Thursday, October 24, 2013

Russian and Chinese Immortality Champions .

Russian and Chinese Immortality Champions.

Andre Willers
25 Oct 2013
Synopsis :
Longevity research is well established in Russia and China .
1.See Western systems in Appendix D
2.See Russian systems in Appendix A
3.See Chinese systems in Appendix B
4.The Chinese systems seems most advanced .
H2S interventions can be done right now , using existing metabolic pathways .
See Appendix C
5.For Western systems , see Appendix D 
6.Who will win the tournament ?
All , of course . Though it might take a little bit of time .

7.The Chinese  H2S crowd seems to be in the lead  , but L.Craig Venter is not far behind .
8.Maybe you should contemplate the size of the human soul before going for longevity .
See Appendix E
Happy surfing amongst the Attractors .

Appendix A
The Russians .
The Russian Champion :
Maria Konovalenko:
“I represent the Science for Life Extension Foundation.
The main goal of our Foundation is to make radical life extension a global initiative.
We integrate efforts in order to increase funding for research in regenerative medicine, gerontology, genetics, neuroscience, systems biology, and related sciences aimed at studying the mechanisms of aging and searching for methods to increase human longevity. “
Funding by the Russian State . (DARPA equivalent )
Appendix B
The Chinese Champion
“Zhi-Sheng Jiang” , of the University of South China, Hunan
Funding by the Red Army .
Hydrogen Sulfide: The Next Anti-Aging Agent?
Jan. 29, 2013 — Hydrogen sulfide* (H2S) may play a wide-ranging role in staving off aging, according to a paper published online ahead of print in the journalMolecular and Cellular Biology. In this review article, a team from China explores the compound's plethora of potential anti-aging pathways.

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"H2S has been gaining increasing attention as an important endogenous signaling molecule because of its significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems," the team writes. The evidence is mounting, they note, that hydrogen sulfide slows aging by inhibiting free-radical reactions, by activating SIRT1, an enzyme believed to be a regulator of lifespan, and probably through its interactions with a gene, klotho, which appears to have its own market basket of anti-aging activity.
Hydrogen sulfide is produced within the human body, and has a variety of important physiological effects. For example, it relaxes the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells, which is important to maintaining clean arteries as one ages, says first author Zhi-Sheng Jiang, of the University of South China, Hunan. It functions as an antioxidant. And it inhibits expression of pro-inflammatory factors, all of which "imply an important role in aging and age-associated diseases," according to the paper. For example, mice lacking CSE, the gene for an enzyme involved in producing H2S, manifest extensive, premature arteriosclerosis, an inevitable consequence of aging, says Jiang.
The gene, klotho, which appears to be upregulated by hydrogen sulfide, is thought to extend lifespan via a number of different pathways, some of which promote production of endogenous antioxidants, according to the report. Produced in the kidneys, it has direct angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity; that is, it's an ACE inhibitor, just like certain drugs that mitigate high blood pressure. Not surprisingly, plasma H2S declines with age, and is lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats than in those with normal blood pressure. More generally, a lack of H2S is implicated in cardiovascular disease.
A decline in H2S is also thought to undermine neurological health. Endogenous H2S has been found wanting in an animal model of Parkinson's disease, and is found to be depressed in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. There are even suggestions, mostly in animal models, but also in human studies, that H2S may be protective against cancer, according to the report.
"Data available so far strongly suggest that H2S may become the next potent agent for preventing and ameliorating the symptoms of aging and age-associated diseases," concludes Jiang. In the future, he says, people may take H2S via food, or as an anti-aging supplement.
* Hydrogen sulfide (British English: hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas that gives off the odor of rotten eggs
Appendix C
Why do things happen ?
Wednesday, November 19, 2008
Hibernation and Cryogenics
Hibernation and Cryogenics
Andre Willers
19 Nov 2008

Discussion :
Jessica Palmer pointed out on the 16th Nov 2008 that the primary problem with cryogenics seems to be in the re-establishment of metabolic processes after un-freezing .

