Wednesday, November 14, 2012

Origins of Peace and War II

Origins of Peace and War II
Andre Willers
14 Nov 2012
“The Real Gates of Janus are closing”
General War is becoming less prevalent as technology enables smart targeting of particular prey .

War results from the certain targets being designated as “prey” by social authorities .
See Appendix I for a further discussion . But this was written in 2007 . Things have changed . (A definition of the run-up into the Singularity . )
Prey are now designated by social media like Facebook and Twitter .
Very democratic and short-term .
But is there a long-term ?
Closing in on the Singularity , things change faster and faster . There is no long-term in any meaningful terms .
The Hysterical Focus :
Described in Appendix II . This is the mechanism whereby Prey is selected by the Social Organism . For examples see what happened to Gaddafi , Murdock , BBC etc . What is happening to Assad .
Notice there is no workable use of the Jingoism used before by ruling classes to divert attention into a General War . The fine detail of the social media makes this impossible .

What does this mean ?
It means that fighting does not cease , but it gets chopped up into smaller , manageable pieces , not large Wars .
These smaller pieces can be handled by the Ostrum Principles .

So , we are seeing a not so quiet revolution where everybody settles their differences on a small scale , and declines an invitation to a general conflagration .
The humans who actually create these dangerous toys decline to play any more .
An interesting aside :
The sociopathic switch will be selected against . A lot of sociopaths will suddenly become kind and caring . (It is a epigenetic switch , not DNA . The chemicals are air-borne and touch .) . Won’t help much for psychopaths , but there might be some “spontaneous remission “ for some schizophrenics .
Kindness is in the air .
You can already see it in the hierarchical chiefs beating their breasts and saying “ Sorry”
Oh well . Lack of conscience works on a small scale as well . As long as the bastards do not get their hands on large levers of power .

Summation :
“Plus la change”
The Matriarchy has won on Earth . But the off-Earth systems are the equivalent of the horse-nomads
And so it repeats .
I thought it would mercifully end with extinction of humans about 2060 AD , but space-nomads and the Matriarchy seems to be God’s little joke .
Singularity only for some .
The Singularities will follow Riemann’s Expansion , if only you knew the dimensions .

Dynamic tension , anyone ?
As the society goes into the Singularity , does it mean that you go into the mainstream or get washed up in one of the fractal tributaries ?

See parts of you on the other side
Fractally and partially yours

Appendix I
The Origins of War and Peace
Andre Willers
20 April 2007
( see previous discussions in

Synopsis :
War is when a society sanctions other humans as prey .
If the other humans belong to another society , it is Classical War . If not , it is a Police Action .
Endless fun is had by playing around with the definitions of “human” (Nazis) , “society” (religions , political movements , criminals , etc) .

Humans have a hard-wired brain center that classifies something as “prey” . Once this switch has tripped and the fixation has taken place , it is extremely difficult to change.

Evolutionary , it derived from pack-behaviour .
Pack hunters need to identify the chosen prey which the pack-leader has designated . The pointers derive from the leader’s social behaviour like pointing , eye-fixation , words etc .
Then they need to fixate on this prey to exclusion . (The nuts-and-bolts neuronal arrangement can be traced back to infant-imprinting.)

Successful packs are those that can focus the full pack on a particular prey , even if individual members of the pack might suffer injury or death .

A subsidiary hard-wired complex developed monitoring fellow-pack members . Any attack has to have some co-ordination . Call this Social-feeling .

Counting :
An iterative counting brain center that could count to three evolved .
(This center’s precise location has been identified (via fMRI). Rendering it inoperative (via magnetic focused pulse) led to a normally very rare inability to gut-feel numbers . Like reading by consulting a child’s primer every step .) Called anacalculus .

Us , Them ,Prey .
Each system is iteratively further broken down into threes , etc .

Three is necessary , since Us and Them is insufficient .
The Prey has to be identified , leading to Them being broken up into Them and Prey .

An intriguing corollary is that while the sets Us and Them may comprise many diverse elements , the Prey has to be constrained to one easily identified element . This explains why hate merchants like Hitler , the schoolyard bully , etc pick on specifics . Why neighbours who know each other kill neighbours in Uganda . Why the wife/husband is the most frequent unsanctioned homicidal victim .

There can only be One Prey .
(Apologies to the Highlander.)
Certain elements in martyr religions can be more easily understood this way .

