Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Prions of Immortality Update I

Prions of Immortality Update I
Andre Willers
28 Nov 2012
Synopsis :
Prions have been found that play a chaperone role in stem cells .
Discussion .
See Appendix I for the findings .
See Appendix II for why this is not a surprise .
Expect more of the same soon .
A nice Singularity surprise for Xmas 2012 .
Just before the Deluge ?

Appendix I
Fairly latest findings
Protecting prion protein keeps stem cells young
• 17 August 2012 by Jessica Hamzelou
• Magazine issue 2878. Subscribe and save
• For similar stories, visit the Stem Cells Topic Guide
COULD we stem the tide of ageing by delaying the deterioration of stem cells? A new compound that appears to do just that could help us find ways to protect our organs from age-related wear and tear, experiments in mice suggest.
As we age, so do our mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): their numbers in our bone marrow decline, and those that are left lose the ability to differentiate into the distinct cell types - such as bone, cartilage, fat and possibly muscle cells - that help in the healing process.
"We think this ageing of stem cells may be linked to the onset of some age-related disorders, such as osteoporosis," says Ilaria Bellantuono at the University of Sheffield in the UK.
Earlier research in mice had suggested that the prion protein expressed by MSCs might play a role in holding back stem cell ageing. Mice lacking the prion protein were less able to regenerate blood cells. The study provided more evidence that correctly folded prions serve a useful purpose in the body, despite the role that misfolded prions play in BSE and vCJD.
Bellantuono and her colleagues have now found that the prion protein performs a similar function in humans - older MSCs from human bone marrow expressed less of the protein than younger ones.
In a bid to find a compound that might slow MSC ageing, the team tested numerous molecules known to target prion proteins on dishes of human stem cells. One molecule emerged as a potential candidate - stem cells treated with it produced 300 times the number of cells over 250 days than untreated stem cells. The treated cells kept on dividing for longer.
The team then injected treated cells into the thigh bones of mice, and three days later found that they had produced three times as many new cells as they would normally produce. After five weeks, there were 10 times as many cells.
The new cells appeared to be of higher quality, too, and readily differentiated into bone and fat cells, as well as those that support the tissue and blood vessels.
Bellantuono's team think the molecule works by helping the prions protect the stem cells from the DNA damage associated with normal ageing. When they exposed both treated and untreated cells to hydrogen peroxide - a compound known to cause DNA damage - they found that the treated cells were protected from damage (Stem Cells, DOI: 10.1002/stem.1065).
"You can delay the loss of stem cells' function by manipulating the prion protein," says Bellantuono, who presented the findings at the Aging Online Symposium last month. "In the long term, you may go a long way to maintaining tissue health in [old] age."
It may be some time before the compound can be used to fight ageing, but similar molecules might have a more immediate benefit in stem cell therapies.
"A big problem with using MSCs for therapy is that you need to inject millions of cells, but it's difficult to get millions in a dish," says James Adjaye of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin, Germany. "This molecule lets the cells grow for longer - it's very interesting in that respect."
Appendix II
Prions of Immortality
Andre Willers
21 May 2012
“The medium is the message” Marshall McLuhan
Prions as Amyloid Quaternary Protein Structures formed both the structure and message of the DNA wrapping the histone . The primary evolutionary reason was to regulate “STOP” codon errors . An added plus was epigenetics . Certain prions are evolving into “STOP” sequences involving population densities .
Discussion :
The Appendices are in a more-or-less complexity sequence , drilling down .
1.What does present day prion diseases do ? They mask the “STOP” codon . Certain proteins are over-produced , including normal PrP , which can then be converted to harmful forms (PrPSc) . This forms a positive feedback cycle (ie a plague)
There are controls ( See Appendix III ) , which are related to non-angiosperm Gaiean feedback systems (see “The Flower , The Dinosaur and Puff” Dec 2008) .
As non-angiosperm areas decrease due to human population pressure and global warming , expect a massive increase in prion epidemics in all populations . Watch the angiosperm pollinators , especially . (eg bees , insects) .
What to do ? Cultivate more non-angiosperms , especially fungi . Those massive pig-fat lakes in USA should be quite profitable as mushroom farms .
An interesting aside : note the correlation of asparigine with acrylamide (acrylamide is a potent nerve poison) . Asparagine + sugar + heat(>120C) -> Acrylamide ->nerve damage .
See Appendix VII
Persons with peripheral neuropathy are vulnerable to prion epidemics .

