Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Gene-Meme Parasites

Gene-Meme Parasites

Andre Willers
28 Jan 2015

Synopsis :
Successful genes and memes alter the phenotype and even behaviour of individuals , without regard to the benefit of the individual or even the species . The selfish gene has got into bed with the Selfish Epigenetic system . Civilization is a parasite on competent individuals , until very deep into the Singularity .

Discussion :
1.Actual examples :
See Appendix A .
1.0 How to calculate Gene Prevalence  - See Appendix F
1.1Genghis Khan -See Appendix A
1.2 Giocangga -See Appendix B
1.3 Uí Néill – see Appendix C
1.4 Abraham – see Appendix D
1.5 Jesus and Mohammed – see Appendix E
2.Comparing the influence of gene-meme complexes.
See Appendix G
People from Northern China are 3 times more likely to initiate major changes .

3.Want to start your own religion for fun and profit ?
You used to need at least Dunbar’s Limit (150) as start-up disciples .
But that is so old news .
Facebook has broken the Dunbar Limit . It is now floating .
This has interesting ramifications as churches lose membership because critical numbers of deacons and priests fall below the new Dunbar’s Limit . What is delicious , is that they do not even realise why their churches are dying .
They can easily kicker them up , but that would suppose that they are willing to change .

4.An Interesting Aside :
The decline of the Western Roman Empire induced the inhabitants of North Africa to emigrate to Ireland .
The origin of the Irish Flowering .
Note the dates . and Appendix C .
They lasted quite long , until 1603 , when the much diminished descendants fled to the Lowlands and nobility of Europe .
You know them as the Bilderbergers of today .
See Appendix G
Their total influence is still more than 1.6 times that of Christianity .

5. Jesus’s other disciples .
An exercise for the dear reader .
There were at least 150 .
Who were they ?

6. These idle speculations are about to become life-and-death important as the whole world economic system is heading for the rapids .

7.Well , that was surprising .
I thought the old Roman Empire had decently shuffled off the coil .
But like the bobble in the carpet , it keeps on surfacing .
The whole meme-structure of slavery , debt bondage , interest rates , etc .

“Let’s let’s   do do   the the  Time-wars   Time-wars  again again”

Appendix A

Millions of men bear the genetic legacy of Genghis Khan, the famously fertile Mongolian ruler who died in 1227. Researchers have now recognized ten other men whose fecundity has left a lasting impression on present-day populations. The team's study1 points to sociopolitical factors that foster such lineages, but the identities of the men who left their genetic stamp remains unknown.
The case for Genghis Khan’s genetic legacy is strong, if circumstantial. A 2003 paper2 led by Chris Tyler-Smith, an evolutionary geneticist now at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, UK, discovered that 8% of men in 16 populations spanning Asia (and 0.5% of men worldwide) shared nearly identical Y-chromosome sequences. The variation that did exist in their DNA suggested that the lineage began around 1,000 years ago in Mongolia.
Khan is reputed to have sired hundreds of children. But a Y-chromosome lineage traces a single paternal line in a much larger family tree, and for it to leave a lasting legacy takes multiple generations who fan out over a wide geographical area, says Mark Jobling, a geneticist at the University of Leicester, UK, who led the latest study with geneticist Patricia Balaresque of Paul Sabatier University in Toulouse, France.
“Lots of men have lots of sons, by chance. But what normally doesn’t happen is the sons have a high probability of having lots of sons themselves. You have to have a reinforcing effect,” says Jobling. Establishment of such successful lineages often depends on social systems that allow powerful men to father children with multitudes of women.
The start of something big
In addition to Genghis Khan and his male descendants, researchers have previously identified the founders of two other highly successful Y-chromosome lineages: one that began in China with Giocangga, a Qinq Dynasty ruler who died in 15823, and another belonging to the medieval Uí Néill dynasty in Ireland4.
Related stories
Jobling’s team made a systematic search for genetic founders by analysing the Y chromosomes of more than 5,000 men from 127 populations spanning Asia; they focused on that region because lots of data were available and there was already evidence of such lineages. The team identified 11 Y-chromosome sequences that were each shared by more than 20 of the 5,321 genomes. The researchers used DNA differences in the shared sequences, which accumulate over time from random mutations, to determine approximately when the founder of the lineage lived. They tracked back the geographical origins of the lineages by assuming that the founding men had lived in the regions where their genotypes were most prevalent and diverse.
Genghis Khan’s paternal lineage again stood out, as did Giocangga’s, Jobling’s team reports in theEuropean Journal of Human Genetics1. The other nine lineages originated throughout Asia, from the Middle East to southeast Asia, dating to between 2100 bc and ad 700. Jobling warns that these dates come with huge margins of error, but he notes that the estimates for the lineages attributed to Khan and Giocangga are very close to those of past studies.
Legacy of power
The founders who lived between 2100 bc and 300 bc existed in both sedentary agricultural societies and nomadic cultures in the Middle East, India, southeast Asia and central Asia. Their dates coincide with the emergence of hierarchical, authoritarian societies in Asia during the Bronze Age, such as the Babylonians. Three lineages dating to more recent times were all linked to nomadic groups in northeast China and Mongolia. These included the lineages linked to Genghis Khan and Giocangga, plus a third line dating to around ad 850.
All three lineages seem to have expanded westwards, possibly along the Silk Road trade route. Historians have documented a series of polities based in inner Asia between 200 bc and the eighteenth century, such as the Qing Dynasty. Jobling says that these civilizations could have fostered dominant male lineages after the sons of a fecund founder decamped to satellite outposts, where they, in turn, fathered powerful descendants.
The researchers identify several candidates for the lineage dating to ad 850, but say that more research is needed. Recovering DNA from the candidate or or a long-dead descendant would be the ultimate proof.
“Looking for these links is fascinating. When we did it, we were using pretty indirect lines of reasoning, and you could try and do that with each of these lineages,” says Tyler-Smith. “What I really hope is that at some point someone will find Genghis Khan's tomb and remains.”