Packs .
Packs are innate in any organism that cares for it’s young .
Parent(s) + kids = pack .
Iterative congeries across time of genetic relationships leads to complicated social relationships ( see inheritance of dominance in monkeys ,etc)

Human ancestors underwent a prolonged period of being cursorial raptors , developing pack behaviour on a genetic and social level to a high degree . This was convergent evolution with dogs . It is no wonder then that dogs and humans understand each other at such a deep , non-verbal level .

Parts of humans are the same as dogs .

Query : Why the insult of calling somebody a dog , a cur , a son-of-a-bitch etc ?
Answer : The insult is to the human being addressed , expressing dominance , not to dogs . In many cases , the only cultural referent understood by both human parties were doggish loyalty , which translated as slavishness between enemies . Indeed , many humans expressed their loyalty as being dogs of their ruler .

The dogs of war :
An interesting bit of propaganda by the Condottierri to put a spin on their faithless conduct .

Cannibalism .
Let’s face it , our ancestors ate each other until about 72 000 years ago .
The population density was low , making disease like kourou unlikely .
A large number of hominid evolutionary steps were driven by genetic deficiencies , necessitating obligate hunting . ( see previous discussions in

Prey was everybody else except Us . This is the default Homonid setting .

MkI Homo Sapiens .

They evolved around 150 000 to 200 000 years ago .
The body was small by our standards , with little sexual dimorphism . The males were not much bigger , stronger or more aggressive than the females .
Great strength was not needed when hunting with weapons , snares and nets .
Indeed , big mass was selected against because of the significant higher energy needs that made starving to death much more likely during down-turns like droughts . Remember , there was little surplus and no way to store it .

Language was the main purview of the females . Gossiping and politics . The females were the central point of each group , together with the children . The males formed a cloud around this group . But arrangements were very loose and easy , as the living was easy .

Numbers were small , game was plentiful and other hominids made nice little packages of essential nutrients for these obligate hunters .

There is no culture as we even vaguely understand the term .

This was the end-line of development of pre-cultural homonins .

The default was that all not-Us were prey . ( Not War , not Peace , but anarchy)

MkII Homo Sapiens .

The Invention of Peace .

Then Toba happened . (72 000 BC )
The supervolcano in Indonesia caused the equivalent of a nuclear winter across the globe . Snow fell in equatorial regions and there was mass die-off of plants and their dependant animals .

The cold and hunger caused a concentration of numbers around some volcanic hotspots in the highlands of East Africa ( Remember , it snowed on the equator) . It did not happen all at once , so refugees fluxed into the survivable spots . In this crucible , human culture was invented . The numbers were small enough that certain existing epigenetic centers in the brain/body were forced evolved .

Remember , it took centuries for the land to recover .
From the genetic bottle-neck evidence , human numbers fell to between 3 000 and 10 000 . These are extinction levels
Cannibalistic diseases and inbreeding are particularly vicious in small , poorly nourished communities like these .

Co-operation and expansion of the gene-pool was essential .

The surviving communities were the ones where females took control and forced co-operation by designating non-prey .

In other words , the females ( probably led by some redoubtable dowager ) , invented Peace , and what’s more , enforced it .

This was Humanity’s greatest invention . The woman who did it deserves a Nobel prize for each year her Peace lasted .

Population was rigorously kept to sustainable levels by Matriarchal control of breeding lines and birthrates .

They did it so well that the Peace lasted about 60 000 years .
Note that the American and Australian continents where massive and quick animal extinctions took place , were populated from areas probably outside matriarchal control . Note also that the continent with the most extant animal megafauna (Africa) was where the matriarchy originated . Not too shabby ,eh?

One effect was thus the extreme taboo against cannibalism . This is an epigenetic inheritance ( ie data transmitted by mother to offspring , not in the DNA , but not cultural either .)

Inherent in this is that the Prey designation mechanism (now also epigenetic) came under social control . Elaborate rite-of-passage ceremonies evolved to certify an organism as human . (Failures were killed or expelled)

High on the list was Prey designation : hence the emphasis on starving candidates . The original rites featured humans as prey , and the candidate who could not control himself , failed .

This became putting off present gratification for future reward , what we think of as defining feature of cultural humans .

This also means the invention of religion , since the reward can be put off into the hereafter .

