Vajra as a functional weapon.
Andre Willers
10 Jan 2015
Synopsis :
Vajra seems to have been a zeropoint energy light weapon ,
kickstarted by sonoluminescence and using the Schwinger limit for mining
Zeropoint energy .
Discussion :
1.This picture looks awfully like a real piece of
destructive hardware . Notice the dings and holes .
Don’t be fooled by the ornamentation . This was standard in
European cannon until mass production .
I wonder if it is still functional ?
Maybe a bit of repair , and the sonoluminescence ignition needs
replacing .
The arms need loosening and lubrication , as well as some
control system .
2.How does it work ?
See Appendix AA for some
basic theory .
2.1 Sonoluminescence
The collapsing bubbles at the right frequency causes
electric fields that exceed the Schwinger limit . Nonlinearity ensues . See
AppendixAA .
This is made selfsustaining by the arms that feed back the
electric fields into the central ballassembly .
The bellassembly seems to be both initiator and controller
.
The ball would be filled with some gas . Xenon seems
indicated . See below .
This is a bit of a surprise .
Xenon in water gives 1000 times “bright” .
Hence biological sequestering of xenon . For defence and
offense.
One would then expect some Indian and Tibetan plants high in
Xenon .
See Appendix BB for organic molecule Xenon traps .
This is what CC3 looks like
a, Reaction scheme for the synthesis of CC3 by a onepot [4
+ 6] cycloimination reaction involving four trialdehyde and six diamine
molecules, catalysed by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). b, The largest inclusion
sphere inside the cage (…
If its organic , living systems will have it .
And so they do .
Primula as well , which is how xenon gets into the world
food chain .
See
Radiance (W/nm)


