Appendix E .
13. Stable Transuranics on Earth .
Look at the edges of cool diamond volcano pipes . See Appendix E .
You know , all that bits they threw away before in the tailings .
14. Acid Mine water has a high concentration of Supra-Uranics .
The geological process would have concentrated supra-uranics .
The most valuable mineral resource on the planet today .
And they are throwing it away !
15. Value of supra-uranics .
At present , millions of dollars per gram . But available in commercial quantities as discussed above .
16 . Why are Transuranics important ?
Because they are the poor man’s way of quantum computing .
One atom of TransPu is equivalent to one Qbit . The internal forces are enough to keep the atom in a state of superposition .
17. Radioactivity can then be seen to follow the normal rules of Beth() systems . Creativity . Steered randomness .
Interesting Worlds .
Natural fissile reactors in young water worlds .
Worlds like these seem to be common .
From “Neptune’s Brood” by Charles Stross ISBN 978-0-356-50099-7
“Was that a blue smoker?”
“Krina: Blue smokers are radiation hazards.”
So yes, it was a blue smoker. I shuddered, half-disbelieving. I’d been lucky enough to see one of the wonders of the known universe with my own eyes—and I’d survived.
Shin-Tethys is a young planet, and this is reflected in its isotope balance. Among other corollaries of this is the fact that much of the uranium 235 that was present when it formed has not had time to decay; uranium found locally is around 1 percent U-235. When volcanoes erupt on the surface of the mantle, down in the mixed rock-and-ice-VII crust below the bottom of the sea, the magma they eject is rich in uranium. And when the magma bubbles up through the rock and the ice and encounters seawater, well . . .
On Old Earth, the Fragiles’ birth world, the floor of the oceanic abyssal plains were punctuated by black smokers—volcanic vents from which issued streams of superheated, mineral-rich water, under too much pressure to boil but hot enough to melt lead. The black smokers in turn supported complex ecosystems, as rich minerals precipitated out of the hot solution rising from their chimneys and provided warmth and nutrients in the chilly depths.
Blue smokers are not so friendly to life.
Rising magma meets rock and dissolves it, then boils up into a layer of heavy water ice. This is not ice as we know it, under Fragile-friendly temperature and pressure conditions. Ice under such immense pressure transitions to a different, denser crystalline structure: one that is denser than water, so that it sinks to the bottom of the sea. When magma meets heavy ice, the ice melts, forming a mineral-rich liquor at very high temperature. The bolus of molten minerals rises, melting its way through the ice progressively, until it reaches open water, still hundreds of kilometers below the surface.
As to why it remains liquid . . .
Neutrons from naturally fissioning U-235 meet the hydrogen nuclei in the ice and water. Hydrogen is a moderator, slowing fast neutrons, making them easier for heavy nuclei to capture. The rate of fission shoots up, achieving criticality. The bolus of molten minerals gets hotter, roiling and glowing blue with Cerenkov radiation—photons emitted by particles traveling faster than the speed of light in water. If it gets too hot, the water molecules break apart into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, and the nuclear chain reaction slows—but then the water molecules re-form under immense pressure, and things pick up again. The only constant is the radiation. And the bubble of dissolved uranium salts, of course, fissioning merrily away like a deadly kettle.
Blue smokers—feral uncontained fission reactors—periodically wander up from the depths. It can take weeks or months for them to reach the surface thermocline, driven by the pressure gradient: Finally they pop, exploding in a gout of viciously radioactive steam while still below the surface of the sea, sending a dome of whitewater and finally a mushroom cloud boiling up from below. Along the way, as they rise, they wreak havoc. A blue smoker will kill anything and anyone too slow and stupid to get out of the way—it will kill them just as dead as any other uncontained nuclear reaction, cooking them thermally, then with slow neutrons and gamma radiation. If you want to dispose of a corpse, a blue smoker is the ultimate in waste-disposal tools.
They have other uses.
If you can break a blue smoking bolus of fissile uranium-laden water apart with water jets, you can cool it down. And then you’re left with a mineral strike of incredible value: thousands of tons of saturated uranium solution, rich in U-235 and plutonium isotopes. Blue smokers tend to repeat in the same crustal area, time and again, bursting out like geysers. Frequently they erupt on a schedule regular enough to set a clock from. The farther down you capture your radioactive nightmare, the less of its fissile material will have decayed. And so the maniacs who mine the blue smokers of Shin-Tethys do so as deep in the abyssal depths as they can venture.