They also invented clothing , many uses of fire , hairdressing , makeup , jewelry , beads , gourmet cooking and the other things that make life worthwhile

Co-operating instead of hunting each other made trade and diversication of labour possible . Tools increased in sophistication from about 70 000 BC .

There was a significant human mutation in genes controlling brain growth . This has been very roughly dated as occurring about 40 000 – 50 000 years ago . The significance is not known , but it is speculated that it has to do with the growth of human culture .

The culture was explosively radiative . The advantages of a better and richer life through the material benefits sucked in even non-human homonins ( hence the gene mixing) . Anti-social elements were designated Prey and declared outlaw (this is what it means . The ultimate sanction then and now . Declared non-human , their only options were to die or to flee . )

When these MkII Humans exploded out of Africa , they did not kill the Neanderthals and Sinienses found in Europe and Asia . Their prey instincts were under social control .

Hence the interbreeding results now being found in the fossil record or the genetic evidence of the human flea .
( Some skeletons found indicate a mixture of Neanderthal and Homo Sapiens . Doubtlessly , more will be certain once the Neanderthal genome has been sequenced in about three years . More certain seems recent evidence of Siniens interbreeding , especially the genetic evidence that some species of human lice seemed to have crossed over back to Homo Sapiens from Siniens(Erectus) . The main-line Homo Sapiens fleas evolved into head and body lice after the invention of clothing after Toba .)

The other Sexes of Man
(see “The Sexes of Man”)
An intriguing speculation is that various null-sexes and homosexes got an evolutionary push from the reduced fertility in crossbreeding between MkII Homo and other various cousins that were subsumed into the Homo gene-cultural pool . This would have had a major effect on the evolution of the meme of property and inheritance .

MkII Humans .
What did they look like ?

The closest survivors we have are the Bushmen .

The female is the basic unit . There is little sexual dimorphism . The male is slightly larger than the female , but not significantly better muscled or more aggressive . Weapons and intelligence are more important in hunting than strength .
Females are the cultural guardians and control the group , both epigenetically and culturally .

Their Culture:
In fertile regions , the females and children form a nucleus with a floating cloud of males . Females select males to have children , either from personal taste or by direction of the Matriarchy . As expected , about 90% of males do not have children , as the females all select the alpha-males . This creates tension .

A Matriarchy .

Overpopulation was kept under check by infanticide of weaklings (bushmen , greeks , romans) . The limits of population were precisely known after literally tens of thousands of years of hunter-gatherer interactions .

An extremely stable form of government .

MkIII Homo Sapiens .
As can be seen from the above , the matriarchs naturally thought in terms of selective breeding . Hence their invention of agriculture and domesticated animals . (The were the finest genetic engineers the planet has yet seen , including the present poseurs.)

Yet the invention of both held the seeds of their destruction .

Domestication of animals and agriculture (circa 10 000 years ago) went hand-in-hand . Even today , most agricultural produce go to feed animals .

The net effect was a population explosion .

The old methods of estimating the carrying capacity of the land did not work with this new-fangled agriculture . The large groups of feral males expelled into the borderlands during the last 60 000 years now also increased in numbers due to end of the Ice-Age . They could be hired by surplus agricultural produce and promise of breeding women .

The matriarchs now had physical locations they had to defend against marauding clouds of feral males or males from other villages . Down-turns ( drought , winters , etc) made it worse . The inexorable logic of evolution means that no matter how many times you succeed , only one failure is enough to destroy you .

Increasing populations had led to population centers (cities) , that traded . Trade on this scale unleashed what we would call globalization . Cheaper produce and manufactures from the peripheries destroyed the livelihood of local farmers and artisans . The resulting social unrest necessitated breeding warriors from the outside stock to keep control for the oligarchy of matriarchs and priestesses .

This happened over a period of about 6 000 years . ( A Matriarchy is a really , really stable form of government .)

The result was an arms-race . The matriarchs either deliberately , or as a desperation measure , bred males for aggression and strength . This was easy in a culture that already practiced infanticide and death-by-neglect . Nubile females were directed only to mate with the jocks . Breeding stock was imported or required as tribute from the Outlands ( cf remnants like Theseus , etc)

The social structure (what we would call the Bronze Age) slowly broke down .
The Matriarchs also designated the competing groups as prey to their warrior clouds . War had arrived ..

MkIII Homo Sapiens was the result .
There is marked sexual dimorphism . The male is significantly bigger , but also grossly overpowered . Sinews and bones break continually from the overbred power .