Mortality :
The Mortality mechanism of old age evolved out of this process . Gaia does not favour uncontrolled feedback processes .
Boom-bust is bad for business at Casino Gaia .
Premature “STOP” codons is even at present responsible for some 11% of genetic diseases . Postmature “STOP” codons causes overproduction of many proteins . The machinery clogs up . Also called old-age .
See Goldratt on the results of inventory build-up due to production lines running at maximum efficiency . (I did not expect him to pop up in this context) . The system literally chokes on the costs of obsolete inventory . Think of the body as a business conglomerate . Remember what happened to them ? Rapacious predators dismembered them . Think diseases . Your friendly venture capitalist turns into a ravening monster if he scents blood in the water (quorum mechanisms) . Happening in a body near you .
It is not immediately obvious in what to do .
Let us look a bit down-stream (evolutionary wise) , because we know evolutionary systems are highly conservative . They usually adapt systems .

Bacterial Plaques(films) vs Bacterial Free forms .
We theorize that this evolved from the Amyloid Quaternary Protein Structures vs Prion filaments .
This frees an enormous body of knowledge and techniques to bear on the problem .
1.We already know that quorum mechanisms are involved , hence that signalling molecules are involved in these systems . We can target these for fruitful leads .
2.The nervous system is involved in a proactive way . See Appendix VII.
3.Phene systems (control machinery in the cellular wall) evolved
See Appendix VIII below .
An Interesting aside : Prions of Intelligence.
“STOP” systems for neural tissue are relaxed at approximate ages 1-5 , 15 , 25 , 55+
This is when neural tissue is reorganized . For reorganization , new dendrites have to be formed . There is a concomitant effect on the immune system . Longevity is also increased .
Note the 55+ . This is the Grandparent effect . Women after menopause should be classified as a separate sex .See “The Sexes of Man” Nov 2004 :see Appendix IX for your convenience .

Prions of Fertility :
This has already happened in 1704 AD from some island off Scotland . A plague of fertility only now burning out . See “A vaccine for overpopulation” Apr 2012 .

Hibernation techniques :
Selective lowering of metabolic systems . Selective injection of low concentrations of H2S .
See “Gelatine Genetic Memory” May 2012 .

Prions of Immortality :
It might happen naturally , but much more likely to be engineered . Which can be done now.
Gaia would probably tolerate longevity , but fertility would fall through the floor (an effect already noticeable . Birthrates in in countries in Western Europe or Japan are below replacement rates . ) Some very old and extremely powerful feedback effects are involved . Quorum effects at cellular wall (phene) level . So , don’t worry about overpopulation . Extinction or competition would be a bigger concern .
How long can you live if the only cause of death is Accidental Death ?
The last time I looked , about 25 000 years . Any Insurance company will be glad to take your premiums . A sucker bet . (It falls into the “Horse might learn to sing” category .) Not because of the unlikelihood of immortality , but because no human institution will last that long .
The Prions of Immortality would simply selectively relax “STOP” codon masking . That’s all .
We do not know enough yet to do this in a free-prion which is also infective , though I can see that it can be done (I am not smart enough to do it ) . Oh well .