0.50×10^{−12}

Bright

9.00×10^{−13}

Semibright

1.75×10^{−13}

Dim

7.00×10^{−14}

Very dim

2.00×10^{−14}

Extremely dim

Solution type


Xenon in water

1.04×10^{−9}

Krypton in water

8.00×10^{−10}

Argon in water

7.75×10^{−10}

Neon in water

5.40×10^{−10}

Helium in water

4.45×10^{−11}

^{3}He in water

3.60×10^{−11}

2.1.1 Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs had elaborate soundproducing structures .
A dinosaur powered by zeropoint energy is an interesting
concept . Is this why they could grow so large ?
2.2 The Feedback system :
The arms . Note the head vomits back into the central ball
assembly .
The structure is made of a conductor and acts as an electric
field guide .
Note the precisely machined curvature .
2.3 The control system .
This is Missing .
Some precise control would be needed to maintain the
feedback process within desired boundaries .
Else it would fizzle out or go “boom”
Seemingly by opening or closing the arms . Note the hinges
at the base of the arms .
These would need some loosening and lubrication , as well as
the odd lever or four .
2.4 Spacedrive .
Exceeding the Schwinger limit not only delivers a beam of
light , there is also a nonlinearity of momentum .
A drive .
The machine in the picture above seems to have been part of
a drivemechanism .
So , if you refurbish it , make sure you have a testpilot
handy .
Rather you than me .
Unlimited feedbacktype energies give me itchy feet . Notice
the monkeys ? Well , be warned . We are not too far away from their position .
3.Estimate of energy release if you can get the contraption
to work .
The central ball seems to be about 100cm in radius .
This gives vol=4/3*pi*100^3
cm^3
Vol= 4.1888 * 10^6 cm^3 = 4.1888 m^3
Energy ~ 10^113 Joules/m^3
But we are interested in the energy we can get out , which
is dependant on feedback factors .
A characteristic of complex feedback systems is that they
follow Power Laws (eg y=a*x^k) within
the same Beth(x) level .
Now , the volume of 4.1888 m^3 represents 2.7 * 10^25 Xenon
molecules at STD .
This means that usable energy interconnection Ei = (ln(2.7)*ln(10)*25)^0.5
= (57.176168)^0.5 = 7.56149 .
The square root is because of Random Walk considerations .
See Appendix AA IV A below about Random Walks in multiple
dimensions .
So , expected usable energy is scaled down to a bottom
threshold of (e^(ln(10)*113))^(1/7.56149) = 10^14.9441 joules
Since megaton of TNT,
=, 4.184×10^{15} J`
The engine has a max rating of about ½ megaton of TNT .
The release rate is governed by the controls and material
durability of supporting structures .
Used as a cannon , it could probably sustain a firing rate of
100 kiloton of TNT indefinitely , as long as it kept moving .
Thrust is unknown , but simple reaction from heating air at
say 10^14 joules per meter gives about 10^13 newtons .
One gravity ~ 9.8 newtons for 1 kg .
The machine then could lift about 10^12 kg , or 1 000 000 000 tons . (1
trillion tons) .
A steel spaceship about 250 m in diameter .
More likely a much smaller warship .
4.Noise .
This contraption was noisy!
The ignition stage would be like an Orion craft taking off .
A controlled nuclear explosion .
5.Where to find any .
So , the spaceports would be in very isolated areas .
Surviving ones (if any) , would have been hastily buried .
Look for truncated mountaintops with massive scree
slopes in Takla Makan , Gobi , Northern
Indian deserts .
6.What zapped such a formidable machine ?
There are almost certainly buried machines . Once the
futility of further flying became evident , the pilots would have mothballed
them .
Maybe you lot should look a little harder ?
7.Or build your own .
It seems simple enough .
Most of the heavy lifting has already been done . You even
have a rather battered working model .
Let’s do the Matriarch Wars again !
Andre
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Appendix AA
Why Space goes nonlinear .
Andre Willers
14 Jan 2013
Synopsis :
Discussion :
1.We use brutal ,
first approximation arguments to get a surprisingly close approximation to theSchwinger limit
of 1.3X 10^18 Volts/Meter .
of 1.3X 10^18 Volts/Meter .
2.We use Schwarzchild
radii to define nonlinearity . The space between the Eventhorizon of a
Blackhole and Schwarzchild radius encompasses
3.Nonlinear events .
Hawking Radiation can be random , but is definitely nonlinear , and can be
described by Riemannian random walks between the ergosphere and Schwarzchild
globe .
4.If information is
encoded in the surface of the black hole in holographic form , then the
nonlinear events are influenced . You will have to be really smart (Beth (4+)
to get any information from that . For us , it will appear random .
5. We the apply this
to electric charges . What Electric Field will give the same nonlinearity as
the gravitational field near a Singularity ?
7.Plugging all these
things into the formulaic descriptions , gives
Rq= 259. 68918 x 1012
Rq~259 picometers
Rq = distance from a
charged proton where two charged particles cause nonlinearity .
See Appendix IIA for
derivation .
See Appendix ZZZ for
alternate derivation .
Compare the two :
259 picometers above
vs 332 picometers in Appendix ZZZ
6. What does this mean
?
It might even be true
.
What do you know !
Welcome to the
Avogrado Universe .
Where precise
massinteraction has relevance at lowlevel if certain limits are exceeded .
In other words ,
forcibly injecting molecules into an Avogrado stable system will give rise to
lots of nonlinear effects .
Simple and easy .
6.1 We can manipulate
macroprobabilities without being limited to crystals .
See Appendix IIIA
6.2 We are in a
simulation . But if Branes are involved , we cannot know even in principle .
Any Singularity inside the manifold exports the uncertainty to an infinity
(Aleph(0) at least ) . You need to be an Beth(4) or better to understand what
is going on .
But can you bootstrap
to Beth(4) ? Good luck .
7. Things are weirder
than you think .
8. The Spindoctors of
Beth(3) Universes use spin on the holographic surfaces of blackholes , protons
and electrons to propagate information biases .
And so it goes and
spins .
Andre
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Appendix IA
Schwinger limit
From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia
A Feynman diagram (box diagram) for photon–photon
scattering, one photon scatters from the transient vacuum charge
fluctuations of the other
In quantum
electrodynamics (QED), the Schwinger
limit is a scale above which the electromagnetic field is expected to become nonlinear. The limit was first derived in one of QED's earliest theoretical
successes by Fritz Sauter in 1931^{[1]} and discussed further by Werner Heisenberg and his student Hans Euler.^{[2]} The limit, however, is commonly named in the literature^{[3]} for Julian Schwinger, who derived the leading nonlinear corrections
to the fields and calculated the production rate of electron–positron pairs in
a strong electric field.^{[4]} The limit is typically reported as a maximum electric field before nonlinearity for the vacuum of
where m_{e} is
the mass of the electron, c is the speed of light in vacuum, q_{e} is
the elementary charge, and Ä§ is the reduced Planck constant.
In
a vacuum, the classical Maxwell's equations are perfectly linear
differential equations. This implies – by
the superposition
principle – that the sum of
any two solutions to Maxwell's equations is yet another solution to Maxwell's
equations. For example, two beams of light pointed toward each other should
simply add together their electric fields and pass right through each other.
Thus Maxwell's equations predict the impossibility of any but trivialelastic photon–photon scattering. In QED, however,
nonelastic photon–photon scattering becomes possible when the combined energy
is large enough to create virtual electron–positron pairs spontaneously, illustrated by the Feynman diagram in the figure on the right.
A
single plane wave is insufficient to cause nonlinear effects, even in QED.^{[4]} The basic reason for this is that a single plane wave of a
given energy may always be viewed in a different reference frame, where it has less energy (the same is the case
for a single photon). A single wave or photon does not have a center of momentum
frame where its energy must be at minimal value. However, two
waves or two photons not traveling in the same direction always have a minimum
combined energy in their center of momentum frame, and it is this energy and
the electric field strengths associated with it, which determine