The biggest difference is in aggression and Social-feeling . (see above)
There is a positive feedback between Aggression and Fellow-feeling . A large group focusing on a prey is more successful if the elements of the group share values more intensely . All we need to add is that large numbers of combatants are more successful than small numbers (generally true for low-energy weapons) , and you have an Army and War .

The increase in social-feeling leads to large hysterical-type religions , and (not too put too fine a point on it ) large mobs .

The other whammy :
Horses .
Villages on the edges of the Ukrainian Steppes domesticated horses . Over hundreds of years , young men drifted into the steppes . Matriarchs could not follow them , since a pregnant woman cannot ride . The result was the formation of the Sky Gods religions . The horsemen turned around and made the originating villages their fiefs . From this basis they exploited every weakness of the Matriarchs .
Patriarchal religion arises .

The big Crack.

The collapse of the Late Bronze Age civilization (see

This was not an overnight affair , but the later stages makes “Apocalypto” look like a picnic .

It was a combination of factors :
The breakdown of the social systems led to continual internecine warfare between city-states (ie groups of Matriarchs) . The males were being force-bred to be bigger and more aggressive . Then a climate shift caused a series of prolonged droughts from about 6 000 to 4 000 BC , seriously increasing unrest . The destruction of Minoan sea-power due to tsunamis and the inability to rebuild their fleet because they had denuded all readily accessible timber was the last straw . It took about 200 years , but the resultant spasm of war , destruction and cannibalism destroyed the matriarchies around the Middle-East and the Mediterranean .

The horse patriarchs swept over the remains and stamped patriarchal memes very firmly on the twitching remains .

Some Matriarchal memes remained in the far-west (Britain) . Hence the Druids .
Egypt and some surviving cities in the middle-east retained underground matriarchal cults ( Isis , Cybele , Earth Mother , etc , etc)

The Romans destroyed the corrupted Druid remnants .

The Roman Catholic Church later incorporated the main elements of the surviving matriarchy in the Roman Empire in the female saints and the Virgin Mary . The rest were ruthlessly exterminated . (Literally)

The only remnants of the Matriarchy that had ruled for nearly 70 000 years were some nunneries . Even here they were meme controlled ( Brides of Christ : ie connected to a male .)

Islam did the same . Note that the nun’s habit is identical with the chador .

It makes one wonder : why did the Council of Nicea decide on such a radical step ?
After all , the Roman Empire toward the end had little sex-discrimination . Constantinople had many empresses .

Why did the West suppress matriarchies ?

The suspicion arises that they did it because they felt threatened .

A meme structure like the Matriarchy that thinks in terms of 70 000 thousands of years and selective breeding of generations does not let a temporary hiatus of 5 000 years stop them . Indeed , elementary consideration would show that this could not have been the first or only reverse . Thus , they would have evolved mechanisms to survive what they consider temporary setbacks , together with some aggressive bounce-back mechanisms .

They probably tried to take over control of the Roman Catholic Church and the Western Empire . The Church destroyed most evidence , but there is Constantine’s mother , a taverners daughter who came up with some serious money to hire troops .

The killer , though , was probably the shenanigans with Attila . The Western Court at the time was even a bigger nest of snakes than usual . This was also the last time women played a significant role . If Aetius had not stopped Attila , the West would probably be a matriarchy now .

The Patriarchal meme-set seems to be long-lasting , but scared .
Some examples :
The refusal to aid Constantinople in 1453 . Indeed , the whole split . The West feels more comfortable with a patriarchal Islam than a matriarchy . Even so , Turkey seems to have been hit by a double whammy from the women : Naksh , and the enfolding and vanishment of the Circassians circa 1820 .

For those not up to speed :
Naksh (the Beautiful ) was a cousin of Josephine Bonaparte . They both came from Martinique and both became Empresses . Naksh was captured by Barbary pirates , and given as a virgin present to the Sultan . She must have been something exceptional , since he made her his principal and only wife , and more importantly , allowed her to educate her son the heir . This guy broke (well ,exterminated) the Janisseries (no mean feat) . He embarked the Ottoman Empire on the route that led to Turkey of today being a secular Islamic state (the only one) .

The Circassians were a tribe in the Caucasian mountains that reputedly for thousands of years bred their women for beauty and then sold them . This is like saying Elizabeth Taylor or Madonna is a slave . As you can imagine , even if it was not a matriarchal scheme to start off with , it would not be soon before the women ran the scheme . Reputedly , their beauty approached super-image quality , to such an extent that they had to be veiled so as not to drive men mad with visions of unattainability .