But we have an already existing template for doing exactly that .

Hibernation .

See Appendix A

The evolutionary explanation is that during the transition-phase from methane/sulfur to oxygen atmosphere (circa 1.5 bn years ago) , there was a major advantage in suspending oxygen-driven systems if the organism found itself in a non-oxygen environment . It went into hibernation .

At the same time , alcohol was being excreted as a poison (like oxygen) . The ancestors of mitochondria (who could use low concentrations of oxygen or alcohol ) sought refuge in cells whose cell-walls were resistant (but not impervious) to alcohol transition .

Remember , alcohol is completely soluble in water , but oxygen is not . This difference drove the process . Alcohol concentrations in water could grow large , but oxygen-concentrations could not .

Mitochondria earned their keep by mopping up alcohol first and later converting oxygen to ATP . (The glucose and ketone metabolism came after this) . The ketone metabolism has never been very popular , because of the high loss-rate in excretory products , but has been kept as a third string on the bow . (Utilization of fat and protein-muscle reserves during low-glucose periods. )

Mitochondria thus has an exclusive preference of usage : alcohol , glucose , ketones in that order .

From experimental evidence (see Appendix A) , there is a genetic switch sensitive to the concentration of H2S to bring both the host cell and the mitochondrium to a state where all programmed molecular activity is suspended . (The power is switched off) .
But , of course , random beth(0) molecular activity due to temperature does not cease . Uncontrolled and anaerobic reactions still occur .

We get rid of most anaerobic organisms first .
Lots of sulfur , VitC and alcohol (fermented berries or carbohydrates in the stomach . A low acidity is required in the run-up to hibernation)
Then freeze .

Starting the contraption up again is a bit of a problem .

1. The power-plant :
The mitochondria needs to be primed with their preferred fuel (alcohol)
Oxygen needs to be infused .(Hyperbaric chamber)

2. Garbage disposal
The cellular garbage-disposal systems need to be activated . ATP from the powerplant needs to be allocated to breakdown-product disposal before the ATP is allocated to DNA/RNA production processes .

The garbage-disposal uses mechanisms that use sulfur to create the various vacuoles and ropes (cf mitosis) . Enough sulfur is vital .

Once again , oxygen and alcohol is used . Both are recognized by all systems as poisons to be removed as a first priority . They activate a quite sophisticated garbage-disposal system as H2S concentrations decrease .

3 . Flushing
All that garbage has to flushed away , preferably not through the kidneys or liver .
Use machines .
As H2S concentrations decrease , damage might occur due to PH fluctuations . Acidity (H2SO4 , etc) Buffering would be advisable .

4. Temperature:
Lots of water at 105 to 107 Fahrenheit for mammals , pulsing at pulserate(about 90 cycles per minute .)
This is to activate the chaperone systems and discourage opportunistic viruses .

5. Music
See “Music”
Play harmonious music so the vibrations can be felt throughout organism being thawed . This enhances timing-procedures by orders of magnitudes . Emergent order .
(A Beth(0.x) effect . )

The de-hibernization process must have an exact program at molecular level to reboot the cellular metabolism . Precisely what you need after a cryogenic procedure .
But its efficiency (ie your chance of survival) can be boosted by orders of magnitude by using the steps above .

Interesting notes:
1. Do hibernating animals like bears use alcohol-producing cells in their bloodstream to time hibernation? This can be tested .
2. Are there cold-chaperone molecules ? There should be .
3. Hibernation is easy . Nature has done all the hard work . Keeping the mechanism ticking over at a very slow rate enables cellular-garbage clearing for a relatively short period (6-8 months)
4. De-cryogenics is a bit harder , Beth(1) intervention is needed .
5. Alcohol-concentrations : we are talking about 1% to 2% imbibing . About 0.06% inside the cell . Ie , the cell-wall protects by a factor of about 30
6. Pulse-Cryogenics : alternate freezing and hibernation to get a better survival factor . For those who are too stupid to design a zero-entropy system .
Try : Life=negative entropy . Non-life = positive entropy . Design it so the sum is zero .



