Saturday, November 16, 2013



Andre Willers
16 Nov 2013
“Don’t diss me”
“Smile when you say that”
Synopsis :
Respect is a deeply hardwired mechanism to prevent conflict . Lack of Respect is then inherently aggressive .
Discussion :
1.Respect combines memory (conditioning) and future extrapolation to prevent a conflict that would not change the status quo , but be needlessly destructive . See
2.Any social species must then have respect mechanisms , otherwise they cannot compete or survive against groups that have these respect mechanisms .
3.Challenge :
 If one party to an encounter thinks that conflict might change his status for the better , then Challenge mechanisms have evolved to clearly indicate that this is a deliberate challenge , not just bad manners . See Appendix A on Manners and Etiquette

4.Surrender :
Surrender mechanisms evolved to survive losing a conflict .
4.1 Inadvertent conflict : due to bad manners , unintentional insult , etc . An apology , in other words , maybe with a penance .
4.2 Deliberate conflict :  The loser surrenders by making himself vulnerable and exhibiting flight behaviour .
Humans will also apologise ( beseeching mercy – “reaching out hands while grunting” . See Chimps below) and give up allies or territory as penance .
“ In chimpanzee society, the 'dominant male' sometimes is not the largest or strongest male but rather the most manipulative and political male that can influence the goings on within a group. Male chimpanzees typically attain dominance by cultivating allies who will support that individual during future ambitions for power. The alpha male regularly displays by puffing his normally slim coat up to increase view size and charge to seem as threatening and as powerful as possible; this behavior serves to intimidate other members and thereby maintain power and authority, and it may be fundamental to the alpha male's holding on to his status. Lower-ranking chimpanzees will show respect by submissively gesturing in body language or reaching out their hands while grunting. Female chimpanzees will show deference to the alpha male by presenting their hindquarters.
5. Lies .
Any dominant individual cannot know whether Respect is a lie .
Any Respect is then treated as a lie , and proof of respect is then required . This can be quite draconian and as destructive as the conflict it is meant to prevent .
“Learned helplessness is the condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards.”
It is easy to induce , and very destructive . See Sapolsky .
Humans : “Paying your dues” , Initiation Rites , Military indoctrination of respect , academic titles , etc.
Eg “Is there a Doctor in the hearse ?”
6. Learned Optimism :
See Appendix B
Consciously using the Paradox Resolution capabilities of the human brain ( ie sense of humour) to short-circuit the Respect mechanisms .
The question is then : how does the dominant one view this ? As a lie (which requires further proof of respect and indoctrination) or genuinely non-threatening ?
There are historical precedents : Court Jesters .
So , a mechanism does exist where lack of respect does not automatically trigger “Dissing” reactions . But humour has to be involved , as guide to paradox resolution .
Eg Evita Bezuidenhout in South Africa’s apartheid era. In Afrikaans , he had “beklisensie”  , literally he could say what he liked , as long as it tickled the paradox resolution sense (humour) .
7. Humour and Paradox Resolution :
It is a mechanism deeply rooted in the nature of the Universe . It is how dimensions are formed and reconciled .
So , naturally the brains of anything runs on it .
Discussed in Appendix C
8.Twitter .
The limited space forces packing . The reader unpacks, which forces further quantal changes in the brain at neurological level .
See @NovaGrub on Twitter for Twitter Sonnets , Haiku’s and Sagas

9. Bankers
Masters of Twitter-speak .
See what Alan Greenspan had to say about it :
“ I know you think you understand what you thought I said but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant”
10 . SnapChat
The next logical sequence is to limit the temporal duration of the message .
“Snapchat was started by Spiegel and Bobby Murphy as a project for one of Spiegel's classes at Stanford University where he was a product design major. When Spiegel floated the idea in April 2011 in front of the product design class for his final project, classmates balked at the idea of the impermanent photos.[7] Snapchat was launched in September 2011 in Spiegel's father's living room.”
See Appendix D , where SnapChat reportedly just turned down a $4Bn offer .
Is everybody mad , or is it just me ?
11. MousaiChat  
(Pronounced MusiChat)
Free to the next billionaire .
The next logical step . Limit the text , music and picture content to predefined styles .
If SnapChat is used , this will really enhance human intelligence .

The Mousai are the Muses . See
There is no Google hit for MousaiChat . (What does this say about Artists ?)

Eg .Sonnets , haiku’s , limericks , photo styles , jazz , opera  etc ,etc .
Flashed for a minute or two . Fiendish .
See Appendix D for Poem forms .
12.Summary :
Cities enabled rudeness . (You will never see the insultees again)
Small World Networks (like Facebook , Twitter , etc) means that you do “see” them again . Hence flame wars .
As anonymity disappears , politeness reappears .
But the rude impulse remains to tell them off .
Hence SnapChat and putative MousaiChat .
Scottish Last Respects .
The last one to leave the grave gets stuck with the burial costs .
Respectfully yours
Appendix A
Etiquette and Manners
Etiquette (/ˈɛtɨkɛt/ or /ˈɛtɨkɪt/, French: [e.ti.kɛt]) is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group. The French word étiquette, literally signifying a tag or label, first appeared in English around 1750.[1]

In 2414-2375 BC, Ptahhotep wrote The Maxims of Ptahhotep. The Maxims are conformist precepts extolling such civil virtues as
Kindness towards one's fellow beings
Learning by listening to everybody
Knowing that human knowledge is never perfect
Avoiding open conflict wherever possible should not be considered weakness
The importance of justice and morality
Some of the maxims refer to one's behaviour when in the presence of the great, how to choose the right master and how to serve him. Others teach the correct way to lead through openness and kindness. Greed is the base of all evil and should be guarded against, while generosity towards family and friends is praiseworthy. From: Ancient Egypt encyclopedia
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher whose philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity.
Louis XIV (1638-1718) "transformed a royal hunting lodge in Versailles, a village 25 miles southwest of the capital, into one of the largest palaces in the world, officially moving his court and government there in 1682. It was against this awe-inspiring backdrop that Louis tamed the nobility and impressed foreign dignitaries, using entertainment, ceremony and a highly codified system of etiquette to assert his supremacy.”[2]
In French, the word "etiquette" has been described as the one word that aptly describes life during the reign of Queen Victoria.[3]
The word etiquette came from an old French word meaning ticket or label.[citation needed] From the 1500s through the early 1900s, children learned about etiquette at school. Nevertheless etiquette has changed and evolved over the years.