particleantiparticle creation, and associated scattering phenomena.
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Appendix IIA
Derivation of
Schwinger limit:
This is a first
approximation :
Rq/Rm = Ke/Gm *
Q/((Mp/Me)
Where Rq is
electrostatic Schwarzchild radius , Rm is gravitational Schwarzchild radius ,
Ke is electrostatic constant , Gm is gravitational conststant .
Mp/Me is ratio of
proton /elctron mass . Q is electron Coulomb
This gives
Rq/Rm = 1.17537474 x
10^( 2)
We plug in Scwarzchild
radius calculation for a proton :
Rm = 2GMp /c^2 , where
c is speed of light in vacuum .
=2.47456 x 10^54
This gives
Rq=(29.083 x
10^1057)^(1/3)
=3.07521 x 10^19
The third root is
because the system needs at least three dimensions . See Appendix IA .
But no system is ever
alone .
All the various
Efields sum as Superposition applies (linearity applies)
As a first
approximation they have Avogrado's number of molecules per radius=
(0.6022x10^27)^(1/3)
=0.84446x10^9
Multiplied by Rq above
(because the electric fields sum in linear systems) , this gives
Rq = (3.07521 x 10
19) x (0.84446 x 10^9)
Rq = 2.5968918 x
10^10 meters
Rq= 259. 68918 x 1012
Rq~259 picometers
Derivation is more
accurate .
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Appendix IIIA
Macroscopic
Manipulation of Probability .
Andre Willers
12 Dec 2012
Synopsis :
We manufacture a
nonlinear optical crystal that breaks the Schwinger limit
on intraatom electric field densities . A flood of entangled photons results , which can be partially "observed" to give any desired variation in local entropy .
on intraatom electric field densities . A flood of entangled photons results , which can be partially "observed" to give any desired variation in local entropy .
Discussion :
1.General : See
Appendix I .
Curiously , the
Conservation of Entanglement is already accepted as a defacto reality , but
the physics community still baulks at some of the consequenses .
Those old Continuous
mathematical functions die hard .
2.NonLinear Optical
Crystals .
In 1 in 10^12 laser
photons this gives rise to various entanglements of photons . Not exactly
something to write home about . See Appendix B .
The crystals work by
chance : some superposition of incoming and outgoing Electric fields exceed
the Schwinger limit (10^18 Volt/Meter) . Space itself becomes
nonlinear . Conservation "Laws" , especially various momenta ,
become a bit dicey . Literally .
The
3.How can we improve the
likelyhood of these minisingularities ?
There is a lot of
yakkityyak (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonlinear_optics ) , but it boils down to focussing the
absorbed and retransmitted electromagnetic or mass waves . In other words ,
Location , Location , Location .
Get the atoms in the
crystal closer in patterns . That means crimping then in some sort of feedback
formation . Like Spirals , circles , Limacons , etc . There are lots of them .
A threedimensional
Limacon Spiral (See Appendic D) would probably give the best results at low
laser intensities . The dimple acts like a concentrating singularity . See Appendix
C .
4.Neutrino Detectors
See Appendix F
We detect the
neutrinos by altering the probability of interaction in nearspace . A properly
designed , nonlinear antennae crimped into a 3D structure will do the trick .
5.There are lots of
geometric configurations , but I am not impressed with what I found on the
Internet . Surely they can do better? A simple Genetic Algorithm will soon give
an optimal . Limacon still seems optimal in omnidirectional usages .
6. How to make a
Probability Distorter :
6. 1 Combine a quartz
3D injection type printer with a percussion type printer(dot type) to create an
optical quartz lens with very specific crimp patterns(like Fresnell spirals ,
Limacon Spirals) in its crystalline structure . (This makes the atoms closer) .
Make sure the function is Splinal (see appendix G) or at least fractal .
6.2 Shine a strong
laser light through it , and probability will be warped downstream . Better yet
, you can warp it .
6.3 But what is real ,
then ?
See Appendix H . I am
rather tired of repeating it , but it is important .
About a 1/3 is
Reserved for Reality . The rest you can manipulate . This is true at any
fractal level .
About 2/3 of what you
think you know is subject to meddling . And you do not know which 2/3 .
All the Particles in
our Universe requires is 1/3 certainty , wherever it may fall .
7. Welcome to the
PostHuman Universe .
With all human lies
prevalent , it seems like a more certain place .
8. What does all this
folderol mean ?
It sounds like a very
large degree of freedom .
Sigh . Far from it .
Humans have very little degree of freedom (if you want numbers , about 1/3 of
1/3 of 1/3) : about 3% . Regardless of human rank .
This technology might
give the illusion of ramping up degrees of freedom to 11% . Certainly in
physical terms . But the humans will take some time to catch up .
A test .
With severe demotion
or extinction as the penalty of failure .
9. Are we in a
Simulation ?
At last we can test it
.
A Probability
Distorter like in para 6 above can be made selfreferencing . The system then
either has to crash (exeunt everybody) or have a limit . But the crashes can be
locally limited . Ie Singularities . like black holes , white holes ,
technological singularities and other beasties .
Essentially , the
existence of any Singularity means that you are living in a Simulation .
And may you have joy
of that .
Still , I would like
to see those boring gas balls closer .
Andre .
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Appendix I
The SnowWhite Quantum
Paradox
Andre Willers
9 Dec 2012
"Mirror , mirror
on the wall , who is the most indeterminate of them all ?"
Synopsis:
Entangled quantum
waves must sometime encounter an observer . Why then are they not all collapsed
?
Discussion :
1.The quantum
probability waves (Psi) are . But not all at "once" .
2.The most
indeterminate parts of the Psi wave gets collapsed first .
3.This refines the
remaining states of Psi via entanglement .
4.Loop from para 2
until no indeterminancy remains .
5.New quantum waves
are generated by the observer .
6.Loop from para 1.
7.This whole mess
arises from trying to jam many dimensions into a few dimensions . The
measurement process usually involves lower dimensions (like x,y,z,t) . This
forces a multidimensional "object" to redistribute information via
entanglement (a tautology – the measurement just "squeezes" it in
space and time .) But a fraction of information remains outside the squeezing
process . The most indeterminate parts . The system thus bootstraps .
8.Any finite observer
at all will lead to emergent complexity behaviour . Also entropy increases due
to information loss . Ie , time goes faster .
9.The eye : our
observer .
Notice its
construction : a ball with a small hole in x,y,z dimensions . Indeterminate
parts of Psi outside the eyeball is lost into the Universum .
10.Some experiments
will illustrate this and make it easier to understand :
10.1 Fresnell tube .
The circular lenses (measurement devices) are packed into a conical tube .
Interesting effects both optical and electronic can be observed at the focus .
Notice the enhanced entropy . Time is faster inside the tube due to increased
entropy , but from the outside it seems to have accellarated all processes
inside the tube .
This means that
certains types of radioactivity (especially involving beta decay) is much
faster . An effect already noted from certain spiral solar emissions . These
should be able to be mapped from GPS anomalies from the Earth's orbit around
the Sun .
This can be used for
cheap and safe slowyield nuclear energy , or an effective highenergy laser .
But not a bomb . (What do you know , I also thought this was impossible.)
10.2Conservation of
Entanglements .
The root of
Conservation of Energy .
The cutoff
entanglements cannot simply go away . They snap back to earlier entanglements
(going back to the big bang if necessary ) Before big Bang ? Other Branes or
Universes ? Your guess is as good as mine .
In any case ,
indeterminancy surrounding the Solar System will increase dramatically once
industrial scale applications get under way . Quantum thingies (electronics ,
mostly) will have to be adjusted . Humans will be affected , since their native
mode is quantal . Rare events will become more commonplace . Casino's take note
.
Aliens:
Any aliens worth their
salt will have detectors looking out for this . By it's very nature