Appendix A
From “ Birdflu Update-4” dated 29 Oct 2005
Suspended Animation (the real thing!)
In 2005, Mark Roth and other scientists from the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle demonstrated that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation by applying a low dosage of hydrogen sulfide (80 ppm H2S) in the air. The breathing rate of the animals sank from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell from 37 °C to 2 °C above ambient temperature (in effect, they had become cold-blooded). The mice survived this procedure for 6 hours and afterwards showed no negative health consequences.
Such a hibernation occurs naturally in many mammals and also in toads, but not in mice. (Mice can fall into a state called clinical torpor when food shortage occurs). If the H2S-induced hibernation can be made to work in humans, it could be useful in the emergency management of severely injured patients, and in the conservation of donated organs.
As mentioned above, hydrogen sulfide binds to cytochrome oxidase and thereby prevents oxygen from binding, which apparently leads to the dramatic slowdown of metabolism. Animals and humans naturally produce some hydrogen sulfide in their body; researchers have proposed that the gas is used to regulate metabolic activity and body temperature, which would explain the above findings
Dosages of H2S:
Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation (because of the high alkality of the SH- anion), a sore throat and cough, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks. Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Higher concentrations of 700-800 ppm tend to be fatal.
· 0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic rotten egg odor of hydrogen sulfide [2]
· 10-20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation.
· 50-100 ppm leads to eye damage.
· At 150-250 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger,
· 320-530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death.
· 530-1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing;
o 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposition (LC50).
Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.


Appendix D
Tuesday, October 22, 2013
Calico Immortality

Andre Willers
22 Oct 2013
Synopsis :
Calico : A major new human initiative in Anti-ageing enterprise has been launched by Google .

Discussion :
1.Why the name Calico ?
See Appendix A . Calico cats are intimately related to genetics .
2.Who and How much ?
See Appendix B .
Big names and a lot of money . Where is L . Craig Venter ?

3.What is already happening ?
A lot of data-mining on blogs , emails , etc .
The same is occurring on any site associated with longevity , genetics , etc .
One of the reasons why Google arrogated rights to certain content on it’s platforms .

4.What is next ?
There are now three very big , very powerful Bio-Genetic Champions in existence :
4.1 L.Craig Venter and the petrochemical industry .
4.2 Bill Gates Foundation and Public Health
4.3 Google and Anti-ageing .

5.Struldbugs :
Competition between these entities will hopefully avoid the Struldbug Scenario .
See Appendix C

6.Singularity :
Even the process of creating Calico makes the Singularity more likely by at least two orders of magnitude .
6.1 Co-opting all knowledge without a Hysterical Focus .
6.2 Forcing the examination of the effects of longevity without crashing all systems in the run-up .

The Interesting Times are only just starting !

Appendix A
Because genetic determination of some coat colors in cats is linked to the X chromosome, calicoes are nearly always female.[2][4] Because of the genetics involved, calico males generally have impaired vitality and are almost always sterile.