1.      Balaresque, P. et alEur. J. Hum. Genet. (2015).
o    PubMed
2.      Zerjal, T. et alAm. J. Hum. Genet. 72, 717–721 (2003).
o    Article
o    PubMed
o    ISI
o    ChemPort
3.      Xue, Y. et alAm. J. Hum. Genet. 77, 1112–1116 (2005).
o    Article
o    PubMed
o    ISI
o    ChemPort
4.      Moore, L. T., McEvoy, B., Cape, E., Simms, K. & Bradley, D. G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78,334–338 (2006).
o    Article
o    PubMed
o    ISI
o    ChemPort

Appendix B
Giocangga (ManchuGiocangga.pngChinese覺昌安pinyinJuéchāng'ān) (died 1582) was the grandfather of Nurhaci, the man who was to unify the Jurchen peoples and begin building what later became the Manchu state. Both he and his son Taksi went to the aid of Nurhaci's uncle Atai (阿台 Ātái) whose city was being besieged by a rival Jurchen chieftainNikan Wailan (ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᡳᠯᠠᠨ; 尼堪外蘭 Níkān Wàilán), who promised the governance of the city to whoever would kill Atai. One of Atai's underlings rebelled and murdered him. Both Giocangga and Taksi were originally under the command of the Ming general Li Chengliang who was siding with Nikan Wailan. In the mist of battle Li thought they had mutinied as they were left in the battlefield. They were killed in the aftermath by Nikan Wailan.
His temple name was Jǐngzǔ (景祖).
In 2005, a study led by a researcher at the British Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute suggested that Giocangga might be a direct male-line ancestor of over 1.5 million men, mostly in northeastern China and Mongolia.[1] This was attributed to Giocangga's and his descendants' many wives and concubines.[1] It was estimated that the average man in the time of Giocangga would have only 20 offspring as of 2005.[1][dubious – discuss] Gioncangga's descendants in the patrilineal line are concentrated among several ethnic minorities who were part of the Manchu Eight Banners system, and are not found in the Han Chinese population.
·         Brothers
1.   Soocangga (索長阿 Suǒcháng'ā)
2.   Boosi (寶實 Bǎoshí)
3.   Desikū (德世庫 Déshìkù)
4.   Leodan (劉闡 Liúchǎn)
5.   Boolungga (包朗阿 Bāolǎng'ā)
·         Children: (5 sons)
1.   Lidun Baturu (禮敦巴圖魯 Lǐdūn Bātúlǔ)
2.   Argun (額爾袞 Éěrgǔn)
3.   Jaikan (界堪 Jièkān)
4.   Taksi
5.   Taca Fiyanggū (塔察篇古 Tǎchá Piāngǔ)
1.     Jump up to:a b c "1.5m Chinese 'descendants of one man'"BBC. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 15 March 2013.