‘Manners’ is a term usually preceded by the word good or bad to indicate whether or not a behavior is socially acceptable. Every culture adheres to a different set of manners, although a lot of manners are cross‐culturally common. Manners are a subset of social norms which are informally enforced through self-regulation and social policing and publically performed. They enable human ‘ultrasociality’ [4] by imposing self-restraint and compromise on regular, everyday actions.
A Theoretical history of Manners[edit]
Perspectives of Sociology[edit]
In his book The Civilizing Process, Norbert Elias [5] argues that manners arose as a product of group living and persist as a way of maintaining social order. He theorized that manners proliferated during the Renaissance in response to the development of the ‘absolute state’ – the progression from small group living to the centralization of power by the state. Elias believed that the rituals associated with manners in the Court Society of England during this period were closely bound with social status. To him manners demonstrate an individual’s position within a social network and act as a means by which the individual can negotiate that position.
Petersen and Lupton argue that manners helped reduce the boundaries between the public sphere and the private sphere and gave rise to “a highly reflective self, a self who monitors his or her behavior with due regard for others with whom he or she interacts socially.” They explain that that; “The public behavior of individuals came to signify their social standing, a means of presenting the self and of evaluating others and thus the control of the outward self was vital.” [6] From this perspective, manners are seen not just as a means of displaying one’s social status, but also as a means of maintaining social boundaries around class and identity.
Pierre Bourdieu’s notion of ‘habitus’ can also contribute to the understanding of manners.[7] The habitus, he explains, is a set of ‘dispositions’ that are neither self‐determined, nor pre‐determined, by external environmental factors. They tend to operate at a subconscious level and are “inculcated through experience and explicit teaching” [8] and produced and reproduced by social interactions. Manners, in this view, are likely to be a central part of the ‘dispositions’ which guide an individual’s ability to make socially compliant behavioral decisions.
Perspectives of Anthropology[edit]
Anthropologists concern themselves primarily with detailing cultural variances and differences in ‘ways of seeing’. Theorists such as Mary Douglas have claimed that each culture’s unique set of manners, behaviors and rituals enable the local cosmology to remain ordered and free from those things that may pollute or defile it.[9] In particular, she suggests that ideas of pollution and disgust are attached to the margins of socially acceptable behavior to curtail such actions and maintain“ the assumptions by which experience is controlled.”
Perspectives of Evolutionary Biology[edit]
Evolutionary biology looks at the origin of behavior and the motivation behind it. Charles Darwin analyzed the remarkable universality of facial responses to disgust, shame and other complex emotions.[10] Having identified the same behavior in young infants and blind individuals he concluded that these responses are not learned but innate. According to Val Curtis,[11][12] the development of these responses was concomitant with the development of manners behavior. For Curtis, manners play an evolutionary role in the prevention of disease. This assumes that those who were hygienic, polite to others and most able to benefit from their membership within a cultural group, stand the best chance of survival and reproduction.
Catherine Cottrell and Steven Neuberg explore how our behavioral responses to ‘otherness’ may enable the preservation of manners and norms.[13] They suggest that the foreignness or unfamiliarity we experience when interacting with different cultural groups for the first time, may partly serve an evolutionary function: “Group living surrounds one with individuals able to physically harm fellow group members, to spread contagious disease, or to “free ride” on their efforts. A commitment to sociality thus carries a risk: If threats such as these are left unchecked, the costs of sociality will quickly exceed its benefits. Thus, to maximize the returns on group living, individual group members should be attuned to others’ features or behaviors.”[13]
Thus, people who possess similar traits, common to the group, are to be trusted, whereas those who do not are to be considered as ‘others’ and treated with suspicion or even exclusion. Curtis argues that selective pressure borne out of a shift towards communal living would have resulted in individuals being shunned from the group for hygiene lapses or uncooperative behavior. This would have led to people avoiding actions that might result in embarrassment or others being disgusted.[14] Joseph Henrich and Robert Boyd developed a model to demonstrate this process at work. They explain natural selection has favored the acquisition of genetically transmitted learning mechanisms that increase an individual’s chance of acquiring locally adaptive behavior. They hypothesize that: “Humans possess a reliably developing neural encoding that compels them both to punish individuals who violate group norms (common beliefs or practices) and punish individuals who do not punish norm violators.”[15] From this approach, manners are a means of mitigating undesirable behavior and fostering the benefits of in‐group cooperation.
Differentiation of manner types[edit]
Curtis’ also specifically outlines three manner categories; hygiene, courtesy and cultural norms, each of which help to account for the multifaceted role manners play in society.[14] These categories are based on the outcome rather than the motivation of manners behavior and individual manner behaviors may fit in to 2 or more categories.
Hygiene Manners– are any manners which affect disease transmission. They are likely to be taught at an early age, primarily through parental discipline, positive behavioral enforcement around continence with bodily fluids (such as toilet training) and the avoidance or removal of items that pose a disease risk for children. It is expected that, by adulthood, hygiene manners are so entrenched in one’s behavior that they become second nature. Violations are likely to elicit disgust responses.
Courtesy Manners – demonstrate one’s ability to put the interests of others before oneself; to display self‐control and good intent for the purposes of being trusted in social interactions. Courtesy manners help to maximize the benefits of group living by regulating social interaction. Disease avoidance behavior can sometimes be compromised in the performance of courtesy manners. They may be taught in the same way as hygiene manners but are likely to also be learned through direct, indirect (i.e. observing the interactions of others) or imagined (i.e. through the executive functions of the brain) social interactions. The learning of courtesy manners may take place at an older age than hygiene manners, because individuals must have at least some means of communication and some awareness of self and social positioning. The violation of courtesy manners most commonly results in social disapproval from peers.
Cultural Norm Manners – typically demonstrate one’s identity within a specific socio‐cultural group. Adherence to cultural norm manners allows for the demarcation of socio‐cultural identities and the creation of boundaries which inform who is to be trusted or who is to be deemed as ‘other’. Cultural norm manners are learnt through the enculturation and routinisation of ‘the familiar’ and through exposure to ‘otherness’ or those who are identified as foreign or different. Transgressions and non‐adherence to cultural norm manners commonly result in alienation. Cultural norms, by their very nature, have a high level of between‐group variability but are likely to be common to all those who identify with a given group identity.
Rules of etiquette encompass most aspects of social interaction in any society, though the term itself is not commonly used. A rule of etiquette may reflect an underlying ethical code, or it may reflect a person's fashion or status. Rules of etiquette are usually unwritten, but aspects of etiquette have been codified from time to time.
Etiquette Books[edit]
Erasmus of Rotterdam published his book On Good Manners for Boys in 1530. Amid his advice for young children on fidgeting, yawning, bickering and scratching he highlights that a core tenet of manners is the ability to “readily ignore the faults of others but avoid falling short yourself”.[16] In centuries since then many authors have tried to collate manners or etiquette guide books. One of the most famous of these was Emily Post who began to document etiquette in 1922. She described her work as detailing the “trivialities” of desirable everyday conduct but also provided descriptions of appropriate conduct for key life events such as baptisms, weddings and funerals. She later established an institute which continues to provide updated advice on how to negotiate modern day society with good manners and decorum. The most recent edition of her book provides advice on such topics as when it is acceptable to ‘unfriend’ someone on Facebook and who is entitled to which armrest when flying.[17] Etiquette books such as these as well as those by Amy Vanderbilt,[18] Hartley,[19] Judith Martin,[20] and Sandi Toksvig[21] outline suggested behaviours for a range of social interactions. However, all note that to be a well-mannered person one must not merely read their books but be able to employ good manners fluidly in any situation that may arise.
Western office and business etiquette[edit]
The etiquette of business is the set of written and unwritten rules of conduct that make social interactions run more smoothly. Office etiquette in particular applies to coworker interaction, excluding interactions with external contacts such as customers and suppliers. When conducting group meetings in the United States, the assembly might follow Robert's Rules of Order, if there are no other company policies to control a meeting.
These rules are often echoed throughout an industry or economy. For instance, 49% of employers surveyed in 2005 by the American National Association of Colleges and Employers found that non-traditional attire would be a "strong influence" on their opinion of a potential job candidate.[22]
Both office and business etiquette overlap considerably with basic tenets of netiquette, the social conventions for using computer networks.
Business etiquette can vary significantly in different countries, which is invariably related to their culture. For example: A notable difference between Chinese and Western business etiquette is conflict handling. Chinese businesses prefer to look upon relationship management to avoid conflicts[23] - stemmed from a culture that heavily relies on Guanxi. While the west leaves resolution of conflict to the interpretations of law through contracts and lawyers.
Adjusting to foreign etiquettes is a major complement of culture shock, providing a market for manuals.[24] Other resources include business and diplomacy institutions, available only in certain countries such as the UK.[25]
In 2011, a group of etiquette experts and international business group formed a non-profit organization called IITTI (pronounced as "ET") to help human resource (HR) departments of multinationals in measuring the etiquette skills of prospective new employees during the recruitment process by standardizing image and etiquette examination, similar to what ISO does for industrial process measurements.[26]