Appendix B
More details on Google’s mysterious Calico project have emerged, revealing the search giant intends on investing, at the very least, “hundreds of millions” in the initiative. Announced last month, Calico is a project borne from Google’s special Google X labs, with an endgame to take on major illnesses and aging. The initiative is being led by ex-Genentech CEO Art Levinson, who also serves as Apple chairman.
After some digging around Silicon Valley, Fortune writer Dan Primack found that Calico is focused on finding the root cause of various diseases and conditions, something many companies today fail to focus on. Most importantly, however, the project wants to address genetic causes of aging, and whether or not drugs can slow or even stop them. At the very least, Google wants to see how the quality of life can be improved for someone that’s in their 70s, 80s, etc.
For example, what if you examined the genomes of thousands of healthy 90 year-olds from all parts of the world? What genetic similarities do they have? Or, perhaps, what happens to most of us that didn’t happen to them. Even if this didn’t result in longer life, it perhaps could at least lead to an improved quality of life for folks on the back nine.
The project will act more as a research initiative rather than, as Primack puts it, “a biopharma startup that will be in clinical trials within a couple of years.” Many smart pieces are being moved around, and there’s very clearly a substantial amount of money being put into the project. When Google puts resources into X lab projects, the company tends to produce fascinating results—self-driving cars, balloon Internet, Google Glass. With such a unique portfolio, and given what we know about Calico, the search giant’s new project could prove to be Google’s most important undertaking yet.
Appendix C
The Struldbug Scenario
In Jonathan Swift's novel Gulliver's Travels, the name struldbrug is given to those humans in the nation of Luggnagg who are born seemingly normal, but are in fact immortal. However, although struldbrugs do not die, they do nonetheless continue aging. Swift's work depicts the evil of immortality without eternal youth.
They are easily recognized by a red dot above their left eyebrow. They are normal human beings until they reach the age of thirty, at which time they become dejected. Upon reaching the age of eighty they become legally dead, and suffer from many ailments including the loss of eyesight and the loss of hair.
Struldbrugs were forbidden to own property:
As soon as they have completed the term of eighty years, they are looked on as dead in law; their heirs immediately succeed to their estates; only a small pittance is reserved for their support; and the poor ones are maintained at the public charge. After that period, they are held incapable of any employment of trust or profit; they cannot purchase lands, or take leases; neither are they allowed to be witnesses in any cause, either civil or criminal, not even for the decision of meers (metes) and bounds.
Otherwise, as avarice is the necessary consequence of old age, those immortals would in time become proprietors of the whole nation, and engross the civil power, which, for want of abilities to manage, must end in the ruin of the public.

Appendix E
Wednesday, August 14, 2013
Size of the Human Soul .
Size of the Human Soul.

Andre Willers
14 Aug 2013
The radius of the human soul size varies between 80 and 400 meters . Not all the elements of the soul is subject to gravity , so a distinction is made between Mass and Weight of the Soul . This gives rise to many quantum properties .

Discussion :
1.Measurement has established the weight of the human soul as about 21 gm . See Appendix A

2. Dark Matter Theory gives estimates of foundation of complex systems at about 10^-14  kg/cubic cm
See Appendix B

3.The assumption was that the soul is contained within the physical boundaries of the body . Yet we know that this is not true . Thus expand the envelope .

4. For a 21 gm weight , we require a size of soul of about 368 meters  radius .  (3 soccer fields)
For 21 gm mass  , we require a soul with radius of about 80 meters.

5. What does this mean ?
Think information transfer . Humans are distributed intelligences spread over radii ( 80  to 368 ) meters .

6.Many so-called paranormal effects can be described as a probability distribution in the ProbVector(0 ,80,368) .

7. The difference between weight radius (eg earth 1g  : 80 m) and mass radius (368 m ) .  The size of the soul is dependant on the gravitational field.

8. The Human soul fits inside the body envelope at about 10^5 g’s .  Singularities occur in high-g impact events .

9. Astronauts and other space travellers .
As gravitational forces decrease , the soul spreads . This is seen as mysticism by humans . Standard amongst astronauts ,

10. Using the above data points , you can calculate the exact deviation from the Party Line by distance from Earth .

11.Exit space program .

Kicking against the prickles .


Appendix A
Mass of human Soul Update I

Andre Willers
27 Mar 2013
Synopsis :
The mass of a human soul in a 11-dimensional universe should fluctuate between 21 – 50.5 gm .
Discussion :
1.See Appendix I . This was very approximate , especially as regards the degree of complexity .
2. Why 11 dimensions?
It seems indicated from latest theoretical physics for this locale .
3. Monad mass : 0.11576 gm as per Appendix I . The best estimate available .
4.Why 21 gm ?
There are two independent experimenters that got fairly similar results :
He got 21 gm in 1901
4.2 Dr Nils Olof Jacobson got the same result independently in 1969 .
4.3 Nobody else could be bothered , or could get funding .