What can be done ?
This is not medical advice , and though something will work , so would a spanner in the gears .
“Youth is wasted on the young”
This advice is meant for 55+ ages . When there is already a preprogrammed relaxation of “STOP” blockages .
In very early evolutionary history , there was a niche for long-lived organisms (still seen in dinosaurs , sharks , crocodiles , but especially in cartiligenous fishes . The dinosaurs are , of course , chickens .
The idea is to help along an existing urge . Something like stochastic resonance effects .
The Recipe :
1.Cook a gelatine from chicken cartilage . You can add a gelatine thickener from other sources like seaweed (even older) .
2.Sprinkle it with about 1 gm of MSM while cooling and stirring . The idea is to form and enhance H2S bound in the gelatine . The H2S immobilizes any invading bacteria by switching off their metabolism . I am not so sure about all viruses . But the viruses are dependant on cell machinery , which can be halted by H2S . The critical concentration is about 80 ppm . Small . So , don’t overdo it .
More is not better here . I do not know what the effect would be , but you probably won’t like it .
Recasting the gelatine (ie repeatedly heating and cooling it) will enhance the anti-bacterial effect , because you are increasing the H2S concentration . But please note , you are not killing them . At best , pasteurising them . They will pop back .
3.Now for the fungi . Use the “roots” , ie the mycelia .This is where the critical chemical triggers lie . The mushroom itself is only the sacrificial fruiting body . Which is why anti-prions were discovered in rock-lichens . Not much room for roots there .
Note the recent prevalence of prion disease in elk , vectored in from the commensal velvet organisms on their antlers . They don’t rub their antlers on lichen covered rock as much as they used to . Global warming ? Herding ? Probably both .The herders can solve it by growing lichen covered rocks and rubbing the lichen on the antlers .
It can be done in aerosol form , even from a plane . Humans owe the elk this , at least .
4.Add Allicin .
The juice of a freshly squeezed garlic clove . It kills . But we are more interested in its top predator status .
Like wolves in a natural park , it alters the behaviour of vulnerable systems . They pucker up . H2S systems switch on . Metabolisms slow . Exactly what we are looking for .
Eat immediately afterwards . (Allicin does not last long) .
Add artificial sweeteners (but not aspartame or sugars) and flavours (but not tartrazine) if you want .
5.Alcohol : all living systems using mitochondria metabolizes alcohol first . A small pulse of alcohol (5 ml) will switch off alternate energy pathways .
6.Do this first and see what happens . Keep record .
7.Things like statins , Q10 , metformin , etc all play a role .

Zero-carb pizza with extra garlic and anchovies , anyone ?
Andre .


Appendix I
“Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is an amplification technique (conceptually likePCR but not involving nucleotides) to multiply misfolded prions originally developed by Soto and colleagues.[1] It is a test for spongiform encephalopathies like BSE.
The technique initially incubates a small amount of abnormal prion with an excess of normal protein, so that some conversion takes place. The growing chain of misfolded protein is then blasted withultrasound, breaking it down into smaller chains and so rapidly increasing the amount of abnormal protein available to cause conversions.[1][2] By repeating the cycle, the mass of normal protein is rapidly changed into misfolded prion (termed PrPSc).”

A mathematical solution for the exponential growth rate resulting from the combination of fibril growth and fibril breakage has been found.[6] The exponential growth rate depends largely on the square root of the PrPC concentration.[6] The incubation period is determined by the exponential growth rate, and in vivo data on prion diseases in transgenic mice match this prediction.[6] The same square root dependence is also seen in vitro in experiments with a variety of different amyloid proteins.[32]


Appendix II
“Amyloid biophysics
Amyloid is characterized by a cross-beta sheet quaternary structure”
“Quaternary structure”
Main articles: Protein quaternary structure and Nucleic acid quaternary structure
In biochemistry, quaternary structure is the arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex. For nucleic acids, the term is less common, but can refer to the higher-level organization of DNA in chromatin,[7] including its interactions with histones, or to the interactions between separate RNA units in the ribosome[8][9] or spliceosome.”


Appendix III
“ Notably, most of the fungal prions are based on glutamine/asparagine-rich sequences, with the exception of HET-s and Mod5.” Note Acrylamide and peripheral neuropathy .

^ Yam, Philip. "Natural Born Prion Killers: Lichens Degrade "Mad Cow" Related Brain Pathogen". Scientific American. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
“In 2011 it was discovered that prions could be degraded by lichens.[83][84]”


Appendix IV
“Stop codon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation.[1] Proteins are based on polypeptides, which are unique sequences of amino acids. Most codons in messenger RNA correspond to the addition of an amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain, which may ultimately become a protein. Stop codons signal the termination of this process by binding release factors, which cause the ribosomal subunits to disassociate, releasing the amino acid chain.
In the standard genetic code, there are several stop codons:
 in RNA:
 UAG ("amber")
 UAA ("ochre")
 UGA ("opal")
 in DNA:
 TAG ("amber")
 TAA ("ochre")
 TGA ("opal" or "umber")

Appendix V
“The investigators at University of Rochester found that they could chemically alter a mutant mRNA containing an early stop codon. This alters the codon so that it is not read as a stop codon, but instead as a codon instructing the addition of an amino acid. The scientists accomplished this by converting uridine, the first base of the stop codon, into another molecule, pseudouridine.”