Main article: Etiquette in Europe
European etiquette is not uniform. Even within the regions of Europe, etiquette may not be uniform: within a single country there may be differences in customs, especially where there are different linguistic groups, as in Switzerland where there are French, German and Italian speakers.
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Main article: Adab (Islam)
Proper moral conduct (adab) primary to prepare Sufi disciples for the ultimate return to the divine (Qumar-ul-Huda). Qumar-ul Huda proposes that the detailed instructions for spiritual exercises, guidelines for meditation, prayers, and the theological connection among faith, law, and the etiquette of morality suggest and adan theology. Islam has rules of etiquette and an ethical code involving every aspect of life. Muslims refer to Adab as good manners, courtesy, respect, and appropriateness, covering acts such as entering or exiting a washroom, posture when sitting, and cleansing oneself. According to Sahih Bukhari, Muhammad refrained from bad language; neither a 'Fahish nor a Mutafahish. He used to say "The best amongst you are those who have the best manners and character." Where adab is not found there is no law Qamar-ul Huda. Where there isn't law people are not obedient, and there is no authority. When there is no type of general rules of society to follow, then people become hostile, and in the end all will be destroyed. In wider Islamic usage adab was more about the proper codes for conducting one's life that were connected to a system of ideas based on essential teachings of the Islamic faith and its beliefs Qamar-ul Huda. The guidance of having proper codes of conduct make society have order and authority, and give the people something to abide by. When society has authority to obey, then that makes other be the best person they can be compared to the next. In society when people are being the best person they can be, then that society would be too perfect for reality.
Main article: Taarof
Taarof is a Persian form of civility emphasizing both self-deference and social rank, similar to the Chinese art of etiquette, limao. The term encompasses a range of social behaviours, from a man displaying etiquette by opening the door for a woman, to a group of colleagues standing on ceremony in front of a door that can permit the entry of only one at time, earnestly imploring the most senior to break the deadlock. In order for one to understand the complete concept of adab, one must move beyond the texts of the world and view the larger system of interrelated religious concepts to which it is connected Lowen. This means one can't follow what is written inside of a text book, and think that they are following all of the conducts correctly. For one to fully suit the conducts, one must be open to trial,and error and learn from mistakes and make those mistakes a lesson learned. Follwoing adab conduct is crucial with one learning how to accept failure, because that will make one a stronger character. Adab was further defined by a visible and calculated demonstration of good deeds, as expressed in a varse cited by Kashifi" "Adab consists wholly of doing good deeds Lowen. One who does good deeds is usually a good person who values helping other for nothing in return, and is very polite and has good working ethnics and is usually content with their lives. The virtues which characterized the jawanmard-generosity, hospitality, courage, self-sacrifice-were epitomized by specific codes of behavior Loewn. Loewn also expresses that an important characteristic of spiritual champions and Sufis of the medieval period was their practice of hospitality and the ritual of the communal meal. Adab thus meant a generous and open table, perhaps not dissimilar from the code of secular jawanmardi Lowen.
Main article: Etiquette in Japan
The Japanese are very formal. Moments of silence are far from awkward. Smiling does not always mean that the individual is expressing pleasure. Business cards are to be handed out formally following this procedure: Hand card with writing facing upwards; bow when giving and receiving the card; grasp it with both hands; read it carefully; and put it in a prominent place. The Japanese feel a “Giri” an obligation to reciprocate a gesture of kindness. They also rely on an innate sense of right and wrong.
Conversation     Business              Dining   Leisure
• Bow when greeting someone.
• Do not display emotion.
• Do not blow your nose in public.
• Do not stand with your hands in your pocket.
• Displaying an open mouth is rude.
• Bow in greeting.
• Females should avoid heels.
• Do not stash away a business card in a pocket or in a place where it is likely to be misplaced or damaged.
• Look at the business card when given, and try to say something genuinely nice about it (colors, font, raised lettering, etc.). The card should also be received with two hands.
• Exchange business cards.
• Moments of silence are normal.
• Do not slouch.
• Cross legs at the ankles.
• Do not interrupt but listen carefully.
• Do not chew gum.
• It is acceptable to make noise while eating.
• Food is judged by not only the taste but also the consistency.
• Do not mix sake with any other alcohol.
• Try any food that is given to you.
• Finishing all the rice in your bowl indicates the desire for second helpings.
• If someone offers you sake, drink.
• Remove shoes before entering homes and restaurants.
• To beckon a person extend hand palm down and make a scratching motion.
• The Japanese wear surgical masks when they have a cold.
• Men sit cross-legged and women sit on their legs or with their legs to the side.
Kenyans believe that their tribal identity is very important. Kenyans are also very nationalistic. Kenyans rarely prefer to be alone, and are usually very friendly and welcoming of guests. Kenyans are very family-oriented.
Conversation     Business              Dining   Leisure
• The handshake is the common greeting.           • Use right hand to receive gifts.              • Eating is taken very seriously. • You must ask permission in taking pictures of people.
• Engage in small talk.    • Personal references are highly respected.        • Eating is usually done in silence.            • Kenyans operate on “Swahili Time”.
• Kenyans do not like to say "No" or "Yes".          • Meetings can be very lengthy.               • Lunch is the most important meal of the day.         
• Be humorous.                • Hand out a business card.         • The evening meal tends to be light.    
• Laugh readily.                • Decisions tend to be made in a group.                • Traditional foods are eaten without cutlery by using the right hand.     
Cultural differences[edit]