5. Solve for the number of x of brain levels in 11 dimensions needed to give 21 gm soul mass .
5.1.Let x be the number of discrete , delineated brain levels of organization .
Then solve for combinations across 11 dimensions :
11! / (11-x)! / x! * 0.11576 = 21 by using Wolfram equation Solver .
The result is x= 3.1099 or x= 7.89
The mass curve has a maximum at x=5.5 with a mass of 50.5 gm .
Note that it is symmetrical around this axis of x= 5.5 . Which is bad news for extropians et al .
Present humans have 3 levels of brain complexity . (Hind brain , mid brain , cortex) . Adding much more than 2 levels of further complexity by whatever means becomes counter productive in this universe . Of course , there are up to 27 dimensions available .
But that requires some major redesign .
It would be rather discouraging to design smart matter and end up with something stupider than a simpler system .
Remember , the soul-mass is a measure of complexity .
6. Fat Souls .
Sigh .
More complexity does not necessarily mean more meaning . Think soapies .
Worse , think weight trainers and their ilk .
No wonder the re-incarnation rate is so high .

7.Interesting aside : Maximum mass of a Matrioshka Brain in this Universe :
Using the same arguments as above , M = 0.11576 * 2^27 gm .All combinations across 27 dimensions .
This gives M = 1.1576 * 10^4.1278 kg
M= 15 536 kg soul mass
Rating this up by the human ratio of 70kg/0.021 = 3333.33
Gives 51 786 667 kg mass . Smaller than a big aircraft carrier .
So much for solar Matrioshka Brains .
8. This universe seems deliberately designed to prevent runaway positive feedback systems . But whether that means that we are in a simulation or not is rapidly becoming a meaningless question . We can’t tell , and may never be able to tell . Even after death .
9. It does not address the central question of present entities .
Is Chocolate fattening to the soul ?

On that expanding note , regards
Appendix I
Mass of the Human Soul
Andre Willers
21 Apr 2011

We calculate the mass of the human soul from first principles .
A first order result : Soul mass = n! * 0.11576 gm .

Discussion :

See "Slingshots , Dark Matter and Dark Energy" Apr 2011. And previous relevant posts .

Note the argument that we are living in a simulation . This absolves me of ramming things down your throat .

Make of this what you will .

Argument :
AG is a dimensionless number .

αG can be defined in terms of any pair of charged elementary particles that are stable and well-understood. A pair of electrons, of protons, or one electron and one proton all satisfy this criterion. Assuming two electrons, the defining expression and the best current estimate of its value are:
·                     G is the Newtonian constant of gravitation;
·                     me is the mass of the electron;
·                     c is the speed of light in a vacuum;
·                     ħ ("h-bar") is the reduced Planck constant;
·                     mP is the Planck mass.

Tease it apart :
Ag = m(e) / (h/2pi) * m(e) /{c/G}

Let A = m(e) / (h/2pi)
And B = m(e) /{c/G}

Dimensionally ,
A = seconds/meter squared
B= meter squared/ seconds .
So the product is a dimensionless number .

But we know that 1/ (h/2pi) is the complexity in a Beth(0) universe ..

See "Slingshots , Dark Matter and Dark Energy" Apr 2011. And previous relevant posts .

The first defineable things that will appear in a universe .

We can calculate it for our universe :
A= 9.109 * 10^ (-31) / (1.054 * 10^(-34))
= 8.638 * 10(+3) kg
This is the inverse of the minimum necessary mass to surface in Beth(0) universe for a soul .

The inverse is the minimum mass necessary .
1/A = 0.11576 * 10^(-3) kg .

This is 0.11576 gm per monad .
In delineated systems , soul-masses will increase factorially .
Soul mass

Weighing the Soul .
Can be done without death .
Use sleep .If n is big enough , a difference can be measured .

But this is like hunting the Snark .
What will you do with a Boojum ?

Andre .
Appendix B

Image credit: Wikipedia
What is the weight of the human soul ?