Earth natural reactors of the explosive variety in early times .
24 Jul 2013
Super coolants are why we have only one large moon and very little super-volcano activity .
1.This is speculative .
2.Super coolants :
Carbon nanotubes +silicone oil -> 160 % boost in thermal conductivity ( NewScientist6 July 2013 p38 “Fluid thinking” Katherine Sanderson .
It is the spin .
Linear vibrations (temperature) is translated into spin and then back again . But while in the spin state , the molecule penetrates further . This is supercooling .
3.Your little heat engine can be much more efficient if carbon nanotubes are added .
4.Terran reactors :
( NewScientist6 July 2013 p30 “The day the earth exploded” Stuart Clark )
The geological processes concentrated fissile materials . Some areas did go critical , like Oklo .
5. Or Blowing the Moon off .
6. Regardless , carbon nanotubes acting as super coolants kept the radioactive materials in the earth’s crust from going critical .
7.The source of the carbon nanotubes is Gaia . The living system on the surface .
8. Another one of Gaia’s little feedback systems .
9. How to get filthy rich :
Just look at the material about 1-10 mm away from the fault . Look at the carbon nanotubes or buckyballs .
These will conduct heat at near super-conductor levels , but will be cheap .
10 .Delicious !
Rocky planets like earth blow a large moon , then super-cooling prevents another blow-up .
But there are many mini-reactors. Called magma plumes .
Continents etc .
11 Earth type planets are common in gas clouds rich in carbon .
12 Terra forming Mars .
All it needs is some nano-catalyst to form super-coolants in Mons Olympus and the other big volcanoes .
Then step back . (The reaction will be fairly enthusiastic )
13 Venus will be easier .
All you need will be some crystallization nano’s. The planet will repave .Blowing off a lot of CO2 in the process . This can be harvested . A few high velocity fly-by’s by asteroids can steer the blow-off towards Mars and Luna .
14 .Superconductors of the heart only work in tandem .
Earth’s natural fission reactors in recent times .
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred. This can be examined by analysis of isotope ratios. The existence of this phenomenon was discovered in 1972 at Oklo in Gabon, Africa, by French physicist Francis Perrin. The conditions under which a natural nuclear reactor could exist had been predicted in 1956 by Paul Kazuo Kuroda. The conditions found were very similar to what was predicted.
Oklo is the only known location for this in the world and consists of 16 sites at which self-sustaining nuclear fission reactions took place approximately 1.7 billion years ago, and ran for a few hundred thousand years, averaging 100 kW of power output during that time.
Orbital dynamics .
21 Jun 2013
The Titius-Bode Law of orbital distances have been revamped and applied to discovered exo-planets . A good fit was found . An Intra-Mercurial is deduced .
An old discarded empirical “Law” has been picked up , dusted off , revamped and is now used to find Solar and exo-Solar planets .
The Intra-Mercurials can be seen in para 2 below .(0.188888 AU) . Possible shepherd planets .
1.A summation :
A handy guide to planetary parking spots
17 April 2013 by Jacob Aron
Magazine issue 2913. Subscribe and save
Read more: Click here to read the original, longer version of this story
NEED somewhere to park your planet? You won't have to circle the galaxy for long: up to two-thirds of planetary systems have empty spaces where an extra world could comfortably reside.
The gravitational tug-of-war between a star and its orbiting planets means that the worlds must be spaced at particular distances or else their orbits become unstable. The planets will then wobble around until some collide or are ejected.
Our current understanding of planetary formation suggests that most stable systems should be filled to capacity. "In the solar system, we know that's not quite true, because we know that in between Mars and Jupiter you could put another planet," says Sean Raymond at the Laboratory of Astrophysics of Bordeaux in France. Some theories say we started out with more worlds, but jostling with Jupiter caused some to be ejected 4 billion years ago.
Julia Fang and Jean-Luc Margot at the University of California, Los Angeles, wanted to find out whether other planetary systems are full, or if they also have unoccupied but stable orbital slots in between their planets.
The pair simulated millions of systems in a variety of orbital configurations and compared their models with real systems seen by NASA's Kepler space telescope. This told them which of their modelled systems are spaced right to be stable. The duo then checked whether these systems had orbital slots going spare, by sticking an extra planet in between two existing ones and modelling how the orbits evolved over 100 million years. Would it cause a collision or ejection?