Of course the other side of the coin is more likely . For 60 000 years the matriarchy had bred and perfected women that could freeze men’s souls with their beauty and pheromones (cf Sirens , Circe , Gorgons , etc) . Brainy too . So the Circassians were breeding the beauty out , not in , to fit with modern society .

By 1820 they had to move , as the entire Caucasus mountains became very unsafe due to the Russian Empire expanding . Bullets or cannons do not care about beauty . The entire tribe moved to Constantinople and was not heard of again (of course) .

An interesting note here is that they probably had a copy of the Library of Constantinople . Very probably many of the originals . One of those ironies of history is that the Library everyone is looking for (including most of the Library of Alexandria) is right back where it started . A further ironic note is that Templars got obliterated mainly for having a copy . Contaminated by the Matriarchy . Fallout was the Albigensians and the Spanish Inquisition .

The question is : what on earth did the matriarchy do to provoke such an extreme response , one that has reverberated for thousands of years ? Even the memory of the deeds are gone (except maybe in some dusty archive) , but the emotions evoked still seem to be alive .

The only thing I can think of is a monstrous betrayal and perversion of the very bedrock of the Matriarchy’s social contract : when things got bad , they designated their people they considered useless as Prey and ate them .

This is like the Pope cutting out some nice fat American tourists on St Peter’s square and having a braai , with them as the guests of honour on the spit , all the while intoning that they should be honoured to serve .

Worse . Christianity has ritual cannibalism . No wonder this has reverberated down the ages . And it must have gone on for at least 200 years .

Shit . And I thought the high death rate in the Late Bronze age collapse was due to the quick conquest by the Sea Peoples . Instead , for hundreds of years the matriarchy and attendant nobles ate their people . The logic from their point is that the plebs should be honoured to feed their betters who know better and would be able to pull things together once the drought ends . And even when the drought ended , they could not stop . They were caught in the vested interests and , besides , it would take years before trade picked up and their shares paid a decent dividend .

The Sea Peoples were what we would call Liberators and Freedom Fighters . The capital letters are justified . Not even the Nazis or the Soviets ate the inmates of the camps , never mind put them in camps just for this purpose .

I always wondered how Rameses III could trust the Sea Peoples after the battle of the Nile to withdraw to southern Palestine . How could they exist if the area was so drought stricken ? But it wasn’t . It could support a lesser number , but not the overpopulated cities before . He had to promise to cleanse his country as well .Something he was not averse to .

But besides that , the Sea Peoples were fighting to cleanse the world of a great evil . The last holdout was in Egypt . They would have kept coming . All of them had family that was eaten .

This monumental blunder took place after the invention of agriculture , when overpopulation got out of control . I presume the present Matriarchy is determined not to make the same mistake . Overpopulation is once again out of control .

A note to the Matriarchy :
Kindly do not attempt to dispose of the surplus biomass through your stomach . It did not work too well 5 000 years ago . This time you will get crispies all round . The contract of 72 000 years ago is that either all pull through , or none do . Got it ?

The crucial Patriarchal meme:
No woman shall be without a connection with some male .

It does not matter if the male is a father , brother , husband ,son ,etc .
The intention is to prevent the build-up of a purely female powerbase . (ie a Matriarchy)

It worked for about 5 000 years .

Why it broke down :
The hidden assumption:
A high death rate due to high female death rate in childbirth .
This assumption steadily diverged from reality since about 1850 , as asepsis and birth procedures progressed .

The result was that woman outlived men by about 7 years on average . Rich woman in the US inheriting all their husband’s assets is a bigger percentage since the 1920’s . The US is a matriarchy by now .

Some symptoms:
Some 66% of US families have only one parent , namely the mother .
Crime rates have increased . This is because clouds of males are forming ,without matriarchal systems to keep them in control . At the levels of aggression and
testosterone the females have bred into them , only one thing will work :

A discreet word with Marvel Comics or some games designer might be appropriate .
And please , not SuperMama . Every Mama is a SuperMama .

MkIV Homo Sapiens .

Around 1800 the New Model Homo Saps was rolled out .
The new model is emotionally cool and is inclined to compulsive behaviour .
It welcomes uberbabes , but vehemently rejects a role as appetizer or even main course .