Appendix VI
Cross-Talk between RNA and Prions
1. Colin G. Crist* and
2. Yoshikazu Nakamura†
+Author Affiliations
1. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639
1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: +81-3-5449-5307, Fax: +81-3-5449-5415, E-mail:
• Received June 13, 2006.
• Accepted June 13, 2006.
As concepts evolve in mammalian and yeast prion biology, rather preliminary research investigating the interplay between prion and RNA processes are gaining momentum. The yeast prion [PSI+] represents an aggregated state of the translation termination factor Sup35 resulting in the tendency of ribosomes to readthrough stop codons. This “nonsense suppression” activity is investigated for its possible physiological role to engender on Saccharomyces cerevisiae the ability to respond to stress or variable growth conditions and thereby act as a capacitor to evolve. The interaction between prion and RNA is a two way street—the cell may have adopted RNA processes in translation to govern the presence of prions and the [PSI+] prion's nonsense suppressor phenotype may exhibit different growth phenotypes by its control of translation termination. RNA processes in the mammalian cell also effect and are affected by prions.
Appendix VII
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Acrylamide

Dated 11/06/2006


See links at the bottom .

Acrylamide is formed by the Maillard reaction , when the Amino Acid Asparigine reacts with reducing sugars like glucose and fructose at a temperature over 120 degrees Celsius . (ie when bread , potatoes , cookies , etc begin to brown ).

Asparigine + glucose/fructose + (temp>120 Celsius) = Acrylamide

Acrylamide is a potent neurotoxin . It interferes with the internal neuronal transport in the axon . The transport of nutrients from axon nucleus to the end point of the nerve and the return of breakdown products of long nerves ( like to fingers and toes ) are first affected . The ends of the axon start to die . ( Numbness in extremities . )

Sensations of restlessness , tingling , burning , etc associated with peripheral neuropathy are probably caused by the spurious signals caused by the accumulation of debris at the interference site in the charge balance of the axon wall .
( Think train derailment in the middle of the Karoo , with the smashed up carriages messing up the signalling system )

Since many non-diabetics have peripheral neuropathy , the two diseases do not seem to be directly linked . But a synergistic link is strongly suspected .

But if you are diabetic and already have had attacks of peripheral neuropathy , ingesting high concentrations of acrylamide will surely lead to an attack of peripheral neuropathy .

Note the short half-life of acrylamide means that the concentration of acrylamide is driven by diet alone .

Asparigine , glucose/fructose , (temp>120 Celsius) are all three necessary to produce Acrylamide . Hence foods low on the first two , or cooked below 120 Celsius are safe .

The EU study found that 90% of diet derived acrylamide comes from :

French Fries (slap chips) : 16% – 30%
Potato crisps : 6% - 46%
Coffee (its always roasted ) : 13% - 39%
Pastries and Sweet biscuits : 10% - 20%
Bread , breadrolls , pizza and toast (especially the crust) : 10% - 30%

In general , avoid anything that used a temperature of 120 Celsius or above in it’s preparation . This includes teas .The effective concentrations of acrylamide needed to trigger the reaction is very low , especially for diabetics already sensitized .

Anything low GI microwaved submerged in water , or cooked without burning or browning should be ok .

Durum pastas should be ok , but no grills or ovens . Bye-bye toasted cheese sandwiches .

If you have to eat bread , cut off the crusts . Mothers used to do this for their children .

Any connection to attention Deficit Disorder ?

The irritability felt in the first stages of peripheral neuropathy ( ie wandering feet , can’t keep still ) and later on , irritable aggressiveness , sleeplessness and any activity to focus attention on anything except the painful feet ) sounds like the recipe for aggressive expansion .