Hunting Lice by Candlelight, Andries Both (Dutch, ca.1612/13–1641)
Etiquette is dependent on culture; what is excellent etiquette in one society may shock another. Etiquette evolves within culture. The Dutch painter Andries Both shows that the hunt for head lice (illustration, right), which had been a civilized grooming occupation in the early Middle Ages, a bonding experience that reinforced the comparative rank of two people, one groomed the other, one was the subject of the groomer, had become a peasant occupation by 1630. The painter portrays the familiar operation matter-of-factly, without the disdain this subject would have received in a 19th-century representation.
Etiquette can vary widely between different cultures and nations. For example, in Hausa culture, eating while standing may be seen as offensively casual and ill-omened behavior, insulting the host and showing a lack of respect for the scarcity of food—the offense is known as "eating with the devil" or "committing santi." In China, a person who takes the last item of food from a common plate or bowl without first offering it to others at the table may be seen as a glutton who is insulting the host's generosity. Traditionally, if guests do not have leftover food in front of them at the end of a meal, it is to the dishonour of the host. In America a guest is expected to eat all of the food given to them, as a compliment to the quality of the cooking. However, it is still considered polite to offer food from a common plate or bowl to others at the table.
In such rigid hierarchal cultures as Korea and Japan, alcohol helps to break down the strict social barrier between classes. It allows for a hint of informality to creep in. It is traditional for host and guest to take turns filling each other's cups and encouraging each other to gulp it down. For someone who does not consume alcohol (except for religious reasons), it can be difficult escaping the ritual of the social drink.[27]
Etiquette is a topic that has occupied writers and thinkers in all sophisticated societies for millennia, beginning with a behavior code by Ptahhotep, a vizier in ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom during the reign of the Fifth Dynasty king Djedkare Isesi (ca. 2414–2375 BC). All known literate civilizations, including ancient Greece and Rome, developed rules for proper social conduct. Confucius included rules for eating and speaking along with his more philosophical sayings.
Early modern conceptions of what behavior identifies a "gentleman" were codified in the 16th century, in a book by Baldassare Castiglione, Il Cortegiano ("The Courtier"); its codification of expectations at the court of Urbino remained in force in its essentials until World War I. Louis XIV established an elaborate and rigid court ceremony, but distinguished himself from the high bourgeoisie by continuing to eat, stylishly and fastidiously, with his fingers. An important book about etiquette is Il Galateo by Giovanni della Casa; in fact, in Italian, etiquette is generally called galateo (or etichetta or protocollo).
In the American colonies Benjamin Franklin and George Washington wrote codes of conduct for young gentlemen. The immense popularity of advice columns and books by Letitia Baldrige and Miss Manners shows the currency of this topic. Even more recently, the rise of the Internet has necessitated the adaptation of existing rules of conduct to create Netiquette, which governs the drafting of e-mail, rules for participating in an online forum, and so on.
In Germany, many books dealing with etiquette, especially dining, dressing etc., are called the Knigge, named after Adolph Freiherr Knigge who wrote the book Über den Umgang mit Menschen (On Human Relations) in the late 18th century. However, this book is about good manner and also about the social states of its time, but not about etiquette.
Etiquette may be wielded as a social weapon. The outward adoption of the superficial mannerisms of an in-group, in the interests of social advancement rather than a concern for others, is considered by many a form of snobbery, lacking in virtue.
Appendix B
Learned optimism is the idea in positive psychology that a talent for joy, like any other, can be cultivated. It is contrasted with learned helplessness. Learning optimism is done by consciously challenging any negative self talk.
Learned optimism was defined by Martin Seligman and published in his 1990 book, Learned Optimism.[1] The benefits of an optimistic outlook are many: Optimists are higher achievers and have better overall health. Pessimism, on the other hand, is much more common; pessimists are more likely to give up in the face of adversity or to suffer from depression. Seligman invites pessimists to learn to be optimists by thinking about their reactions to adversity in a new way. The resulting optimism—one that grew from pessimism—is a learned optimism. The optimist's outlook on failure can thus be summarized as "What happened was an unlucky situation (not personal), and really just a setback (not permanent) for this one, of many, goals (not pervasive)".
Other differences exist between pessimists and optimists in terms of explanatory style:
Permanence: Optimistic people believe bad events to be more temporary than permanent and bounce back quickly from failure, whereas others may take longer periods to recover or may never recover. They also believe good things happen for reasons that are permanent, rather than seeing the transient nature of positive events. Optimists point to specific temporary causes for negative events; pessimists point to permanent causes.
Pervasiveness: Optimistic people compartmentalize helplessness, whereas pessimistic people assume that failure in one area of life means failure in life as a whole. Optimistic people also allow good events to brighten every area of their lives rather than just the particular area in which the event occurred.
Personalization: Optimists blame bad events on causes outside of themselves, whereas pessimists blame themselves for events that occur. Optimists are therefore generally more confident. Optimists also quickly internalize positive events while pessimists externalize them.
Martin Seligman’s learned optimism now orients the armed services’ psychological stance. Keith Ablow blamed this in part for the actions of the U.S. soldier accused of killing 16 civilians in Afghanistan. He wrote that soldiers are “taught to deny stress and trauma, and false bravado is actually encouraged, under the banner of ‘resilience.’ It’s a bad, bad idea that pushes soldiers to ‘fake good’ until they fall apart. And, then, the system continues to withhold needed care, particularly of a psychotherapeutic, insight-oriented variety.”[2]
Seligman came to the concept of learned optimism through a scientific study of learned helplessness, the idea that a certain reoccurring negative event is out of the person's control. As he was performing tests to study helplessness further, he began to wonder why some people resisted helplessness-conditioning. He noticed that, while some subjects blamed themselves for negative outcomes, others blamed the experiment for setting them up to fail.
Seligman shifted his focus to attempting to discover what it is that keeps some people from ever becoming helpless. The answer was optimism. Using his knowledge about conditioning people to be helpless in the lab, he shifted his focus to conditioning people to be optimists. The result of these experiments led to defining the processes of learning optimism.
In a study completed by Martin Seligman and Gregory Buchanan at the University of Pennsylvania and published by the American Psychological Association, learned optimism techniques were found to significantly reduce depression in a class of college freshmen. As incoming students to the university, a survey determined the most pessimistic students and they were invited to participate in the study. They were randomly assigned, half to attend a 16-hour workshop on the techniques of learning optimism, and half were the control group. In an 18-month follow up, 32% of the control group suffered moderate to severe depression and 15% suffered moderate to severe anxiety disorder, whereas only 22% of the workshop participants were depressed and 7% had anxiety issues. Those who participated in the learned optimism workshop also reported fewer health problems over the 18-month period of the study than those students in the control group.[3]
A study done by Peter Schulman at the Wharton School, published in the Journal of Selling and Sales Management, looked to determine the effects of applying learned optimism in business. After measuring the optimism levels of an insurance sales force, it was determined that the optimistic sales people sold 35 percent more, and identified pessimists were two times more likely to quit in the first year than optimists. As a result of his studies, he recommends testing sales job candidates for optimism levels to fit them to appropriate positions, training employees in learned optimism techniques, and designing an organization overall to have attainable goals set and good support from management.[4]
Finally, a study conducted by Mark Ylvisaker of the College of Saint Rose and Timothy Feeney of the Wildwood Institute looked at children with executive function impairment. The children had brain functioning impairments affecting motor skills, memory, or the ability to focus. Learned optimism was not taught to the children themselves, but rather to their caretakers, who often are more likely to feel helpless than optimistic in regards to caring for the child. It was found that learned optimism in caretakers of children with brain damage actually led the children to develop more functioning than children without optimistic caretakers. Thus Ylvisaker concludes that the optimism of professional rehabilitators can affect the results of their clients.[5]
Seligman’s Method of Learning Optimism[edit]
According to Martin Seligman, anyone can learn optimism. Whether currently an optimist or a pessimist, benefits can be gained from exposure to the process of learned optimism to improve response to both big and small adversities. A test developed by Seligman is used to determine an individual’s base level of optimism and sort them on a scale. Being in the more pessimistic categories means that learning optimism has a chance of preventing depression, helping the person achieve more, and improve physical health.
Seligman’s process of learning optimism is simple, and trains a new way of responding to adversity. Namely, the person learns to talk themselves through personal defeat. It begins with the Ellis ABC model of adversity, belief, and consequence.[6] Adversity is the event that happens, belief is how that adversity is interpreted, and consequences are the feelings and actions that result from the beliefs. This is demonstrated in the example below:
Adversity: Someone cuts you off in traffic.
Belief: You think, “I can’t believe that idiot was so rude and selfish!”
Consequence: You are overcome with anger, yelling profanity at the other driver.
This is a somewhat graphic example, but should present a good idea of what each component of ABC looks like. In the journey to learning optimism, one must first understand one's natural reaction to and interpretation of adversity. In order to do so, learners are asked to keep a journal, for two days, of small adverse events and the beliefs and consequences that followed. Next the learner simply returns to the journal to highlight pessimism (e.g,  pervasiveness: "it doomed me...") in their written descriptions of the events.
Seligman adds to the ABC model, making his model ABCDE. D stands for disputation, which centers around providing counter-evidence to any of the following: the negative beliefs in general, the causes of the event, or the implications. D also means reminding oneself of any potential usefulness of moving on from the adversity. Disputation for the above traffic example might sound like this: “I am overreacting. I don’t know what situation he is in. Maybe he is on his way to his daughter’s piano recital and is running late. I’m sure I have cut people off before without meaning to, so I should really cut him a break. I am not in a hurry anyway.”
Over time, responses like this can change feelings to be more hopeful and positive. Successful disputation leads to energization, the E in the ABCDE model. One is energized, and should indeed try to actively celebrate, the positive feelings and sense of accomplishment that come from successful disputation of negative beliefs. Disputation and Energization (celebration) are the keys to Seligman's method.
Teaching children learned optimism by guiding them through the ABCDE techniques can help children to better deal with adversity they encounter in their lives. In addition to the same value adults can get from learning optimism, if children are taught early then the thought process of disputation becomes ingrained in them. They do not have to focus on being optimistic, but rather optimism becomes automatic and leads to a more positive life for the child.[dubious – discuss]
Learned optimism techniques can be very practical to apply to anyone’s life, and are used frequently today in any area that applies psychology. Some examples include parenting, business, therapy, and education.
Learned optimism is prevalent in business because more optimistic workers are more successful workers. Seligman’s focus in business is on “the personal wall” that is each individual worker's constant point of discouragement. This could be preparing reports or making cold calls to potential clients. Putting the ABCDE model into practice allows workers to respond to this “wall” with a readiness to conquer rather than to feel dejected. Additionally, the ASQ—Attributional Style Questionnaire—is often used to measure optimism of job candidates during the interview process by asking the participant to write down causes for situational failures. Participants then rank the causes based on given criteria, and this helps businesses to know from the beginning whether the job candidate will be a high or low performer in his/her projected role based on his level of optimism.[4]
Learned optimism is also a tool used to combat depression during cognitive behavioral therapy. Patients may be depressed in part because they have a pessimistic outlook. Rather than perceiving adversity as a constant thing that cannot be overcome, and taking personal blame for that adversity, patients come out of cognitive behavioral therapy with the belief that they can control how they respond to adversity. A shift toward optimism is a shift away from depression, and that is what makes Seligman’s techniques so useful in cognitive behavioral therapy.
Appendix C
Wednesday, June 06, 2007
Prodigies I to V
Prodigies , Primitives and Cancers.
Andre Willers
9 May 2007

Synopsis :
Prodigies do things we can all do (like calculations , languages , music ) with little seeming effort or tuition , but only much better , faster and at an earlier age .It is often confused with intelligence .

Discussion :

Sources : “Primitives” , “Primitives_1” , “Origins of War” and others. for Zerah Colburn
General sources on prodigies and mind-body interactions .