Appendix C
The Uí Néill (Irish pronunciation: [iː ˈnʲeːl̪ʲ]descendants of Niall) are Irish and Scottish dynasties who claim descent from Niall Noigiallach(Niall of the Nine Hostages), a historical King of Tara who died about 405.
The first generation of the Uí Néill were his sons, seven in all:
·         Conall Gulban, ancestor of the Cenél Conaill dynasty.
·         Éndae, ancestor of the Cenél nÉndai
·         Eógan, ancestor of the Cenél nEógain dynasty.
·         Coirpre, ancestor of the Cenél Coirpri dynasty.
·         Lóegaire, ancestor of the Cenél Lóegaire dynasty.
·         Conall Cremthainne, ancestor of the Clann Cholmáin and Síl nÁedo Sláine.
·         Fiachu, ancestor of the Cenél Fiachach.
All these men were in their lifetime known as members of The Connachta dynasty, or as "the sons of Niall." The term Uí Néill did not - by its very nature - come into use until the time of Niall's grandsons and great-grandsons.
Dynasties descended from the Uí Néill, such as the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain, held power in Ulster until their defeat in theNine Years War in 1603. Many of the heads of the families left for Catholic Europe in 1607, an event known as the Flight of the Earls.
Appendix D
The other nine lineages originated throughout Asia, from the Middle East to southeast Asia, dating to between 2100 bc and ad 700.
The Bible's internal chronology places Abraham around 2000 BCE. Despite this, "there is nothing specific in the Genesis stories that can be definitively related to known history in or around Canaan in the early second millennium B.C.E."

Appendix E
Mohammed and Jesus .
Presumably superior genes . Thus prevalent in the population .
Complex feedback system .
So , power laws apply . The form is y=ax^k   see

According to the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia (2000), Muhammad is probably the most common given name [in the world], including variations.[3] It is estimated that more than 150 million men and boys in the world bear the name Muhammad.
About 11% of Islamic descent
Etymology & Historical Origin - Jesus
The given name Jesus obviously needs very little by way of explanation; the origin is clear – Jesus is the central figure in Christianity. However, Jesus as a given name is distinct to Spanish-speaking cultures and usually rendered with an accented “U” as in Jesús and is pronounced hay-SOOS). In the English-speaking world, Jesus is not used as a given name. The name originates from the Hebrew “Yeshua” which made its way to the Greeks in the form of “Iēsous” and then to the Latin “Iesus.” From there, the “J” was added and became “Jesus” in most of the European languages. The name’s etymological origin is found in the Hebrew words “ys” (to save) and “yesua” (salvation). In Matthew 1:20-21, an angel appears to Joseph in a dream informing him that Mary’s pregnancy has been divinely orchestrated and that he is to name their son Jesus, “for he will save his people from their sins” – indicating that the name had not been selected arbitrarily.
Popularity of the Name Jesus
As mentioned above, people of English-speaking origin won’t use Jesus as a personal name; it makes them squirm with discomfort. Somehow taboo. The closest they come to using Jesus is by way of the name “Joshua.” People of Hispanic decent, however, fully embrace the given name Jesús for their little boys as a genuinely heartfelt demonstration of their reverence to Jesus. The name has become so popular within the Latino-American culture, that “hay-SOOS” feels like just another boys name with Spanish flair so in some cases, it may not even be tied to religion. In any case, it’s clearly the Spanish-speaking Americans, or those of Hispanic/Latino origin, driving the popularity of this name. Jesus has been on the U.S. popularity graph for over a century. The name received moderate usage at the turn of the last century, but fast-forward to this century with the growing Latino population in America, you'll find that Jesus sits squarely on the list of Top 100 most favored boys’ names
About 3% of Christian descent .
Appendix F
General calculation :
Y=D * D^kt
Where Y is population after t years , D= Dunbars Limit ( ) , usually 150 and k is the feedback factor .
We find k by seeing the percentage of the gene in a relevant descendant population .
Meme-descendants : names are taken as a good a-priori indicator of gene penetration in conqueror populations .
This might not seem obvious . Think it through .
Yfraction = Y(t)/Y(0)
            = D^(kt)
k = ln(Yfraction) / (ln(D) *t)
k only has meaning in a competitive environment .
It has to be compared , as it is a measure of the fitness of a meme structure .

Appendix G
Table of local influences .
1.Genghis : t ~ 800 , D=150 , Yfraction = 0.08 ,   k =  -0.0006300
2. Giocangga t~500 , D=150 , Yfraction = 0.01,   k =  -0.0018381
3. Uí Néill t~1600 , D=150 , Yfraction = 0.01 ,     k =  -0.0005744
4.Abraham t~ 3000 , D=150 , Yfraction = 0.9 ,     k = -0.00000700
5.Jesus  t~2000 , D=150 , Yfraction = 0.03 ,          k= -0.00035000
6.Mohammed t~1400 , D=150 , Yfraction ~ 0.11 , k = -0.0003147

In Descending order :
(Multiply by -10^4 to get some meaningful numbers)

Giocangga   18.4  (Northern china)
Genghis        6.3   (Asia)
Uí Néill        5.7    (Western Europe)
Jesus            3.5    (Christian)
Mohammed 3.1     (Islamic)
Abraham      0.07  (Semitic)

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