Remember , that only the upper and middle classes ate bread . The bottom class (99 % of the population till about 1800 AD) ate porridge morning , noon and night. Milling kernels of wheat was ( and is ) expensive in real energy terms . (cf “Roman women will not grind wheat or cook “ after the Sabine episode , or lack of white bread in WW2) . Since it is a high energy food , it would be one of the great ironies of history that Empires and Inventions were caused by bread crusts . There is also a positive feedback element involved , namely that the type of wheat with the highest aspargine content will be the most widespread ( spread by the restless conquerors ) .

One wonders if the political instability inherent in the Middle East and North Africa are due to the high acrylamide content of their traditionally baked (from hot rock flat bread) foods . (In poorer regions like Europe , the plebs could not afford the energy cost .)

Hah! So much for meat . The weevilly baked biscuit of the middle ages was the driving force of the mariners to populate the earth with high-asparigine wheat .

No wonder things have gotten more unstable . For every diabetic , there are at least ten with an itchy , irritable nervosity .

Will humans use aspariginase ? This is an enzyme that destroys asparigine . Dosing food to a country with this will render them relatively docile in long run . Any volunteers ?

An interesting corollary is rice vs wheat . Rice is usually cooked at 100 Celsius . As the Chinese and Indian populations shift to high-arganine western wheat types , not only will their diabetes rates rise , but their aggression will rise at a much higher rate .

Interesting times for all .

Can one bake bread at less than 120 Celsius ?

See web references on Acrylamide:

1. PIM’s (1999) : The clinical picture .

Some highlights:

Chronic exposure to Acrylamide:

Chronic acrylamide toxicity is characterized by local
dermatitis, excessive sweating, fatigue, weight loss and
features of progressive CNS disturbance (especially truncal ataxia) and peripheral neuropathy. The severity of symptoms and the rapidity of onset appears to relate to the duration of exposure to, and the daily dose of, acrylamide.
Recovery over a period of weeks to months following removal from exposure is the usual course.

Biological half-life by route of exposure

In blood, acrylamide has a half-life of approximately 2
hours. In tissues, total acrylamide (parent compound an
metabolites) exhibits biphasic elimination with an initial
half-life of approximately 5 hours and a terminal half life of 8 days (Edwards, 1975; Miller et al., 1982).
Acrylamide does not accumulate in the body. [Note: all data derived from animal studies].

2. On 25 April 2002 (cf New Scientist of 22 April 2006 p 8 ) , Sweden’s National Food Administration announced that acrylamide in significant concentrations was found in many common processed foods . This prompted a major clinical food study by the European Union : the results are given on the EU’s food site: click on Documents , Positions , search on acrylamides from website .


Appendix VIII
Phene Systems.
Andre Willers
5 Nov 2009

Synopsis :
Cellular-wall control systems(phenes) of epigenetic and virus systems are becoming known and described .

Discussion :
See NewScientist 8 Aug 2009 p 41 "Kills all known germs" by B Holmes .
Relevant research by Philip Thorpe at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas .

See also "Coffee Foam" 2 Aug 2009 and later .

The argument is simple : self-replicating structures started on the walls of bubbles (probably clay : Gecko life) . These developed into the present day epigenetic control structures of processes inside the bubbles (ie cells) .
Viruses are messengers/controls both for intra-cellular and extra-cellular use .
Which is why they are usually wrapped in variants of the cell-wall .

Phosphatidylserine :
From the NewScientist article , this is a molecule mostly found sticking out of the inner lining of the cell-wall . Virus budding entails that this molecule is then found in particular patterns sticking out of the outside the outer cell-wall .

We expect such a mechanism if the cell-wall harbours the meta-controls (ie epigenetics) of the cell and some multicellular activity (ie virus messenger generation).

Humans have created antibodies that inactivate or target-for-destruction the bits of the Phosphatidylserine molecule sticking out of the cell-wall .

This will break the feedback-cycle of a large range of harmful viruses (apparently including HIV , Flu's , some cancers) .
Bavituximab ( a name only a Pharma could love) does exactly this . Expect to see a lot of it .