Dedicated Brain Centers
Two dedicated hardwired neuron complexes are known from experimental evidence :
The language center (usually above the left ear ) and the counting complex . A music complex is very strongly suspected .

Various other emotional centers (amygdala) and memory centers are known . Many others are suspected . (Like eye-body co-ordination )

Please take note of the Neuronal Mirror argument .
These complexes above evolved from primal neuronal mirror set-ups .

A prodigy happens when a hardwired primitive neuronal complex replicates into the neuronal mirror arrangements . Because only non-simple encoding is used , this means a degradation of the functions usually done by these usurped mirror-neurons . This is at the cost of things like modeling other people (ie social skills) . Hence the prevalence of the lower end of the autistic spectrum in prodigies . ( Idiots savant )

As to be expected , there is a link between prodigies in arithmetic , language and music .

Prodigies (like William Hamilton of mathematics fame , or Zerah Colburn )were good at arithmetic and languages . The link between music and arithmetic is well known . Mozart’s linguistic skills are overshadowed by other events .

The problem is that well-known prodigies are the ones that were pushed by their parent(s) into notoriety . The smarter ones like Gauss , Macauly ,Young , etc learned to blend in .

Present day prodigies .
Where are they ?
Why , at the top end of most human endeavours . Top-class tennis players , golfers , chess-players , etc would qualify in earlier times as prodigies . Today they have to train hard 8 hours a day from early youth to be able to compete with the other prodigies . “Ordinary” people do not even get a look in .

Raw Talent .
A lightning calculator , if he survived the school system , might be lucky to get a job as a bookie’s runner or a croupier .

So you learned Greek , Latin , Finnish , Serbo-Croat and Basque at the age of five ? You have an interesting future as an interpreter at the UN .

You have a better chance in music . There are numerous schools for musical prodigies.

Fractal Identity Crises.
The hardwired primitive neuronal complex has an internal coding that is not simple .

It has to compensate for a temporal identity problem .

The complex assembles information very quickly ( some researchers say quantum effects are used , in which case it is instantaneous or from different time-sources ) .

Regardless , this information has to be presented to the rest of the brain in an usable fashion , with sequential markers .

For example , Mozart could comprehend an entire symphony in his overgrown musical complex . This had to be passed to the normal brain with sequential markers , so that he could scribble like mad from his simple memory to get a shadow of it in reproducible form .

Another example is a native speaker of a complicated language like Latin or Finnish . The complicated grammar arrives as an entirety , not worked out piecemeal .

This non-simple coding is very important , since it holds the key to identity markers , not only temporally but over other parameters as well .

As all my gentle readers will know , identity defineability is the key on how we know we are us , how the immune system recognizes our cells , how chromosome clusters are self-recognised , and all those other fractal identity crises .

This begs the question :
If we have identity resolution paradigms good enough to resolve an ID interface between a very fast (or multitemporal) complex , and the normal brain , why is it not used in the immune system ?

The answer is that it is used in this way , but sometimes the controls slip , or is programmed to slip .

The brain evolved from these systems , but we would expect some feedback .

Cancer Cells .
We refer to these bio-hazard labs as cancer cells . It is where evolution is put into fast-forward . ( See Scientific American of May 2007 p35 “ Chromosomal Chaos and Cancer”)

Have you ever wondered how complex organisms can even exist , when there are trillions of tons of bacteria , fungi , viruses ,etc in the world . By sheer numbers and breeding rate , they must outperform any organism’s defence system .

The Trick :
Any centurion will tell you this trick : discipline .

Aneuploidy is the main mechanism . This is a fancy name for shuffling chromosomes (ie the tried and trusted sexual mixer .) Only this mechanism is on steroids .

An unknown molecule is encountered.
The body does not know how it will affect the organism .
There are two ways to test it :
Live through it (potentially disasterous)
Test it in a fast-forward evolutionary biolab .

The body induces aneuploid cancer in a test cell .
This cell is nurtured by the body , deliberately bypassing all the evolutionary pressures of the environment or the immune system .
The test cell and its daughters have very rapid and semi-random chromosome shuffling . (This is also where all those null codons come into play.)
This cluster of cells forms a bio-hazard lab .

If they find a solution , it is communicated to the immune system and the lab is liquidated by apoptosis using the identity markers .

Can you see how this is more advantageous than living through it ?

If they do not , the cancer expands , resulting in the non-viability of the organism due to resource constraints .

But surely , an off-switch would have evolved ? If it could not find a solution to an unknown after n tries , it stops . Yes , but if the immune system had not recognised it the molecules will keep on arriving , triggering new explorations .

To recognize an “END” codon to a particular try to resolve a “new” molecule previously tried would require a memory of this molecule . Yet this is exactly what the immune system does not have , since it passed this molecule on to the cancer test lab . There does not seem to be a memory of previous cancer-lab experiments (understandably , since the resource requirements would overwhelm any finite system with simple coding .)

Is there a general “END” codon ?
The answer must be yes , since it appears in more evolved brain mechanisms . See also the languages of bacteria . (There is an Ur language , and various dialects .)

The particular information is stored epigenetically . The presence of the problem molecules in the mother’s womb gets tagged with a methylization complex , marking it as solved . Each new generation must resolve it anew .

What a horrible trap . Old age must be programmed in , since only by setting the “END” codon in the mothers womb can rubbishy molecules be prevented from triggering cancers . Mothers get partially reset , which is why they live longer .

Well , it helps to know that there is a single switch that will apoptise some cancer labs . It must be something simple , like the methylization of a geneplex that backpropagates .

Classical music:
Most people who listen to classical music live longer and look younger . This is because of the very recognizable “END” sequence to any symphony . The sequence entrains a neural process in the brain , which generates chemicals which signal “END ALL” sequences to the internal cancer labs .

This is one of the much threatened feedback from more developed parts of the being .
The storm of feedback from the brain creates a non-linear feedback system , with all that it implies .

The Q Trick

For example , Turing ( from Godel’s work ) proved way back in the 1930’s that a linear logic(computing) process cannot know when to stop if it looks only at internal logic . This is exactly what we said above . However , by using quantum processes , the system can know when to slam down an “END” .

This has to be communicated to the cell-complexes concerned . It is not sufficient to have a blanket “END” all the time , since the cancer-labs are vital to the health of the organism . Once a week seems sufficient , judging from the religious observances .

So what does this have to do with prodigies ?

Prodigies are the cancers of the body human .

They pretest which behaviours and talents will be acceptable .

Spiderman , Batman , Superman , etc
The same tired old lot :Hercules , Zeus , all the saints . I can’t remember all their names , or want to .

Bah . Do any of them even straddle the space-time crack ?
Ride t’em ,cowboy !


Prodigies II
Andre Willers
11 May 2007

Please reread “Prodigies,Primitives and Cancer” , “Primitives_0”, “Primitives_1”
and “The Origins of War and Peace “ in before continuing .

Powerful analogies and tools are available to analyze human brains .

Discussion :
The discussion in “Prodigies” left us with a model of a brain-body with very fast processors embedded in a network of slow , low-bandwidth communications .

Sounds familiar?
We can form a very good and fruitful analogue here of a LAN or the Internet .

The Primitives (neural complexes like Counting ) are the Pentiums/Parallel chips/Quantum processors . The Neural and Hormonal system is the cabling .