(entanglement is multidimensional) , a sudden increase in Entanglements will
light up their little detectors . So expect a visit . Even a single highenergy
event would probably be sufficient .(Energy is applicable , because of
Conservation of entanglement )
10.3 The effect can be
further manipulated by Spiral Fresnell Multidimensional mirrors.
How to make a
3dimensional Spiral Fresnell Mirror .
Use a 3D Printer to
print the circuits directly into the material .
See Appendix I .
10.4Stone age Spirals
Would that have an
effect ?
Yes . The compression
waves of two masons simultaneously hammering a spiral into from opposite sides
of a spiral into hard rock would create compression zones acting like a
Fresnellmass detector, simultaneously changing probabilities (those lost
indeterminancies) .
Lowprobability events
would be more likely to occur . (Ie , don't play dice there) . If your
smartphone starts acting up , run like hell . You might marry her or even the
phone . (Siri can be very appealing . Siri might get a crush on you . Remember
, the lowprobability events will increase .)
11.Can we measure
these effects ?
Easily . They have
already been observed in cellphones and GPS systems , but are seen as defects .
There are (mostly) software buffers that compensate for them . Take the buffers
out , and you can have an app that measures time accellaration effects or
probability distortions .
12.Gravitational
Lenses .
We know about gravitational
lensing . A number of them in succession on the same axis will have a dramatic
effect on probabilities .
Or, put it another way
. We can perceive a number of gravitational lenses from the Solar System .
Since the Indetermancy will sum (due to Conservation of Entanglement and energy
) , Lowprobability events like life is then much more likely .
I can't find an answer
on the Web , and I suspect there is not one . You will have to sum the
Indetermancies across the whole sky . And since the Indetermancies affect the
time dimension , unfortunately little things like Dark Matter and Dark Energy
no longer become necessary . They have not been observed directly because they
do not exist . (Except in the fevered brows of academics writing grant
applications . )
This means that life
in crowded neighbourhoods like Sol is quite likely . Inevitable .
Higher civilizations
will put their thumbs on the probability scales .
See Appendix II .
Design your own
multiple sun indetermancy concentrator . Or look for one . Calculate the
likelihood and the degree of probability distortion . Calculate the likelihood
of life .
An exercise for the
dear reader .
"As time goes by
, rather haphazardly."
And the paradox . What
paradox ? The Psi collapses are stretched like taffy .
And , at the Omega
point End , the horse does not only to learn to talk and sing , but to rap as
well . Quelle horreur . Time for another Universe .
And so it goes .
Andre
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Appendix I
A way to do it .
Radiometry and metrology of a phase zone plate measured by
extreme ultraviolet synchrotron radiation
John F. Seely, Benjawan Kjornrattanawanich, James C. Bremer, Michael Kowalski, and Yan Feng »View Author
Affiliations
The diffraction efficiency, focal length, and
other radiometric and metrology properties of a phase zone plate were measured
by using monochromatic synchrotron radiation in the 7– 18.5 nm wavelength
range. The zone plate was composed of molybdenum zones having a 4 mm outer
diameter and 70 nm nominal
thickness and supported on a100 nm thick silicon
nitride membrane. The diffraction efficiency was enhanced by the phase shift of
the radiation passing through the zones. The measured firstorder efficiency
was in good agreement with the calculated efficiency. The properties of the
zone plate, particularly the small variation of the efficiency with offaxis
angle, make it suitable for use in a radiometer to accurately measure the
absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet emission from the Sun.
© 2009 Optical Society of America
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Appendix II
Look for any of these signs .
DesignaSun.
Andre Willers
18 May 2010
Safety :
A Level III Civilization would be needed to
implement these ideas .
Though indications are that LHC and Tokamaks
may develop localized pockets of higherorders of randomness near the
boundaries of the containers due to small fluctuations in magnetic fields ,
leading to fusion effects .
See http://andreswhy.blogspot.com "Orders
of Randomness"
But this
alreadyreleased technology .
Safety is estimated at
0.98
Synopsis:
A big ball of gas is
so boring . We design more interesting suns .
Discussion .
We follow the known
laws of physics : ie you can calculate each of the shapes below .
Driver Engine :
A rapidly rotating
quasar .(Rroq)
The shapes we envisage
are possible , but not stable . They will need an input driver .
1.Toroidal Sun.
Spin up a sufficiently
large star using a Rroq . It will form a toroidal sun .
2.An Orbit of Toroidal
Suns .
Like rings on an
elliptical string .
Spin up a sufficiently
large , dense gascloud using a pulsating Rroq . It will form a number of
toroidal suns . By varying and steering the pulses , an orbit of toroidal suns
can be formed around the center of gravity . A planet there would have a really
interesting sky , not to mention geology .
3.Possible Orbits .
NewScientist in the
early 2000's published an article showing some possible orbital configurations
. While there was no proof that an infinite number are possible , the about 40
shown had some very fancy shapes . Nonintuitive curliques , loopcrossing ,
etc . They were not stable , but that is not a concern here .
4.Square , triangular
, pyramidal and other simple geometrical Suns .
Fourier transforms can
be executed upon stars . A combination of Para(3) above and a single Rroq
should make these possible , though your sun might wobble a bit . Not very
esthetic .
5.Multiple Rroqs .
Fine control is
possible . Hollow square suns , etc become possible . Multiple vacuoles or
holes inside stars . Really fancy suns and orbitals of suns .
Any topological form .
6.Controlled ,
repetitive novae .
A bit like Cepheids .
7.Selfpowered
Tipplerlike machines to move between dimensions , universes and branes .
Hint : paths through
topological "holes" will lead to alternate universes or branes (sets
of universes)
8. This is about
kindergarden level for a postsingularity system .
9. Add habitats
For lifeforms from
gascloud level , biological level , electronic level down to Planck level and
sprinkle with suitable seedlifeforms . This would be about Grade 1 for a
postsingularity system .
Andre .
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Appendix B
A lot of highlevel
sound and fury , without addressing the basic problem .
Nonlinear optics
From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the
behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to
the electric fieldE of the light. This nonlinearity is typically only observed
at very high light intensities (values of the electric field comparable to
interatomic electric fields, typically 10^{8} V/m) such as those
provided by pulsed lasers. Above the Schwinger limit, the vacuum itself is expected to become
nonlinear. In nonlinear optics, the superposition
principle no longer holds.
Nonlinear optics
remained unexplored until the discovery of Second
harmonic generation shortly after
demonstration of the first laser. (Peter Franken et al. at University of Michigan in 1961)
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Appendix C
This is physics speak
for "I don't know why this is happening"
Spontaneous parametric
downconversion
From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia
Spontaneous parametric
downconversion (SPDC. Also
referred to as parametric fluorescence or parametric scattering) is an
important process in quantum optics, used especially as a source of entangled photon pairs, and of single photons.
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Appendix D
A way to concentrate
anything , over and over again .
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lima%C3%A7on
LimaÃ§on
From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia
In geometry, a limaÃ§on or limacon ( /ËˆlÉªmÉ™sÉ’n/), also known as a limaÃ§on of Pascal,
is defined as a roulette formed when a circle rolls around the outside of a circle of
equal radius. It can also be defined as the roulette formed when a circle rolls