Posted on Monday, 25 April, 2011 |  71 comments
Jay Alfred

The idea of a material soul is not new. The Greek philosopher, Heraclitus, who lived in the sixth century BC, thought that the soul was composed of an unusually fine or rare kind of matter, such as air or fire. However, if it was material it had to have some weight. Barbara Brennan, former NASA engineer and now world-renowned energy healer, observes that ‘aura’ appears to have weight. Robert Monroe also believes that the ‘Second Body’ has weight, although much less than the carbon-based body. (The terms ‘aura’, ‘astral body’ and the ‘Second Body’ refer to what is generally described as the ‘subtle body’ in the metaphysical literature. The subtle body has often been loosely identified as the ‘soul’.) 

If the soul has weight, it means it has mass and is subject to Earth’s gravitational force. This has motivated various researchers, including Noetic Science, to undertake experiments to weigh the soul. In 1907, Dr. Duncan McDougall weighed six patients, while they were in the process of dying from tuberculosis. When death was imminent, the entire bed of the patient was quickly placed on a highly sensitive industrial sized scale. In each case, when the patient expired, he noticed an extremely small sudden change in the weight of the deceased which could not be accounted for by other means. The missing mass, which this weight loss represented, was used to support his hypothesis that the body had a soul which had mass. On the death of the visible body, the soul departed, and so did this mass. The weight of the soul, based on the average loss of mass in six patients, was measured by McDougall to be 21 grams. A paper summarising his findings appeared in the journal American Medicine in 1907. One critic quickly pointed out that the sphincter and pelvic floor muscles relax at death, and that the loss was perhaps due to ejected urine and/or faeces. McDougall rebutted that if this were the case, the weight would remain upon the bed and, therefore, upon the scale. 

Someone else suggested that the dying patients’ final exhalation might have contributed to the drop in weight. To disprove this, McDougall climbed into the bed and exhaled “as forcibly as possible” while his assistant watched the scale. No change was observed. Another critic reasoned that body weight was being continually lost as water escapes into the air through What is the Weight of the Human Soul? An Estimate Based on Dark Matter Statistics 70 NEW DAWN ¦ Special Issue No. 15 the evaporation of perspiration and the water vapour that goes out with the breath. McDougall claimed to have accounted for this also. His first patient, he wrote, lost water weight at the rate of an ounce per hour, far too slowly to explain the sudden threequarter- ounce (about 21 grams) drop precisely at the time of death. In the 1920s, Dutch physicists Drs Malta and Zaalberg Van Zelst claimed that the (physical-etheric) subtle body is capable of expanding by 1.26mm and contracting by 8mm. According to them, it was composed of “extremely small and widely separated” atoms and had a density of 176.5 times lighter than air and weighed, on average, 69.5 grams (or about two-and-a-quarter ounces). The description that the ‘atoms’ were widely separated means that the particle density in the subtle body was low. This and the observation that the body could expand and contract suggest that the subtle body was composed of low density plasma, which could vary its density to some extent.

In 1988, Noetic Science carried out experiments on the largest number of patients and concluded that the human soul weighs 1/3,000th of an ounce. The experiments were carried out by East German researchers who weighed more than 200 terminally ill patients just before and immediately after their deaths. In each case the weight loss was exactly the same – 1/3,000th of an ounce. This is approximately 0.01 gram or 10-5 kg. The expert’s report on these experiments, co authored by physicist Elke Fisher, was criticised by Gerard Voisart, a leading French pathologist, who said that the weight difference between the living and dead could be accounted for by air leaving the lungs. However, Drs. Fisher and Mertens pointed out that this was considered in their calculations. Furthermore, they argued that the device they used to weigh the ‘soul’ had a margin of error of less than 1/100,000th of an ounce or 0.0003 grams.