Addressing :
This is vital . From an evolutionary viewpoint and in development order
Dedicated lines . The brain is seen as like a telephone exchange .
Domain addresses . Hormones are a good example . (As Nelson said to Emma Hamilton : “England expects every gland to do its duty .” )
Brain waves . The above processes are asynchronous , but certain assemblies of information (like vision) are dependant on synchronization with previously carried-out processes . This co-ordination is analogeous to clock-speed processes . But beware , as the brain can carry on different processes at different frequencies . This is a method of reducing the redundancy overload in the information packages . Remember that the brain is not designed , but evolved for speed .
Anticipation : eventually some parts of the brain learn to anticipate what other parts will do . This is analogeous to caching and forward-caching . Different sheafs of mirror-neurons have pre- prepared positions . (Cf Socratic internal dialogues) This enables the organism to react very rapidly .This is the origin of the phenomenon of fMRI detecting action decisions before the consciousness is aware of this decision (about 0.5 seconds) . Consciousness can be seen as a mirror-neuron network monitoring the other networks . The degree of feedback is not sufficient to change the decision from the top down (ie the decision is a simple vector summation of forces.) . But information constraints prevents this monitoring network from mirroring every datum . Thus excluding of some data is necessary . This is the definition of concentration .
Concentration : the feedback from the monitoring network(ie consciousness) channels resources into whatever is chosen to be important . Sadly , super-consciousness is not possible , since exclusion (concentration) is the fundamental basis of the system . (See below)
Self-consciousness : eventually the system learns to do the same thing to the consciousness as in para 4 above . The system loops .
Self-consciousness is the termination of this process , since the concentration exclusion process means that only one self-consciousness at a time can exist . Being conscious of being conscious of being conscious etc will just loop you back to para 4 . Note that in Multiple Personalities Disorders there can be many consciousnesses , but they are constrained (ie are subsets) and there is only one in “control” .

Self-consciousness also inhibits optimum resource allocation : an effect well known to anybody on stage or athletes . Hence the unending yak of mystics about letting go of the self .

Yet self-consciousness can override the simple voting system of the conscious systems . This is the basis of human morality . You can always say no , and damn the consequences . Free will does exist .

The End Codon.
From previous arguments we already know that the standard ending of classical symphonies has an actual physiological effect . It tends to force an “All End” on the internal cancer labs in the body . The small ones (responsible for a lot of the ageing processes ) are affected in a major way .

A way to enhance this effect is to engage as many primitives as possible . Music , Mathematics , Language ,Visual , Dancing , etc .

Remember , the ending has to be entrained , but inherent (no fake crashes.) . (The mathematical talent is monitoring .)

I can recommend a sexy soprano singing the 1929 shareprice index , while watching a screen with the graph and doing freeform dancing .

Not more than once a week .

An unlikely bestseller , but try it .

Is there any way out of this Superconsciousness impasse?
We have to go back to the primary nodes (also called primitives) . As noted , the coding for these cannot be simple . They are twisted , quantal and non-local .

Twisted : screw-shaped electromagnetc waves resonates at specific points on another helical molecule (like , surprise,surprise ,DNA) . Limited to lightspeed , but enormous bandwidth .

Quantal : very close molecules transfers information very rapidly via quantum tunneling .

Non-Local : the joker . Since the whole organism evolved out of a few molecules , and every new molecule incorporated had to be in close proximity of these , it is theoretically possible that they are all entangled . But , as Nelson said to Emma Hamilton , “Some are more entangled than others .”

Can you transcend this way ?
Of course .
But do you really want to?
Flip a mental coin , and when you can hear it ringing on the pavement , then decide .

Ho-Ho-Ho !
I can’t resist this .
The attentive reader will have noticed from the above that water can retain a memory and an influence in at least three different ways .
Yet they discard amniotic fluid .
Typically human .

They throw the water away and keep the baby .


Prodigies III
Andre Willers
26 May 2007

See previous “Prodigies” , “Dehydration” , Itarin2” , “The Religious Experience and Proximal rewards “etc .

Hierarchies and Fame .

Hierarchies self-assemble out of scale-free networks .
Scale-free networks imply resource constraints , which imply a network-deconstructor (apoptosis) . This implies non-smooth switching between optimization sub-systems .

Discussion :
The discussion in previous “Prodigies” left us with a model of a brain-body with very fast processors embedded in a network of slow , low-bandwidth communications and mirror neuron layers .

The important point is that these elements are not connected in every possible way . Local elements have a large number of local connections . Distant elements have a few , but they exist . This gives a Scale-Free network (cf Wikkipedia) .

The brain does not have the resources to maintain every possible linkage , so apoptosis removes linkages which are not used . This is a well-documented mechanism .

This means that the communication between Fast Processors , Mirror Layers , the Body , etc , is not unlimited . In other words , they develop degrees of autonomy , especially in the Mirror Layers with feedback mechanisms to give anticipation . (Ie local optimization sub-systems : mini-personalities ).

Mini-Personalities .
This gives rise competing ways of viewing “What must be done” .
This is equivalent to partial personalities .(Mini-personalities)
But survival of the whole organism requires a single response . Hence there are various mechanisms for resolving disputes between mini-personalities .

Regardless of the mechanism used , a certain mini-personality and it’s coterie of close support structures gets control . The Consciousness mirrors this after the fact .
Self-consciousness may be able to modify this .

Sleep and Apoptosis .
You can see the problem if a certain mini-personality is in control for too long . It is simply a connected cluster of mirror-neurons . The mirror-layers not being used for a certain time get marked and apoptised . This impoverishes the total personality .

Connections between mini-personalities get apoptised , leading to psychological problems (ref repression , amygdale programming , PTSD , etc)
Not to mention sleep-deprivation schizophrenia .

Sleep is the protocol for removing the mini-personality in charge .

Note that this is not only a function of complexity , but also of resources . This means that sleep will be necessary for even organisms with relatively few neurons .

Caution :
Drugs are now available that seems to do away with sleep with few short term effects . The long term effects will get you , unless they can inhibit the apoptosis . Which will cause a new form of schizophrenia .

Continuity : (Putting a new mini-personality in charge)
So your consciousness and dependant self-consciousness vanishes when you go to sleep . The various (thousands , literally uncountable for quantally super-posed mini-personalities ) jockey for top-post .

We would expect a mechanism for continuity in this succession struggle to have evolved , and so it has . The so-called God-center .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot,com “The Religious Experience and Proximal rewards”

This is normally operative in the waking stage (ie when consciousness is self-assembling from the winner of the mini-personalities ) , but experimental evidence indicates that strong magnetic fields focussed on the relevant brain locus can force switches between mini-personalities even in an awake system . (It is the same mechanism)

Internal Fame .

At last ! Fame !

All the above arguments sound suspiciously like human politics . And with good reason .
The basic model is of a brain-body with very fast processors embedded in a network of slow , low-bandwidth communications and mirror neuron layers is just as applicable to humans in a society . Allowances can be made for some cellular and quantal processes .

A powerful analog can be made for various processes:
Going to sleep : voting or removing the ruler from power .
Waking up : establishing a new ruler .
Note that these are two separate processes .

Internal Fame : being known often . This translates to intensity of traffic of signals between various mini-personalities . A simple repeat mechanism , which ties in with the basic neural mechanism of frequency-firing.

This differs from the societal analog in a very important way : Internal Fame can be under the complete control of the self-consciousness . Simply repeating certain thoughts and actions (like Mass in Roman Catholicism , or Muslim Prayer) biases the succession of mini-personalities .

But of course , by equal measure , we can create unbounded equivalents (all the time hoping that we know what we are doing) . The system will process it , regardless .

Dominant societies have evolved two mechanisms :
1.The mini-personalities are correlated with the individual’s value to society (ie a fractal system ) .
2. Resource allocation is done on this basis . This used to be no big problem if there is a big surplus , but human civilizations have evolved a nasty method of allocating negative surpluses . (Ie even if there is more than enough to go around , some groups still starve . ) Hence Communism , Marxism and all the -ism’s to come .

Negative surplus allocation is a pathology .
The analog in human space is sleeplessness . Not enough resources are allocated to mirror networks (ie humans) , so apoptosis happens . Artists , scientists , etc don’t happen .

Do not confuse this with simple allocation of not-enough existing positive resources (ie middle ages) .

Negative surplus allocation is a pathology that targets specific layers in communication networks . This drastically lowers the capability of the system to meet new shocks .

It always ends in tears . It used to end in total destruction of the system , but this has happened so often that ameliorating mechanisms have evolved (mainly organized religions). The equivalent of time-distant communication links .

The question is : why does this pathology recur ?
The sad truth is that it has to do with relative rates of change .
The new generation allocates resources in a different way . The older generation tries to keep it the old way . The relative distortion appears as too much resources to the old way , and too little to the new way . Ie a negative surplus allocation .

Some remedies:
For individuals :
Rapid mini-personality switches . Ie frequent sleeps .
Catnaps . Note that this has been the mechanism used by high-information throughput individuals like Napoleon , Stalin , Churchill , Hitler , business leaders ,etc .
They tailored their personality to the exigencies of the job .