Fang and Margot discovered that about a third of the stable two- and three-planet systems they modelled would go haywire if they added a world, rising to nearly half for four-planet systems (The Astrophysical Journal, doi.org/k6s). That means the remaining majority of systems have empty stable zones, although that proportion could be revised downwards as more systems are discovered.
Pinning down spaces between known exoplanets might be useful for finding worlds that have so far avoided detection, says Raymond. "You can say, 'We think there should be a planet on this orbit, go look for it'," he says.
In fact, two other astronomers have found seemingly unoccupied slots that may in fact harbour potentially habitable worlds. Their method involves reviving the Titius-Bode relation, a rough mathematical rule for predicting planetary spacing. Developed in the late 1700s, the rule initially worked well for our solar system but fell out of favour when it conflicted with the discovery of Neptune in 1846.
Charles Lineweaver and Timothy Bovaird of the Australian National University in Canberra have now applied the equation to 64 other known systems that contain multiple planets or planet candidates. They found that it works as well as – or better than – it does for the solar system in 89 per cent of cases (arxiv.org/abs/1304.3341). The rule also suggested unoccupied but stable orbital slots in several systems discovered by Kepler, including two in the life-friendly zone around the star KOI-490.
The team reckons these spaces contain as-yet-undetected planets. But if some systems have a truly empty slot, could a sufficiently advanced civilisation build a planet and park it in orbit? "Gravitationally it would certainly work out, I'm just not sure about the logistics," says Fang.
This article appeared in print under the headline "Handy guide shows planet parking slots"
2. Bit more detail
They predict a trans Plutonian called Eris .
But extrapolating from eyeballing and general principles , there seems to be room for intra-Mercurial at 0.188888 AU (=x^(-1.6666))
radius of the sun = 0.00464913034 Astronomical Units
It seems that the sun might have shepherd planets close in .
Happy orbits !
8 Feb 2011
"Diamonds are a girl's best friends " Gaia
Earth is globed by a glittering shell of diamonds formed during the cooling phases of the planet about 3 to 1 billion years ago . A few of these survive transportation to the surface during some cool volcanic , tectonic and impact events .
See Appendices below below :
1.Lots of Carbon
A planet without a diamond necklace would not have enough carbon to give rise to a carboniferous life .
Startrek would say :
"No diamonds , no life as we know it , Jim ."
2.Neutrino Signature :
Large concentrations of diamonds have a distinct neutrino shadow (due to multiple refraction and absorption) .
Sufficient masses of diamonds in a semi-liquid matrix self-assemble into meta-materials to more efficiently absorb neutrinos . Cold volcanos result .
For the proof of this :
Either you see it , or else it will be a bit of a slog .
Remember , the surrounding semi-molten rock is transparent to neutrinos .
A lot of energy is absorbed by the diamond metamaterial . This plays a major part in the planetary energy balance .
This has obvious significance to detection of extra-solar planets capable of bearing carbon-based life .
Venus indicates too much energy can be transferred , leading to mantle-eruptions that paved the planet . The carbon went into CO2 in the atmosphere . Not that many diamonds left on Venus .
Mars should be lousy with diamonds . Just look around the hot pockets .
Or that big ,cool volcano . Or the fracture zones between the hemispheres .
Or … .
You get the drift .
Are there undiscovered diamond deposits in South Africa ?
The Vredefort impact created numerous near-contiguous fractures. The gave way under pressure to cool volcano's with very rapid exit velocities (ie the diamonds scooped up from the mantle did not have time to burn up . ) These weathered and water washed the diamonds away to be concentrated in places like Alexander bay .
This took a fairly long time . Rivers formed , vanished , reformed and the land twisted
To the West , many deposits have been found . Kimberley , etc
To the East , few .if any .
Draw a circle around Vredefort with radius at Kimberley . You will notice it encompasses most of the gold and platinum bearing areas towards all areas except East and South-East . This is because these areas got squinched up in subsequent tectonic movements . Nobody can un-squinch them , but we can say meaningful things on a macroscopic scale . Because the time-scale is relatively large , we can use
http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Newtools" Nov 2008 . The Reserve and Error arguments indicate that we simply progressively shrink the East and South-East present map measurements to a third of the radii projected from Vredefort-Kimberley
radius . This gives a kidney shaped depression just east of the Orange River and west of the coastal escarpment . From Estcourt in the north to Colesberg-Noupoort in the south . Minerals should be concentrated here .