The question is :
Why are these antibodies not part of the body's normal immune system ?
The virus system is also used for information carrying .

Suppressing the virus system completely will destroy a multicellular organism , and make it revert to a collection of individual cells , even down to elemental chemicals if done properly . (Cf Ebola , SuperEbola , etc)

This can be bypassed by shining intense , quantum-entangled infra-red light through the mess (see previous posts) .

The normal system has to play a delicate balancing act between destruction from bad viruses and good,communication viruses .

If the baddies get too big an influence , intervention might be required . This is the duty of the epigenetic system . Why is it falling down on the job ?

The Dendritic Immune sytem
This is the connection between the synapse-type learning systems and the phene-system in the cell walls .

The dendritic immune system's effectiveness is magnified by at least 3 orders of magnitude by a continuous sharp pressure-differential . The search space is drastically reduced by stochastic resonance . (The proof is either immediately obvious or very long).

Hence modern music and it's prevalence .

Your chances of survival is about 10^3 better if you listen to some semi-random rock.
Hence iPod and others . This is a real effect .

But we can do better than that by internal Click programming .
You know : Clicking the tongue , beak , teeth , exoskelet .

There is no animal with synapses or an immune system that makes no clicks at some stage .
This is actually quite amazing .

We would then expect plants to be noisy . And they are , on very low frequencies . This is how desert elephants survive : they hear the bulbous plants growing by the low-frequency pulses sensed through their feet . A patch of bulbs would have a signature low-frequency pulse observable from a long way off . (The bulbs would evolve-learn to spurt growth at the same time . This would lessen the chance of detection and eating by close-by herbivores not as smart as elephants)

Click-talking plants .
Better than just talking to them . But try some castanets . Tap-dancing will work too , but the neighbours will think you're really crazy tap-dancing to the plants . Tojours .

Grinding your teeth .
A common complaint , usually explained away as stress . Actually , your teeth are trying to click together . A part of the body's housekeeping routine . Programming the gums and intestinal tract .

Just for the hell of it , click your teeth together 5 times together with 5 double-tongue clicks interspersed as you feel . Count them . You will feel an immediate stress-relief feeling . Blood pressure will drop . Be careful if medication to lower blood pressure is taken .

I just thought of the above , and tried it .
The teeth (molars mostly) must click against each other . You will notice there is a damage-control protocol hardwired in . The teeth will click , but not hard enough to cause damage . This already tells us that this is an old system .

The natural tendency will be for a double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .

Be careful of hypotension of the cardiovascular system . The stress relief is very pronounced . Especially around the neck and upper shoulder muscles .

Teeth-grinding should cease .

But why ?
I did not expect this . But the effect is so pronounced that I cannot ignore it .
The neck and shoulder muscles do not relax through an effort of will or exercise . They just relax . (Sort of melt) .

Maybe a double bite-bite on empty air signals the end of an aggressive episode , and for expensive fight-or-flight mechanisms to stand down .

This would make this fairly deep-wired , certainly deeper than psychological stress .

Phene effects .
The stand-down is an immediate stand-down , regardless of the number previous stress-generating events . This must be true , since this is the epigenetic programming system . There is no other memory system .

Phene programming of immune-systems , bone-growth , digestion , neural growth etc ,are immediately affected . Genes are switched from crisis to maintenance . Using the carbohydrate-energy mechanism is a short-term crisis mechanism .

Standing down the mechanism should ameliorate conditions like Diabetes II .

Or getting fat .

Want to get thin ?
The algorithm :
Double-teeth click , followed by a double tongue-click with the mouth open . The process then repeats , varying the teeth , tongue and mouth open/closed .
Repeat at least ten times a month .
That’s it .

Can it be this simple?
Yes .

Why has nobody thought of it before ?
As far as I am aware , nobody in our recorded history has thought that the click of teeth together can have physiological effects . Prehistoric societies were probably aware of the effect .

Yet it does , as you can find out for yourself .
The same for the simplicity . Simple causes has wide effects , because they are so basic . You must look at the whole argument .

In any case , there is hardly any risk .
I am doing it . Tojours!

Hasta la vista !
Coming or going .

Andre .