For Societies :
More frequent elections for the top job . Once a year seems ok . This will force a decrease in election cost , as well as greater participation by the Civil Service .

Oops : the Romans tried this , and ended up with emperors . But the problem was the power change .

To switch the analogue back , individuals who are uncomfortable with their personal extinction and successor personalities , would not get much benefit from catnaps .
If you have problems with this , remember how it works : simply an increase in the frequency of nerve-pulses between mirror layers .

Imagine the different states of what you desire as images in mirror layers . (Do not do small time differences.You need quantal changes , not small creeps . )
Regarding them forces an increased signal traffic between the layers . An Interrupt (like 1,2,3,…,10, 10.5 ) will then force a quietus .

See “Dehydration and Intelligence: Amygdala Interrupt .”


Prodigies IV : Interrupts .
Andre Willers
30 May 2007

See previous “Prodigies” , “Dehydration” , Itarin2” , “The Religious Experience and Proximal rewards “etc .

Discussion :
The discussion in previous “Prodigies” left us with a model of a brain-body with very fast processors embedded in a network of slow , low-bandwidth communications and mirror neuron layers .

Resultant mini-personalities compete for dominance . Dominance competes better .

The fast-processors evolved out of positive feedback mechanisms .

See “ Prodigies , Primitives and Cancers.”

Positive feedback mechanisms .
A simple Positive feedback mechanism (say A) increases without limit . It can only be kept in check by another positive feedback system (say B) . The various systems interact at various levels . The very nature of non-linear feedback systems means that certain nodes in the interaction between A and B are more important than others .

A node like this has a large amplification factor (it is essentially an amplifier in the collision of A and B ) . With the large number of factors , sooner or later a Fourier series with sharp boundaries happens . (Cf radar waveforms) . This forms a node with delineated characteristics . In other words , an Interrupt .

What does an Interrupt do ?

As it prevents runaway positive feedback systems , it makes all of what we describe as life possible .

Indeed , the Human species can be seen as a specific Interrupt in Gaia .

Speciation is a form of Interrupt formation . ( When Species A can only breed with species A , an interrupt is formed . )

Bacteria do not worry about speciation , and consider it déclassé .

Yet the Interrupts keep forming ( courtesy of Fourier) , leading to multicellular organisms and other monstrosities . A bacterium views the body like you view the Civil Service .

Interrupt Formation .
As can be seen from the above , all Interrupts are formed from dynamic systems .
Either from inherited systems (genetics) , epigenetics or culture .
This also means that you can change it .

Let us give some examples :
Amygdala Interrupt .
Count aloud or subliminally 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, 10.5
The sequence 1- 10 entrains the calculating nexus . The next term 10.5 forces the nexus to use more of the mirror-neurons to do inverse calculations . This causes an interrupt (a discontinuity ) . You can feel it . Just count .

Why can the counting mechanism have interrupts into the amygdala , which is the mechanism for assigning threat/promise to the organism ?

Because any threat assessment involves counting .
One wolf , two wolves , etc . One bad molecule , two etc .

At the start of the counting process a marker molecule (probably sulfur derived – see sulfur hibernation) puts the amygdala into an inactive state . It cannot form an opinion until all the counting data is in . It needs an End Codon . End Codons are perceived as the end of sequences . Start Codons likewise . At least three terms of sequences for each are needed .

There are two fundamentally different ways of counting .
1. Sequential independent of the term before last (ie 1,2.3,4., etc)
2. Sequential dependant on the last two terms (Fibonacci) (1,1,2,3,5,8,13 , etc)
3. Counting in more than the sum of two terms can be written as a two term Fibonacci series (ie a Fibonacci series is sufficient . (Ref Arith I and Arith II))

This sequence incorporates both .
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 , 10.5, 20.5 , 31.0, 51.5 , 82.5
Sequence Fibonacci

This forces your brain to do all sorts of fancy tricks .

Prodigies V : Speed and Paradoxes .
Andre Willers
31 May 2007

See previous “Prodigies” I to IV , “Dehydration” , Itarin2” , “The Religious Experience and Proximal rewards “etc .

Discussion :
The discussion in previous “Prodigies” left us with a model of a brain-body with very fast processors embedded in a network of slow , low-bandwidth communications and mirror neuron layers .

Resultant mini-personalities compete for dominance . Dominance competes better .

The fast-processors evolved out of positive feedback mechanisms .

Interrupt mechanisms evolved to keep positive feedback mechanisms under control .

Speed .

“Ask anything of me except time” Napoleon .

Why is speed so important ? The obvious answer is that it is important to physical survival .

Yet humans are faster than a striking mamba .
Thousands of humans routinely catch striking snakes by the neck for a few rupees . Scientific measurements of trained martial arts experts give their response times as between 3 to 5 as fast as snakes or crocodiles .

There is a perception that martial arts training only enables the human mind to tap into the reptilian brain reflexes .

But if the human (or weasel) responses are better by a significant margin , this argument does not hold . How can they be faster than the basal reptilian reflexes ?

Why has this speed evolved ?

Fast processor-nodes send information via scale-free neural-networks to close mirror-networks , as well as to distant fast-processor complexes .

The speed of the transmission of signals in the scale-free network is much , much lower than transmission speeds inside the fast processors .

Thus , a later processing result in a nearby mirror-network ( or inside the fast processor) can be sent via the long-neuron of the scale-free network and arrive at the target before the initial signal from the nearby-mirror network .

This appears as an inversion of cause-effect to the target .

This appears as a Paradox .
(The alert leader will notice the analogue with light-speed and non-locality)

There is a mechanism to resolve the paradox .
It surfaces as a sense of humour . But is very old and basic . All organisms with more than one neuron will have such a mechanism (ie a sense of humour) . (Given the complexity of neurons , even one might be sufficient.)

Obviously the simplest way simply is that the latest signal is it . The time-marker must then correspond to 1/ (the alpha-wave frequency) ~ 0.1 to 0.05 of a second . The observed normal mammalian reaction . Yet faster reactions are observed.
A faster way is phase differences between various brain waves .
Another way of seeing it is that one entangled particle (or system of particles) is isolated by a glove of proteins and water , while the other is non-local . Something like the immune system . Note that a lot of quantum computation can take place inside such an enclosure .
See “ Prodigies , Primitives and Cancers.”
It is amusing to note that a quantum life-form will see immune systems and the effects of nervous systems as the major life-forms on the planet . They will have to deduce the existence of the creature from second and third order effects .

In other words , life is essentially the immune system and paradox resolution in the brain-body .

The essential point is that assembling a meaningful output from many different inputs with different time-sources requires non-simple coding .
This coding exists , but needs some work to understand or use .

Existing coding structures can be used .

Language . The language center assembles sentences faster than can be processed by the slower centers . Hence Puns or grammar .

Reading a book of puns should boost your immune system . Any humour as well . This is at basic quantum and physiological level , not just psychological .

If reading a book of grammar generates risibility , you are indeed an advanced lifeform .

Music : Ending Codons have been discussed .

Most basic . The easiest .
Mathematics cannot be described unless language is used !

Ho-ho-ho again !
The two most basic elements of any mathematical system is that
Something is delineated (ie an entity apart from anything else)
Repetition (ie some operator)

Yet even the definition of number (the set of all sets that is similar to the given set) requires a language , that is meta to the underlying concepts . This surfaces as quantum systems in the real world . The observer is part of the system , in other words.

Primitive counting has been discussed , even the iterative cascade . An iterative cascade must generate the concept of number , but the interface between the fast computation complex and the rest of the personality evolves .

If you can look at a graph of a Fourier series showing a square waveform , and feel a risibility impulse , then you are getting there .

In other words , why are not all our brains super?
Why do we have slower mirror-networks , and scale-free-neural networks ?

Answer :
It will end that way . The teensy , weensy problem is any evolutionary system has to grow . Present human brains are on the cusp of expanding into totally fast-processors .
The greatest number of humans will exist just before the system enfolds into a few hyper-personalities .

Can this be done without hardware rewiring ?
Yes . There is a complex feedback system between simple and non-simple coding . Mirror neurons can be converted to fast processors (there is evolutionary predecessors) . Stem cells are available . Only the coding is needed .