around a circle with half its radius so that the smaller circle is inside the
larger circle. Thus, they belong to the family of curves calledcentered trochoids; more specifically, they are epitrochoids. The cardioid is the special case in which the point
generating the roulette lies on the rolling circle; the resulting curve has
a cusp.
The term derives from
the Latin word limax, which means "snail". Depending on the
position of the point generating the curve, it may have inner and outer loops
(giving the family its name), it may be heartshaped, or it may be
oval.
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Appendix E
Google 3D printing
Quartz . a flourishing industry
Synthetic quartz
Most quartz used in
microelectronics is produced synthetically. Large, flawless and untwinned
crystals are produced in an autoclave via thehydrothermal process. The process involves treating crushed natural
quartz with hot aqueous solution of a base such as sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide serves as a
"mineralizer", i.e. it helps dissolve the "nutrient"
quartz. High temperatures and pressures are required, typically 350450°C and
10001500 atmospheres.^{[9]} The dissolved quartz then recrystallizes at a seed crystal at slightly lower temperatures. Approximately 200 tons of
quartz were produced in the US in 2005; large synthesis facilities exist
throughout the world. Synthetic quartz is often evaluated on the basis of
its Q factor, a measure of its piezoelectric response and an indicator of the
purity of the crystal.^{[10]}
Hightemperature glass
composed of silicon dioxide with no (or only small amounts of) other components
is referred to as "quartz glass" or fused quartz, although it is amorphous in structure, rather than crystalline.
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Appendix F
Quartz is used in
neutrino detection .
We can make it as big
as a postage stamp .
Abstract
LORandite EXperiment
(LOREX) plans to measure the time integrated solar neutrino flux of the last
few million years via the product of the reaction 205Tl(Ï…e,e−)205Pb in
lorandite of the Allchar mine in Macedonia.
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Appendix G
A way of sneaking up
on smooth curves . In quantum systems (by definition) how discontinuous
mathematics can be married to Calculus . Not a happy union .
Spline (mathematics)
From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia
In mathematics, a spline is a sufficiently smooth polynomial function that is piecewisedefined, and possesses a high degree of smoothness at the places
where the polynomial pieces connect (which are known as knots).^{[1]}^{[2]}
In interpolating problems, spline interpolation is often referred to as polynomial
interpolation because it yields
similar results, even when using lowdegree splines, to interpolating with
higher degree polynomials while avoiding instability due to Runge's phenomenon.
In computer graphics splines are popular curves because of the
simplicity of their construction, their ease and accuracy of evaluation, and
their capacity to approximate complex shapes through curve fitting and interactive curve design.
The most commonly used
splines are cubic spline, i.e., of order 3—in particular,
cubic Bspline and cubic BÃ©zier spline. They are common, in particular,
in spline interpolation simulating the function of flat splines.
The term spline is
derived from a flexible strip of metal commonly used by draftsmen to assist in drawing curved lines.^{[3]}
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Appendix H
Infinite Probes 2
Andre Willers
30 April 2008
From discussing this
with various recipients , there seems to be a need for a simpler explanation .
I thought I had explained it in the simplest fashion possible . The subject
matter is inherently complex .
But , here goes .
How much must you save
?
If you save too little
, a random fluctuation can wipe you out .
If you save too much ,
you lose opportunity costs . If you are in competition , this loss can be
enough to lose the competition (ie you die)
Intuitively , you can
realize there is an optimum level of saving .
Methods exist of
calculating this optimum in very specific instances (ie portfolios of shares
,eg Kelly criteria , or tactics in war eg MiniMax ) .
The General Case
We need to hold a
Reserve in case Something goes wrong . But we do not know what thing goes wrong
.
Infinite Probes tries
to answer the general case . What is really , really surprising is that a
answer is possible .
The Infinite bit comes
from using the mathematical expansion of the Definition of Eulers Constant e =
( 1 + 1/2! + 1/ 3! + … 1/n! + …)
Where n!=
n*(n1)*(n2)*(n3)*…*(1)
This approaches a
constant , widely used in mathematics and physics .
(e = 2.718…) .
All we need is a
system that can be subdivided indefinitely (to infinity) .
First , we divide by 1
Then 2
Then 3
Then 4
And so forth till
infinity .
What is important is
not that we do know what these divisions are , only that they are possible . We
also do not know which one element goes wrong .
The other critical
insight is that it is the relation between elements that is important .
(Permutations) (The failure of an element in total isolation cannot affect the
whole system by definition .)
We can count the
number of relationships where there is failure of one element .
It is n! , where n is
number of divisions where only one failure .
Multiple failures are
handled by summing :
Our Reserve(R ) is
divided by n to infinity and summed .
TotReserve= R*( 1 +
1/2! + 1/ 3! + … 1/n! + …)
TotReserve= R * e
To find the boundaries
of our Reserve , we set TotReserve = Cost
Then
R = 1/e * Cost
R ~ 0.37 * Cost
What does this mean?
This method measures
the upper boundary of the reserve needed to survive failures
in any element of the CostUniverse . Ie , internal fluctuations .
This is the surprising
bit . Any society that keeps at least 37% reserves , can only be destroyed by
something outside it's envelope . It is internally stable , no matter what .
Empires like the
Ancient Egyptians , Romans , Chinese are possible , as long as there is no
climactic fluctuation , new inventions , diseases ,etc . Rare events . Hence
the technological stasis of old civilizations . The two are synonymous .
This is true at any
scale (except quantal , by definition.) .
Individuals too .
Humans can be seen as empires of noospheres .
The upper boundary
does not take any doublecounting into account . It is true for any system
whatsoever .
A truly remarkable
precise result from such general axioms .
The Lower Boundaries .
This is where it gets
interesting .
Remember , we are just
counting the number of ways in which permutations of one element can fail . We
then sum them to get the effect of the failures of other elements
The easiest is the
business that just starts and is not selling anything . It fails on n elements
on every term . It's floor capital must then be
R=Cost/(1+e)
R=0.27*Cost
This is the initial
reserve to get off the ground .
This is true in any
ecosystem . This is why it is so difficult to start a new business , or why a
new species cannot succeed . Or why waves of pandemics are scarcer .
For the epidemically
minded , this 10% difference is responsible for the demise of the Black Death (
smallpox outcompeted bubonic plaque variants for the CR5 access site.Ironically
, the reason why we have only a limited HIV plague is the high competition for
this site , probably some flu vectors . As one would expect , the incidence of
HIV then becomes inversely proportional to connectivity (ie flights) .
A cessation of
airplane flights will then lead to a flareup of diseases like these .
Not exactly what
anybody has in mind . )
When we find that we
really need the spread of infectious vectors to stay healthy , then we know we
have really screwed ourselves .
These are the two main
boundaries .
The literature is full
of other limits the series can approach . Keep a clear head on what the
physical significance is .
Fat
I cannot leave the
subject without the thing closest to human hearts : appearance .
Fat and fitness .
Sadly , the present
fad for leanness is just that . The period of superfluous food is coming to an
end .
Rich individuals can
afford to be lean because the reserves are in the monetary wealth Women have to
bear children individually , so they cannot store the needed reserves
externally . Hence their fat storage is close to the theoretical optimum even
in Western societies (33%) . In other societies the percentage is about 3740%