Appendix IX
Nov 2004

The Sexes of Man

Standard Darwinism as applied to genes would indicate that the optimum strategy for a single cell is to have as many offspring as possible .

But how did multicellular organisms then manage to survive in competition with single cells ? After all , it takes more energy to run a multicellular : the organizational overheads .

Their edge is “tough times” . Some cells in multicellular organisms learned to utilize neighbour cells . Since these resources were close , the energy of utilization compared to a unicell hunting food was low .

If times are good , unicellular organisms like bacteria are inclined to eat multicellulars alive or eat their food (cf virulent tropical diseases , etc) . Unicellulars are still by far the biggest biomass on the planet .

If times are bad , the multicellular lives off the designated sacrificial cells , while the surrounding unicellulars die off en masse .

So the optimal environment for multicelluar organism to evolve and flourish is in environment of periodic scarcities . ie Tidal pools , seasons , Milankovich cycles , meteor strikes, volcanoes etc .

Note:the synoptic argument below is in time- and logical sequence .

Some cells became more important than others : in good times cells differentiated , in bad times the less important were scavenged first . Cells learned to package themselves for neat absorbtion (apoptosis) . Organs formed . Only some cells reproduced new organisms . This was a huge saving : stem cells differentiated from egg-cells . The immune system developed. (Differentiated stem cells) . Sex developed as a immune system response against attackers (parasites and diseases ) . Sex also had huge energy saving advantages , since a single gene-set could populate an eco- niche (and deny it to competitors) , but nearly all the males could be sacrificed when times are bad . One would expect a really strong hardwired tendency for males to die near their offspring . (Cf wars , exiles)

Parental care evolved . Now surpluses could be transferred from the adults to the children as long as the adults lived ( or were programmed to care ) .

To put it another way : a gene group can ensure better survival by having a non-reproducing group of relatives. This is but our old principle above where close cells are used as reserves . The only question is the exact percentage .

If a constant percentage (r) of every human generation is postulated to lead to offspring , the relevant percentages for maximized resources per child are
Grandchildren Offspring : 79.3701% No-Offspring : 20.6299%
Great-Grandchildren Offspring : 88.0749% No-Offspring : 11.3251%
(This derivation is available on request , but can easily be duplicated . Just remember that the surplus per generation is the children the “non-offspring” lot did not have , and that the surplus only accumulated after the “non-offspring” should have had children (ie one generation))

As long as the number of offspring per parent remains constant (regardless of 1 to 1 , 1 to many) parentages , these percentages will remain .

What does this mean ?
With humans , it means there is a large niche ( 11% to 21% ) of any generation where having no offspring means that the chances of a gene-groups viable survival is optimal . ie It pays the society to have 11-21% childless people .

The other sexes of Man
These are the gays , asexuals , misanthropes , explorers and other assorted misfits .

(Note recent statistical finding that the female relatives of gay men have more children than average : either a gene fit or the women looking around and thinking they can afford more children on expectations . )

Furthermore , if the birthrate decreases , this niche decreases by between the square and the cube of the decrease the birthrate during the period of the decrease . (Vicious)
Ie a halving of the birthrate will mean a decrease in the niche to ( 3% to 5%) at the best . Note that this is only applicable during the transition . Once it is stabilized , it will return to the 11-22 % range . But things in the interim will not be pleasant .

A societal decrease in tolerance of 8% can only be described as a turn towards fundamentalism .

This is structural:ie driven by factors effectively outside human control .

In both the West and Muslim worlds , the chance of having viable offspring in the 2nd and 3rd generation has decreased markedly . In the West by decreasing birthrates , and in the Muslim world by a static resource base divided by an increasing population . This tends to fundamentalism . Ironically enough , it does not hold (at the present moment) for China,India,Japan because of high growth rates .

But if a worldwide recession (a-la-1930’s) set in (probability +-45%) , then China and Japan could hunker down , but India would be forced into a fundamentalist Hindu expansionist phase . This would trigger a US - India alliance which would grind Islam fine , re-colonise Africa and eye South-America with a hungry eye . Australia is already past its carrying capacity .

To put it in other words , get off-planet . The monkeys are soon going to render this one uninhabitable .



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