The End is Nigh!

Appendix D
Valleywag has since filled in the blanks. The website reported that, according to a source familiar with the matter, investment firm Tencent Holdings was the first to offer Snapchat a termsheet at a valuation between $3bn and $4bn, but Spiegel demanded a higher valuation. Tencent refused to raise its bid, and it was at that point that Spiegel knocked on Facebook's door to tell it he was ready to sell.
The source said that at the same time, Spiegel also went to Google seeking a "strategic investment".
Snapchat was founded in 2011 by Evan Spiegel, 23, and Bobby Murphy, 25. The Wall Street Journal reported that a funding round in June that raised $80m gave it an approximate value of $200m. The social media app deals with 350 million images a day, and will on occasion turn them over to the police.
According to the Wall Street Journal, Facebook offered Spiegel $3bn in cash, which Spiegel rejected. Reportedly he rejected both Facebook's and Google's bids to wait and raise funding next year instead.
Valeywag's source said the reason was that increased traffic in the winter could get Snapchat up to 400 million snaps per day, which would surpass the number of photos uploaded to Facebook each day, thus allowing Spiegel to command a "premium price".
Facebook, which has been quiet about the bid so far, picked up Instagram in last December for $1bn. Then Facebook said that it would keep the preserving lunch for history app operation as independent as possible.
"As we said from the beginning, we are committed to building and growing Instagram independently," it said about that deal.
Social network Twitter approached its IPO with the intention of raising $1bn in October, but raised far more than that. Twitter has never shown a profit.
Appendix D

Unpacking and Packing information .

The National Cryptologic Museum (NCM) is an American museum of cryptologic history that is affiliated with the National Security Agency (NSA). The first public museum in the U.S. Intelligence Community,[2] NCM is located in the former Colony Seven Motel, just two blocks from the NSA headquarters at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. The museum opened to the public on December 16, 1993, and now hosts about 50,000 visitors annually from all over the world.
The NCM is open Monday through Friday, 0900–1600, as well as 1000–1400 on the first and third Saturdays of each month. It is closed on Sundays and all Federal holidays, and operates on NSA's emergency/weather closure schedule (i.e. if NSA is closed, the museum is closed as well).[2] The NCM includes a gift store whose operational hours coordinate with the museum's operational schedule (i.e., if the museum is closed altogether, opens late, or closes early, the gift shop does likewise) and an unclassified library with weekday-only operating hours that also reflect the museum's weekday operational schedule. The library includes over a dozen boxes of the files of Herbert Yardley, declassified Enigma messages, technical reports, and books including how to crack the Data Encryption Standard using Deep Crack.
Next to the museum is the National Vigilance Park (NVP), where three reconnaissance aircraft are on display. A U.S. Army Beechcraft RU-8D Seminole reconnaissance plane represents the Army Airborne Signals Intelligence contribution in the Vietnam War. A Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport, modified to look like a reconnaissance-configured C-130A, memorializes a U.S. Air Force aircraft shot down over Soviet Armenia during the Cold War. Finally, the park contains a U.S. Navy Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior, commemorating a mission in the Mediterranean on January 25, 1987 in which all seven crew members died.[3]
NCM and NVP are open to the public and admission is free. Donations to the NCM Foundation are accepted. Photography is allowed inside the museum, however, flash photography is prohibited in certain areas of the museum due to the age of some of the artifacts.

The NCM collection contains thousands of artifacts, including numerous working World War II German Enigma machines (2 of them are available for visitors to try out), and a Navy Bombe used to break it. Displays discuss the history of American cryptology and the people, machines, techniques, and locations concerned. Initially housing NSA artifacts for viewing by employees, the museum quickly developed into a collection of U.S. cryptologic history, with some artifacts dating back to pre-American Revolutionary War times.
In addition to exhibits covering equipment used to encrypt, decrypt, and secure information, the museum features exhibits on the people who contributed to cryptography in America, such as George Washington (who integrated military intelligence tactics, including coded messaging, into the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War), the Native American code talkers (who protected U.S. communications during both World Wars by using their native languages to encode message traffic), and the Navy WAVES (who, like the WRENS of the British Royal Navy, operated the Bombe to decrypt German military traffic during WWII).
Collections are divided into four major groupings:
Early Cryptology, which deals with cryptologic history prior to the formation of NSA, with exhibits dating back to the 16th century (the Renaissance-era book Polygraphiae) forward to the early 1950s, focusing on artifacts from the Founding Fathers of the United States, the American Civil War, the United States Army Code talkers, World War I, World War II, and the Korean War
Cold War/Information Age, which deals with cryptology and cryptanalysis on both sides of the Cold War, the early years of NSA, and the rise of the modern age of computers, including the development of supercomputers
Information Assurance, which deals with the rise of satellite technology, secure voice communications, tamper-evident technologies, and use of biometrics in data protection
Memorial Hall, one side of which features the NSA Hall of Honor, and the other side of which features exhibits honoring those who lost their lives in cryptologic missions represented by the aircraft at NVP as well as others who lost their lives in cryptologic service to America (U.S.S. Pueblo, U.S.S. Liberty, The Pentagon on September 11, 2001, and a replica of NSA's National Cryptologic Memorial[4])
In addition, there are galleries throughout NCM focusing on the roles of women and African-Americans in cryptologic history, the variety of languages in use throughout the world (including a replica of the Rosetta Stone), and the code used by hobos to share information in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[5]
The NCM includes an unclassified library of books, papers, and other materials relating to the history of cryptography and cryptology as well. The library is open on weekdays when the museum is open. The library is non-circulating (that is, material cannot be borrowed or checked out by the public), but photocopying and photography are allowed. Patrons needing extensive or rare materials for research are encouraged to contact the museum to schedule an appointment with the librarian.[5]
The size of NCM's library nearly doubled with the donation of an extensive collection of papers, books, and other artifacts related to codes and ciphers from cryptologic historian and author David Kahn.[2] The donation was formally dedicated by the NCM during a recognition ceremony for Dr. Kahn on October 26, 2010.[6]

The museum offers tours for members of the public, both scheduled and walk-in, that describe cryptology’s impact on history and jobs in the field. Tours are led by docents who are retired NSA employees. Groups of six persons or more are requested to contact the museum in advance to schedule tours and ensure docent availability.
In addition, the NCM offers educational field trips, tours, talks, and interactive programs for students ages 9 and up, as well as programs for Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts of all ages to satisfy various pins, requirements, and electives. Interested educators, scoutmasters, and troop leaders are encouraged to contact the museum for more details.
The NCM was the site of the 2010 activation ceremony for Marine Corps Forces, Cyberspace Command. The ceremony was attended by former CMC General Alfred M. Gray, Jr.[7]
NSA Hall of Honor[edit]

Main article: NSA Hall of Honor
The NSA Hall of Honor is a memorial honoring individuals with distinguished service to American cryptology.[8] Created in 1999, the standards are high for induction; honored individuals were innovators over their entire careers, whose expertise in various NSA subject matters far surpassed any of their peers, or who made major contributions to the structure and processes of American cryptology.[9]
Appendix E
Poem forms
Here’s my list of poetry types and forms:
·         Abstract or Sound Poems.
·         Acrostic Poems.
·         Alphabet Poems.
·         Anagrammatic Poems.
·         Blitz Poems.
·         Bop Poems.
·         Cascade Poems.
·         Concrete Poems.
·         Elegy Poems.
·         Epitaph Poems.
·         Fibonacci Poems.
·         Found Poems.
·         Haiku Poems.
·         Hay(na)ku Poems.
·         Kyrielle Poems.
·         Limerick Poems.
·         List Poems.
·         Lune Poems.
·         Monotetra Poems.
·         Occasional Poems.
·         Ode Poems.
·         Palindrome or Mirror Poems.
·         Pantoum Poems.
·         Paradelle Poems.
·         Parody Poems.
·         Prose Poems.
·         Qasida Poems.
·         Quatern Poems.
·         Rispetto Poems.
·         Rondeau Poems.
·         Roundabout Poems.
·         Sestina Poems.
·         Shadorma Poems.
·         Sonnet Poems.
·         Tanka Poems.
·         Triolet Poems.
·         Villanelle Poems.

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