.
Human males have been
bred (Mk III humans) for muscle and little fat (8% in a superbly fit male) . He
does not have reserves to withstand even garrison duty (even little diseases
will lay him low .) Note the frequent references to diseases laying whole
armies low .
Note what is left out
: the campfollowers . They survived The women and babyfat children . Every
army seeded the invaded area with women and children .
The bred soldier has
to eat a highcarb food frequently : not meat or fat , his body cannot store it
. This is the definition of a wheateating legionary .
Ho ! Ho! Ho!
The Atkinson diet .
No wonder it does not
make sense in evolutionary terms .
Mesomorphic humans
have been bred not to transform expensive proteins and fats into bodymass .
The soldierclass were
kept on a carbohydrate leash , which could only be supplied by farming .
The Smell of Horses .
Horses exude
pheromones that promote bodyleanness in humans . This has an obvious advantage
to horses . Horses are breeding jockeys .
The timespan is
enough : at least 8 000 years . (400 generations)
Because pregnant women
cannot ride horses , there was a selection pressure to breed horses who have a
pheromone that block female dominance pheromones , especially since females
have to weigh more because of fatreserve considerations .
Outside a farming environment
, horses will sculpt their riders as much as the riders are sculpting them .
Small Mongolian ponies
, small Mongolians .
This is why
alphamales like horses and horsedominated societies were able to conquer and
keep matriarchies .
Note the effect of the
pheromones on women riders . Androgeny .
On males it becomes
extreme blockage of oestrogen . It seems like a surge of male hormones , but it
is just an imbalance . (If too much male hormones , the men just kill their
horses )
This is why the
automobile had such a big sociological effect . No horses , so the men became
more effeminate .
Want to be Lean and
Mean ?
Sniff Horse sweat
pheromone .
Perfumiers take note .
Dogs
The other leg of the
humanhorsedog triumvirate .
Dogs accept female
packleaders and have evolutionary reasons for blocking horse inhibitions of
human female pheromones .
While the males are
away , the females look after and rely on the dogs .
(The reason why
Mongols ride from yurt to yurt: they are too scared of the dogs.)
With dogs around , the
male testosterone activity is ameliorated . This is a well known effect ,
especially if horses are around .
Hence the female love
of lapdogs . They are actually quite ferocious , and exude large amounts of pheromones
that soothes the savage male breast .
Your attention is
drawn to the Pekinese lapdog , which has had a disproportionately large effect
on human history .
If this sounds
convoluted , it is because this is exactly how this type of biosystem operates
: by inhibitions of inhibitions of inhibitions ,etc .
Andre
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Appendix IV A
Orders
of Randomness 2
Andre Willers
15 Aug 2008
I have been requested
to expand a little on orders of Randomness and what it means .
Please note that human
endeavours at this date use only randomness of the order of flipping a coin (
Beth(0) )
Aleph is the first
letter of the Hebrew Alphabet . It was used by Cantor to denote
Classes of Infinity
(ie Aleph(0) for Rational numbers , Aleph(1) for Irrational Numbers , etc
Beth is the second
letter of the Hebrew Alfabet . It means "House"
I will first repeat
the derivation of Orders of Randomness from http://andreswhy.blogspot.com : "Orders of Randomness"
because it is so important .
xxxxxx
Start Quote:
First , simple
Randomness .
Flip of a coin .
Heads or Tails . 0 or
1
Flip an unbiased coin
an infinite number of times ,write it down below each other and do it again .
All possible 0 and 1's
An example : Beth(0)
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Flips(1) 0,1,1,1,1,…
etc
Flips(2) 0,1,1,1,0,…
etc
.
Flips(infinity)
0,0,0,0,0,0,…etc
Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
This describes all
possible states in a delineated binary universe .
"delineated
binary" means a two sided coin which cannot land on it's side .
Now draw a diagonal
line from the top left of Flips(1) to Flips(infinity) .
At every intersection
of this diagonal line with a horizontal line , change the value .
The Diagonal Line of
(0,1)'s is then not in the collection of all possible random
Horizontal
coinFlips(x) .
This means the
Diagonal Line is of a stronger order of randomness .
This is also the
standard proof of an Irrational Number .
This is the standard
proof of aleph numbers .
Irrational numbers
,etc
Since any number can
be written in binary (0,1) , we can infer that the order of randomness is the
same as aleph numbers .
This means we can use
number theory in Randomness systems .
Very important .
Google Cantor (or
Kantor)
Define coinflip
Randomness as Beth(0) , analogous to Aleph(0)
Then we have at least
Beth(1) , randomness an order stronger than flipping a coin .
Then we can theorize
Beth(Omega) <>Aleph(Omega) .
End Quote
xxxxxx
Cardinal Numbers .
The cardinal number is
the index x of Aleph(x) .
Cantor proved that
Aleph(n+1) = 2 ^
Aleph( n )
Where n is the
cardinal number of the infinity .
Tying them together :
He also proved that
P(A) = 2^ n
Where A is any set ,
P(A) is the PowerSet of A and n is the cardinal number of set A
Thus , Cardinal Number
of P(A) =(n+1)
The PowerSet of A =
the Set of all subsets of A .
This sounds fancy ,
but it is simply all the different ways you can combine the elements of set A .
All the ways you can chop up A .
You can see it easily
in a finite binomial expansion (1+1)^n = P(A) = 2^n
There we also chop and
dice , using infinite series .
Can you see how it all
ties together ?
Why
2 ?
This derives from the
Delineation Axiom . Remember , we can only talk about something if it is distinct
and identifiable from something else . This gives a minimum of 2 states : part
or nonpart .
That is why the
Zetafunction below is described on a 2dimensional plane , or pesky problems
like Primes always boil down to 2 dimensions of some sort .
This is why the
irrational numbers play such an important part in physics .
Z=a+ib describes a
2dimensional plane useful for delineated systems without feedback systems
Its in the axiom of
Delineation , dummy .
But we know that
Russell proved that A+~A
The difference can be
described as the Beth sequences . Since they are derivatives of
summationsequences(see below) , they define arrows usually seen as the
timearrows .
These need not to be
described aladunne's serial time , as different Beth levels address the
problem adequately without multiplying hypotheses .
Selfreferencing
systems and Beth sequences .
A Proper
Selfreferencing system is of one cardinal Beth number higher than the system
it derives from .
Selfreferencing
systems (feedback systems) can always be described as sequences of Beth systems
. Ie as Beth(x) <> Beth(y) . The formal proof is a bit long for
inclusion here .
The easiest way to see
it is in Bayesian systems . If Beth(x) systems are included , Bayesian systems
become orders of magnitude more effective .
Life , civilization
and markets are such . See below .
Conservation Laws :
By definition , these
can always be written in a form of
SomeExpression = 0
Random (Beth(0) Walk
in Euclidean 2dimensions
This is a powerful
unifying principle derived from the Delineation Axiom .
In Random Walk the
Distance from the Center is = d * (n)^0.5 . This is a property of Euclidean
systems .
(Where d = step ,
n=number of random beth(0) steps)
Immediately we can say
that the only hope of the Walker returning to the center after an infinity of
Beth(0) steps is if d ~ 1/(n)^0.5 . This is the Riemann Hypothesis .
Now , see a Universum
of 2dimensional descriptors z=a+ib
Sum all of them . Add
together all the possible things that can be thus described .
This can be done as
follows :
From z=a+ib Raise both
sides to the e
e^(z) = e^(a) . e^i(b)
Raise both sides to
the ln(j) power where j is real integers.
j^(z) = j^(a) .
e^(b/ln(j))
Now , sum them :
Zeta=Sum of j^(z) for
j=1 to infinity
Now we extract all
possible statements that embody some Conservation Law . Beth(1)
This means that Zeta
is zero for the set of extracted statements if and only if (b/ln(j)) is of the
order of Beth(0) and a=(1/2)
Tensors .
The above is a
definition of a tensor for a discontinous function .
Riemann's Zeta
function.
This can describe any
delineated system .
If Zeta = 0 ,