“It occurred to us that the weight loss could be the result of an instantaneous physical deterioration,” said Dr. Fisher. “But after exhaustive study we agreed – that was not the case. The only possible explanation is that we were measuring the loss of the human soul or some kind of life force.” Dr. Becker Mertens of Dresden claimed in the German science journal Horizon that the only logical conclusion is that the existence of the human soul had been confirmed and its weight determined. “The challenge before us now is to figure out exactly what the soul is composed of,” he said. “We are inclined to believe that it is a form of energy. But our attempts to identify this energy have been unsuccessful to date.” This author’s Dark Plasma Theory, first published in 2006, proposes that these bodies are composed of low density plasma of dark matter particles. dARK PLASMA THEORY ESTIMATE Dark Plasma Theory holds that there is a halo of low density plasma around the Earth composed of exotic A sensational New york times news story from 1907 reports on Dr. Duncan McDougall's (pictured left) experiments to discover the weight of the human soul. Special I ssue No. 15 ¦ NEW DAWN 71 (asymmetric) dark matter particles. This view, which was new in 2006, is supported by some scientists currently. 

Minimal (dark) plasma cells developed in this ‘dark biosphere’ after Earth formed. Over more than 4 billion years these first cells evolved into complex dark plasma life forms. Being plasma life forms they exhibit features commonly seen in ordinary standard plasma. Heraclitus was probably close to the mark when he hypothesised that the soul was composed of a rare ‘finer substance’ which appeared like air or fire to him – two substances which, from a lay perspective, would bear a close resemblance to plasma. However, the reader should take careful note that these life forms are not composed of ordinary shortlived plasma but non-standard plasma composed of dark matter particles, which is invisible to most humans (just as dark matter is). Some of these life forms formed symbiotic relationships with members of the human species and co-evolved, integrating with the living carbon-based human body. On the death of the carbonbased bodies, the dark bioplasma bodies separate and return to their societies in the dark biosphere (i.e. Earth’s dark matter halo). It is these exotic life forms that are popularly called the ‘souls’ of human beings. In order to estimate the density and weight of the ‘soul’, i.e. the human bioplasma body, we must first estimate the density of dark matter particles on Earth. 

Dark Matter Density Around Earth 

The background galactic halo dark matter density is estimated to be about 5.35 x 10-28 kg cm-3. Xu and Siegel, from the University of Arizona, estimated the mass of dark matter within the Solar System (between 0.2 AU and 100 AU) to be 1.07 x 1020 kg (or 1.78 x 10-5 the Earth mass) (AU=Astronomical Unit. This is a unit equal to the distance of the Earth from the Sun). The mass of dark matter within the orbit of Earth (i.e. within 1 AU) was estimated to be 7.69 x 1019 kg. The corresponding dark matter density was approximately 9.65 x 10-23 kg cm-3. This is five orders of magnitude greater than the background galactic halo dark matter density. Xu and Sigel’s estimate that the dark matter density around Earth exceeds the galactic halo density significantly has been correlated by Stephen Adler from Princeton University. 

Anomalies relating to accelerations, observed during fly-bys of spacecraft orbiting the Earth, suggest that the dark matter density around Earth had been significantly understated (as suggested earlier by this author). According to Adler the magnitude of the observed anomalies requires dark matter densities many orders of magnitude greater than the galactic halo density. Adler suggested that by comparing the total mass of the Earth- Moon system (determined by lunar laser ranging) with the sum of the lunar mass (determined by its gravitational action on satellites or asteroids) and the Earth mass (determined by the LAGEOS geodetic survey satellite), a direct measure of the mass of Earth-bound dark matter lying between the radius of the Moon’s orbit and the geodetic satellite orbit can be obtained. Based on this, the mass of Earth-bound dark matter must be less than 4×10-9 of the Earth’s mass, giving an upper dark matter mass limit of 2.32 x 1016 kg. (This is less than one-hundredth-millionth of Earth’s mass and therefore has negligible effects on gravity.) According to Adler, to explain the flyby anomalies, Earth-bound dark matter would have to be concentrated within a radius of about 70,000 km around Earth, within a volume of approximately 1.44 × 1030 cm3. For the dark matter mass within this volume not to exceed 4 × 10-9 of the Earth’s mass, the mean dark matter density would have to be about 10-14 kg cm-3. This is greater than the background galactic halo dark matter density by fourteen orders of magnitude. Based on the analyses above, it is reasonable to conclude that there exists a halo of dark matter particles around the visible component of the Earth within a An 18th century print depicts the soul rising from the body. 72 NEW DAWN ¦ Special Issue No. 15 Jay Alfred is the author of Dark Plasma Theory (formerly described as “plasma metaphysics”). 