Note that the first diamond in South Africa was picked up at Colesberg . I could never figure out why this was not followed up .
Estimated diamond reserves :
About 1/3 of that found at Alexander bay .
Platinum etc : about 1/3 to ¼ found to the north .
Heavy metals would tend to settle at dead-ends or swirling lees .
The corridor from Colesberg to East London is the most remarkable geological trap system I have ever seen . It looks like a baleen whale's mouth .
It should be lousy with heavy metals .
A less remarkable system can be seen heading to Idutywa .
Read Appendix C link .
Would Luna have diamonds ?
Doubtful . Diamonds probably did form in Earth(0) before the impact event that resulted in Luna , but the impact temperatures probably cooked any diamonds .
But , some might have survived in pockets of Earth(0) ejecta in Trojan orbits . There is a distinct probability (+-15%) that large diamonds can be found in Earth-Lunar Trojans .
Re-entry diamonds with datable pyrodone garnet inclusions would then give formation dates before the Luna-forming impact . Has any been found ?
Unknown . On human form results like these have probably been swept under the carpet .
So , Gaia might have diamond earrings . These should be even easier to detect from really far away using neutrino shadowing .
Simply put , a planet with lots of carbon and a big moon can be detected from very far away .
So much for Ceti . Anyone interested already knows what is here , and has done so for millions of years .
Gaia will not be pleased .
You think I am joking ?
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Inverse Anthropomorphisms" Feb 2011
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Death of the Dinosaurs " Dec 2008
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "AI-1 " Jul 2008
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "AI update " Jun 2009
And sundry others .
I do not know how aware or self-aware Gaia is at the moment in logical terms , but both will follow in the near future .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Singularities " Feb 2011
And Gaia would not be pleased to be ignored . (Remember anthropomorphism)
Information (like this blog) would be open to her . (Memory)
I , for one , have no intention of pissing her off .
Maybe a teensy bit of exploration might be called for ?
A good general discussion :
Mine or Location
Premier, S. Africa
Finsch, S. Africa
Finsch, S. Africa
Kemberly, S. Africa
In the above listing, * means approximate. The Finch Mine, South Africa is listed twice because it includes two pipes featuring diamonds of differing ages. Note the vast difference between the ages of the diamonds and of the pipe material that carried them to the surface.
Impact considerations from Vredefort impact .
The asteroid that hit Vredefort is one of the largest ever to strike Earth (at least since the Hadean) and is estimated at 5–10 km (3.1–6.2 mi) wide. The crater has a diameter of roughly 250–300 km (155–186 mi), larger than the 200 km (124 mi) Sudbury Basin and the 170 km (106 mi) Chicxulub crater. This makes Vredefort the largest known impact structure on Earth. (The Wilkes Land crater in Antarctica, if confirmed to be the result of an impact event, is even larger at 500 kilometers across.) The Vredefort crater's age is estimated to be more than 2 billion years (2,023 ± 4 million years), striking during thePaleoproterozoic era. It is the second-oldest known crater on Earth, a little less than 300 million years younger than the Suavjärvi crater in Russia.
It was originally thought that the dome in the center of the crater was formed by a volcanicexplosion, but in the mid 1990s evidence revealed that it was the site of a huge bolide impact, as telltale shatter cones are often discovered in the bed of the nearby Vaal River.
The Vredefort crater site is one of the few multi-ringed impact craters on Earth, although they are more common elsewhere in the Solar System. Perhaps the best-known example isValhalla crater on Jupiter's moon Callisto, although Earth's Moon has a number as well. Geological processes, such as erosion and plate tectonics, have destroyed most multi-ring craters on Earth.
The nearby Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) and Witwatersrand Basin were created during this same period, leading to speculation that the Vredefort bolide's mass and kinetics were of sufficient magnitude to induce regional volcanism. The BIC is the location of most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs), while the Witwatersrand basin holds most of the known reserves of gold.
The Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site is currently facing threats from unstructured property developments and the Parys Sewage Treatment Plant, which are in a dilapidated state and are pumping untreated sewage into the Vaal River and the crater site.
A more detailed consideration of impacts .
Note the general fractal nature of fractures in the scope of the supersonic impact wave and subsequent relaxation wave
Cool routes to the surface result .
Hence survival of diamonds .