conservation laws apply .
Zeta = Sigma(1/j )^z
for j=1,2,3,…,infinity and z=a+ib , where z is complex and i =(1)^0.5
The z bit is in two
dimensions as discussed above .
This function has a
deep underlying meaning for infinite systems .
If you unpack the
RightHand side on a xyi plane you get a graph that looks like a random walk .
If every point is
visited that a random walk would visit over infinity (ie all) , without
clumping , then Zeta can only be nontrivially zero if a=(1/2) .
Why (x – yi) plane ?
See "Why 2 " above . The system is fractal . Two dimensions are necessary
in any delineated system .
Remember , randomwalk
distance from origin = step*sqrt(number of steps) .
So if the steps = 1/ (
sqrt(number of steps) ) , then the Origin might be reached if and only if a=
1/2
This is easily proven
.
If a=  1/2 , then b
can be any real function . This would include Beth(0) and Beth(1) , but not
higher orders of beth .
If a= 1/2 and b is an
unreal number , then a cannot be equal to 1/2 anymore . Conservation cannot
hold at any level .
Consequences:
Conservation Laws can
only hold for Beth(0) and Beth(1) systems .
This is forced by the
two dimensions of delineation .
Mathematically , this
means that Beth(2+) systems of feedbacks can only be described in terms of
attractors or/and fractal systems (ie not in isolation)
Physically ,
conservation of energy and momentum need not hold for Beth(2+) systems .
This has an
interesting corollary in decryption (unpacking) . A Beth(2) mind unpacking
Beth(0) or Beth(1) encryption is functionally equivalent to NonConservation of
Energy
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Appendix ZZZ
Molecules that
collapse Quantum Waves
Andre Willers
31 Dec 2012
Synopsis :
We find other
molecules that collapse (observe) quantum probability waves to some degree .
Discussion :
1.We know Melatonin
does it . So , we look for melatoninlike molecules .
2.We find Valdoxane
and Serotonin
3.MelatoninClass
wavefunction collapsars .
These are
characterised by two ringshaped chemical structures , with antennae at the 10
o'clock and 2 o'clock positions .
4.Nonlinear systems:
This gives an Electric
field value of 1.3 x 10^18 V/m for nonlinearity .
How close does two
charges have to be to get these values ?
Plugging the values
into classical equations gives
r= 3.325 x 10^(14)
=332.5 picometers (pm)
.
5.Atomic Distances
The picometre's length
is of an order such that its application is almost entirely confined to particle physics, quantum physics, and chemistry. Atomsare between 62 and 520 pm in
diameter, and the carboncarbon bond has a length of 154 pm. Smaller
units still may be used to describe smaller particles (some of which are the
components of atoms themselves), such as hadrons and
the upper limits of possible size for fermion point
particles.
6. Now can you see
what is happening ?
Incoming wave
functions squeeze particular atoms so close that the Schwingerlimit is
exceeded . The system goes nonlinear . Entangled wave packets are emitted , in
the process collapsing the wavefunction .Entanglement is conserved ,
especially angular momentum . Remember ,everything rotates .
This is both
Observation and generation of new entanglements .
7. Hence the
Antennaelike structure of the molecules at angles . They whip around very
close to the ringstructures to trigger very specific , metered responses .
Which , presumably , can be picked up by similar systems .
8.These would not be
supraluminal . You need at least 27+1 nexi for that .
These molecules are
about 22 nexi . Sufficient , but nothing to write home about .
9.Dopamine :
Similar to
melatoninclass , except there is only one ring . A precursor, from an
evolutionary viewpoint .
10. Threering .
This should be
possible in a freeevolutionary environment . I don't know of any , but they
are doubtlessly there .
11. More than
Threering :
These would have to be
designed . The pockets of probability that make them possible are too precisely
defined to easily evolve without higher Beth(x) input . Think probability ~
1/Aleph(0)
12.An interesting
Aside :
Cold Fusion and all
that jazz .
The Dear Reader would
have noticed that biologicals are necessary to get atoms close enough to
violate the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwinger_limit . To get at least betadecay .
Breathing on it would
be enough , but spitting would help .
The Contaminant is the
Experiment . (With apologies to Marshall MCluhan)
14.Can we design a
purely artificial quantumcollapsar molecule ?
Yes .
See Appendix I and II
.
The problem is that
all these molecules also have biological functions , some in the higher Beth
regions .
Creating a completely
artificial quantumcollapsar molecule will bypass many of these problems .
On the other hand , it
might kill you all .
Or worse, put you into
a superposition state .
15. For the Paranoid
Conspiracy Theorists :
Prions are a defense
system , soaking up deleterious quantumsignals from wherever . Some prions are
part of the immune system , soaking up random information packets from normal
metabolic processes . But a collimated beam targeting defensive prions is
something else .
A nice weapon .
Technique
The technique initially
incubates a small amount of abnormal prion with an excess of normal protein, so
that some conversion takes place. The growing chain of misfolded protein is
then blasted with ultrasound, breaking it down into smaller chains and so rapidly increasing
the amount of abnormal protein available to cause conversions.^{[1]}^{[2]} By repeating the cycle, the mass of normal protein is
rapidly changed into misfolded prion (termed PrPSc).
16. But , we can turn
it around .
Instead of misfolded
protein , we start with properly folded proteins . Then do the amplification .
PFCA .
It works both ways .
If we design the folded protein exactly to collapse certain wave functions , we
can target and eliminate to low levels the transmission vectors of certain
diseases .
Cheap and simple .
17. The applications
for alzheimers , etc are obvious .Just shift the balance . If you know what you
are doing , you can even do it electromagnetically . But , humans are too
enamoured with needles and threads .
18 . Really great
astronomical detectors .
A few blobs of Protein
Folding Cyclic Amplification (PFCA) will give you Gravity Wave detectors , as
well as some pretty good EM detectors .
19.Energy Detectors
and Energy sources .
Well , an energy
detector is an energy source . It depends on the scale .
We can certainly use
Genetic algorithms and PFCA to automate an optimization system to get some amps
out of the ambient energy wash . This is not zeropoint energy , more like the
energy that clusters around zeropoints . Good for lowenergy applications like
cellphones , etc .
For something with
more oomph , you will need a feedback system . Carbon biologicals simply have
not the carrying capacity . Try silicon prions .
See Appendix I
20.Well , now you know
how to cure a lot of diseases easily , get some lowlevel energy cheaply
everywhere and maybe how to get highdensity energy sources .
The rest is up to you
.
21. What ! Nothing to
steal ?
Try working for a
living .
Would you flip a
Beth(x>infinity) coin with God ?
Andre
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Appendix I
The Beauty of the
Genetic Code .
Andre Willers
22 Feb 2010
Synopsis:
The present TerraIII
genetic code is elegantly optimized to give the most robustness possible per
unit of information .
Discussion :
You have to be
familiar with the concepts in:
2.NewScientist of 23
Jan 2010 p34 "Another kind of evolution"
Brief recap of
Reserves argument :
We take any
identifiable entity , slice and dice it with an order of randomness like that
of a coin (ie Beth(0) ) . We then calculate a minimum reserve (which is
equivalent to the least errors of all possible Beth(0) paths per benefit . )
This works out at 1/3
on the average over Aleph(0) infinities .
The Beauty of the
Genetic Code :
Four Base pairs
(A,U,C,G) in triplet codons give a possible 4*4*4 = 64 codons .
But together , they
code only for 20 amino acids , plus a Stop and a SemiStart .
This gives
20/64 = 31.22% for 20
amino acids
21/64 = 32.81% for 20
amino acids + Stop
21.3333…/64 = 33.3333…
for 20 amino acids + Stop + SemiStart
22/64 = 34.375 %
Stop = (UGG) , (UGA) ,
(UAG) ,
Start = (AUG) , but
this also codes for methionine . Hence the decimal notation . The system cannot
come closer to 1/3 because of quantal considerations . Try it and see .
This also is the