Jay has been researching dark plasma life forms since 2001. He is the author of three books on the Dark Plasma Theory: Our Invisible Bodies (2006), Between the Moon and Earth (2007) and Brains and Realities (2006), which are available on all Amazon, Borders and other online bookshops. He is the Research Director of Dark Plasma Life Research Organisation and a Consultant at ARPAST (Arkansas Paranormal and Anomalous Studies Team), a science-based research group that studies anomalous and currently unexplained phenomena. His organisation’s website is radius of approximately 70,000 km. Earth’s dark matter halo has been dubbed “Dark Earth” by the author and its attributes, based on the most recent estimates, compared to the visible Earth, are given below: 


Dark Earth Visible Earth Mass 2.32 x 1016 kg 5.97 x 1024 kg Volume 1.44 × 1030 cm3 1.08 x 1027 cm3 Mean Density 10-14 kg cm-3 5.5 x 10-3 kg cm-3 Mean Radius 70,000 km 6,371 km The above estimates show that the dark matter halo would be three orders of magnitude or about 1.33 x 103 or 1,330 times larger in volume than the visible rocky Earth. This approximates with the dimensional relationship between the volume of Jupiter’s huge gas envelope and its tiny rocky core (the latter approximates the volume of the visible rocky Earth). In other words, we would expect an envelope of dark matter particles the size of Jupiter around the visible component of the Earth with a mean density of 10-14 kg cm-3. 


Weight of the Soul 

A man weighing 100kg is approximately 100 litres or 105 cm3 in volume. Based on a mean density of dark matter of 10-14 kg cm-3 (as estimated above) and the approximate volume of the human body of 105 cm3, the weight of the human bioplasma body (or the ‘soul’) is estimated to be: 105 cm3 x (10-14 kg cm-3), multiplied by the gravitational acceleration of 10 ms-2, or approximately 10-8 Newtons. However, in lay language, this is often taken to be 10-8 kg. Estimated Weight of the Soul: Based on Noetic Science Experiment 10-5 kg Based on Dark Matter Statistics 10-8 kg The weight of the soul, as measured in the Noetic Science experiment was 10-5 kg while the estimate based on dark matter statistics in this article is even lower at 10-8 kg. Considering that the dark matter estimate was the mean density, one should not expect a very close correlation. Bioplasma bodies may actually be denser than the surrounding environment (in the dark biosphere). The measurement in the Noetic Science experiment may also contain a certain percentage attributable to the weight of unaccounted ordinary matter. Looking at the broad picture, therefore, these estimates can be considered quite close. We hope that this finding will motivate further experiments to weigh the human soul using more sensitive scales in controlled settings. 


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Sylvan Muldoon & Hereward Carrington, The Projection of the Astral Body, Samuel Weiser Inc., USA, 1973.

Jay Alfred, Our Invisible Bodies, Trafford Publishing, Canada, 2006.

Jay Alfred, “Earth’s Dark Matter Halo”, 2007, at

Jay Alfred, “Creation of Minimal Plasma Cell Systems by Self-Organization in Earth’s Dark Biosphere leading to the Evolution of Dark Plasma Life Forms”, Journal of Unconventional Theories and Research, SJI, (in review, submitted March 2009).

Jay Alfred, “Dark Plasma & the Origin of Angels, Aliens, Deities and Ghosts”, New Dawn Special Issue 7, 2009.

Jay Alfred, “Aliens from Dark Earth”, New Dawn, May-June 2009.

Article Copyright© Jay Alfred - reproduced with permission.


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