Aggression is not impulsive , but compulsive .
This is epigenetic .

This means that he can only be reasoned with . Emotional pressure points like fear , hate , love will play no role in behaviour .

Once an aggressive course is determined , nothing will stop it except superior force or logic .

The development of industrial technology required people that can concentrate for hours at a time on technical things like lathes , mathematics , etc , etc . The Fellow-feeling center in the brain suddenly became the cannon-fodder center .

A previous pathology ( Autism spectrum ) was dusted off and selection pressures are busily selecting and modifying . Aspergers (which did not exist before , suddenly is a desirable condition . The rough edges are being filed off .

It also means that the political control both Patriarchies and Matriarchies had is evaporating . The levers are turning to mush under their fingers .

Both have failed . They think the solution is in killing off their constituents when things get tough . This is no longer a viable solution from their viewpoint , as they have already lost control of the technical aspects . They are the most likely ones to do the tumbrel dance when things go ape .



Appendix II
Hysterical Focus and Ostrum Commons
Andre Willers
20 Oct 2011

Synopsis :
Hysterical Foci spontaneously self-assemble if there are a critical number of Ostrum Commons Rules present .
There are Eight Ostrom Rules . General theory of Reserves suggest that any 1/3 of them (ie any 3 rules ) will lead to Self-assembly of an Hysterical Focus . Regardless of consequences .

Discussion :

1.Hysterical Focus :
See “Inside the ignition of an hysterical focus” Jun 2010
Humans are an hysterical species . This was turned into a powerful advantage .
It evolved from early monkey and ape stages .

The attention and energies of the whole troop is co-opted (ie involuntary) and co-ordinated onto one single subject . This happens in the amygdala and hippocampus .

Fast forward to humans , and you have fashion (a mild form) or an Hysterical Focus .
All the resources of the group is devoted to the problem in an involuntary fashion .
No human is immune .
Individual considerations are overridden at very deep levels .

The stuff Revolutions are made from .
A highly successful method of breaking false optimal peaks

2.Ostrum Commons :
The system formed a Commons , resolvable in three ways :
2.1Tragedy of the Commons (Communism) Cf Aral Sea
2.2Private ownership(Capitalism) Cf Economic crashes
2.3Ostrum Commons .
This lost out in competition because it is essentially a fractal Small-system , dependant on good communication . It kept bubbling up in peasant revolts , but could never self-cohere .
This changed with electronic communication systems like facebook , twitter, telephone ,etc .
Unstoppable now . Over a certain quantitive threshold , the network changes quantitively.

3.Self-Assembly :
Any three Ostrum rules present will result in the spontaneous self-assembly of the other Rules .
The Dear Reader can prove this himself/herself .(Hint:look at overlapping dimensionalities of the Rules)
Or they can cheat and look at “New Tools” Nov 2008 .
If there is a sufficient density of communication , an Hysterical Focus will form . And we are off to the races . A fertile field of future research .

4.Some interesting properties of Hysterical Foci :
4.1They don't stop . Once ignited , the Focus continues until the goals are met or the information links have been smashed (not possible today , even with a nuclear war). Hunkering down and waiting until it dies down does not work .
4.2There are no leaders initially . Decoying the structure into an hierarchical system has been an old counter . Not possible with a large number of alternate information pathways , or the awareness of Ostrum Rules .
4.3The individual members of the Hysterical Focus follow group rules , not self-interest .
Your old-fashioned Revolutionaries .
4.4Nobody is immune . It is as deep as your genes .
4.5Politicians , PR and advertising firms have become aware of the effect and are trying to harness it .
Sigh . It is a Beth(2) system , and it will always turn in their hands .

Hysterically yours

Appendix A
A powerful example :
China :
Politicians did not initiate the household-responsibility system : local villagers developed it as an experiment later applied nationwide.
Allocating farmlands to individuals or to families rated as a crime during the Mao era in China, but the low-level productivity under collective farming and drought forced villagers ofXiaogang, Fengyang to do so in 1978. They implemented this system secretly, and signed a contract, "if any one of us is put to prison as a result, others shall be responsible for taking care of his children until they reach 18 years of age".
The secret experiment proved very successful. In 1979 similar experiments began inSichuan and Anhui provinces, both seeing dramatic increases in agricultural productivity.Deng Xiaoping openly praised these experiments in 1980, and the system has been adopted nationwide since 1981.

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