portal for the Epigenetic System ( note use of methiolization) .
Beautiful !!
Consider the ways of
Gaia .
Linear and Sideways
evolution .
Linear :
The standard , gene
and chromosome based inheritance
Equivalent to
Beth(1+x) in our notation .
1>= x >=0
Sideways :
Genetic material
exchanged without going through all that genotypephenotype procedures .
Equivalent to
Beth(1x) in our notation .
1>= x >=0
Note that the system
could not possibly get as close to the optimum reserve without this stage .
Designer:
The Breeder , genetic
engineer .
Equivalent to
Beth(2+x) in our notation . Humans or protohumans .
Infinity>= x >=0
This gives a full
spectrum of Beth capabilities .
(Negative Beth is
outside the scope of this discussion)
Singularities
You will notice that
the system becomes chaotically unstable as x>0 from any direction . At that
point , the system will exhibit symptoms of great stress and bifurcation . Once
over the hump , it steadies either in an evolutionary manner (in
Probability = 1  (
Beth(n+1)/Beth(n) ) ^0.5 . Admittedly a rough estimate .)
Or in a devolutionary
manner , evolutionary manner here described as degrees of complexity .
Stable Gene
Engineering :
1.Keep the same
TripleBase Codon CellMachinery .
The easiest . Existing
cells can be used . Increase the number of bases to 5 .
Then we can optimally
reliable make 1/3*5^3 = 40 amino acids + stop + semistart .
Different kinds of
Stop and Start would be advisable .
So , maybe 18 new
amino acids + 2 different types of Stop + SemiStarts
This would not even be
hard .
Well within present
technological capability .
(Wanna make an animal
with a Kevlar skin ? Well , you can using this method .)
The system would even
be selfassembling under the right condition . The main thing is the optimal
stability .
This is already
evolving as we speak . There a fifth base occasionally involved . So there is a
fruitful interaction point .
2.Make 4Base Codon
CellMachinery .
A real remake . Not
within human capability at the moment .
3.General :
nAminoAcids + nStops +
nStarts = 1/3 * ( (nDNAbases) ^ (nBasesPerCodon) )
where the prefix n
denotes "number of"
A further stability
would be introduced if nStarts ~ 1/3 * nStops in a fractal fashion .
This because
lifeforms evolve in a pedaltothemetal fashion . The problems are the brakes
.
There is a
relationship between the Beth level and the nBasesPerCodon . The minimum number
sufficient for Beth(2+) is nBasesPerCodon=3 .
Else there is
insufficient complexity .
Now go out there and
evolve !
Andre .
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Appendix II The Beauty
of the Genetic Code 2
Andre Willers
16 Mar 2010
Hi ,
See ""Rewriting
life in fourletter words" , NewScientist 20 Feb 2010 p14.
I just read it (16 Mar
2010) , as I get New Scientist in a haphazard fashion via the library .
See para 2 of original
post below
"2.Make 4Base Codon
CellMachinery .
A real remake . Not
within human capability at the moment ."
I was wrong .
It has
already been done by Jason Chin and colleagues at the University of
Cambridge . They successfully redesigned some ribosomes and transfer RNA(tRNA)
to manufacture a novel amino acid (a novocalmodulin protein) , expressed via
E.Coli .
Important note:
This worked so easily
because it worked parallel to the threeBase expression without noticeable
inerference .
This hints that the
metacontrols (see Phenesystem posts) already has provisions for 4Base
cellmachinery .
Hints:
1.See "Pandora
bacteria acts as one organism" , NewScientist 27 Feb 2010 , p11.
Electronconducting
protein nanowires link oxygenpoor submud sulfur eating bacteria on the
seafloor in an interactive network suggestive of a neural net .
The manufacture of such a
protein nanowire would almost certainly require 4Base Codon cell machinery .
Hence the the existence of parallel metacontrols .
Roomtemperature organic
superconductors seem to be a distinct possibility .
2.Many oldage and
degenerative diseases seems reminiscent of 4Base Codon cell machinery
activating over time .
But what do I know .
It is your poblem now .
I hope your molecular
shamans are better than your climatologist shamans .
HuggaBugga!
Andre
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Appendix BB
Separation
of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages
Nature
Materials
13,
954–960
(2014)
doi:10.1038/nmat4035
Received
14
November 2013
Accepted
16
June 2014
Published online
20
July 2014
Article tools
Abstract
·
Abstract•
The
separation of molecules with similar size and shape is an important
technological challenge. For example, rare gases can pose either an economic
opportunity or an environmental hazard and there is a need to separate these
spherical molecules selectively at low concentrations in air. Likewise, chiral
molecules are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, but chiral
enantiomers, by definition, have identical size and shape, and their separation
can be challenging. Here we show that a porous organic cage molecule has
unprecedented performance in the solid state for the separation of rare gases,
such as krypton and xenon. The selectivity arises from a precise size
match between the rare gas and the organic cage cavity, as predicted by
molecular simulations. Breakthrough experiments demonstrate real practical
potential for the separation of krypton, xenon and radon from
air at concentrations of only a few parts per million. We also demonstrate
selective binding of chiral organic molecules such as 1phenylethanol,
suggesting applications in enantioselective separation.
Xxx
Filtering gases out of the air has been commonplace for quite
some time, but not all gases are easily sorted. Noble gases, for instance,
don’t readily react with other elements, so they pose somewhat of challenge.
The lower the concentration, the more difficult and inefficient the process
becomes. Some new research, however, may improve efficiency and even help save
lives.
Researchers at the University of Liverpool, in
conjunction with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, have
developed a new material with atomic selectivity. The technique uses an organic
cage molecule, called CC3, to trap gas atoms of just the right size. Atoms
which are not the correct dimensions are not collected, thereby operating with
exceptional selectivity.
According to the University of Liverpool, “By a
process of adsorption – where molecules or atoms stick onto the surface – the
right gas molecules are held in place, while others such as water or nitrogen
are released.” This concept of collecting matter through molecular cages is not
new and not limited to atoms (see concept for nitrobenzene in image), but the
development for noble gases does introduce some promising applications. CC3 has
been found efficient at collecting xenon, krypton and radon.
Researchers used computer simulation to study
the molecular cage structure of CC3 and found that it undergoes a natural
expansion and contraction which oscillates around the size of xenon, krypton
and radon. As the cage expands, the gas atom enters, and as it contracts, it
becomes effectively trapped, having a higher likelihood of entering than
exiting. (More on this mechanism here)
While xenon and krypton have a variety of
research and industrial uses (like dark matter detection, for
xenon), these elements are typically expensive due to their rarity and noble
nature. Radon, on the other hand, is a common killer, accounting for 21,000
deaths per year according to a 2010 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results
(SEER) analysis.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) action
limit on radon is 4 pCi/L, a level at which you have the same likelihood of
dying from radon as you would in a car crash. It’s higher if you smoke. Although
there are radon mitigation systems readily available which use a pressure
differential to keep radon out, a method of filtration and/or precise detection
could greatly enhance general wellbeing.
The CC3 material does show promise for being an
effective means for separating these gases, especially as it operates at or
near room temperature whereas current separation methods rely on expensive,
cryogenic operations. That said, don’t be looking for a CC3 radon filter on the
supermarket shelf just yet. Hopefully, though, this sort of work will result in
some trickle down improvements to daily life.
If you can get access and are interested, the
scientific article, published in Nature Materials, is here.
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