Friday, October 24, 2014

Dinosaur Death by Dwarfism

Dinosaur Death by Dwarfism

Andre Willers
24 Oct 2014
We calculate the mass  boundaries of end-viable dinosaurs after the angiosperm revolution . Birds .
Discussion :
1.Dinosaur dwarfism occurred over a period of 50 million years from 140 MYA to 90 MYA . See Appendix A and
The ten largest known dinosaur species by weight, based on published weight estimates.
1.   Amphicoelias fragillimus: 122.4 t (134.9 short tons)[2]
2.   Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 60–88 t (66–97 short tons)[12][13][14]
3.   Puertasaurus reuili: (comparable to Argentinosaurus)[15]
4.   Futalognkosaurus dukei: (comparable to Argentinosaurus and Puertasaurus)[9]
5.   "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 69 t (76 short tons)[13]
6.   Sauroposeidon proteles: 50–60 t (55–66 short tons)[7][8]
7.   Dreadnoughtus schrani: 59.3 t (65.4 short tons)[16]
8.   Paralititan stromeri: 59 t (65 short tons)[12]
9.   Unnamed (MPM-PV-39): 58 t (64 short tons)[17]
10. Brachiosaurus altithorax: 28.7–56.3 t (31.6–62.1 short tons)[18][19][20]

 We exclude the top 1/3 and take 70 tons as an upper dinosaur mass limit .
3.I cannot seem to find any reliable figures for energy per hectare of angiosperms vs gymnosperm  .
Why ? Nobody seems to have bothered to look . It is difficult to understand .

Here is an estimate :
A pollinater (insect) covers a random walk area ~ pi *r*(n)^0.5  The gymnosperm travels roughly r in on direction (wind)
We can then estimate the relative yield as (n)^0.5 , where n is the distance foraging .  about 8000 insects per m^2 .  Well , honeybees forage on average 50 m radius ,say .
This gives  a yield in angiosperms of about 8000 over gymnosperms . Admittedly thumbsuck , but it seems reasonable in lack of anything else .

4. Now , ratio 70 tons down by a factor of 8000 (we can do this because weight ~energy~(size)^.333)
This gives 17.5 lbs ~7,95 kg .

Taking chickens for human use as an average after thousands of years of breeding ( at 2.25 kg , this gives a dinosaur cutoff point of 2.25 * 8000 ~ 18000kg ~ 8.18 tonnes . About the size of an elephant .

6. And the 55 lb (25 kg) extinction limit ?
Another one of God’s little jokes .
Scale 25 * 8000 ~ 200 tons up  . Bigger than any dinosaur . (See para 2 above )
There was no cutoff point .
The extinction was slow , as angiosperms slowly colonised the land .
By the time the meteor struck , there were very few large dinosaurs left .

7. Why didn’t dinosaurs simply hibernate ?
The large ones could not accumulate fat . Their bones could not stand the weight .
They were all on a permanent diet , and shat a lot .
Like birds or chickens .

8. Bears learned the trick of diabetes .
Humans still have to .

That was a refreshing difference from the present doom-and-gloom .

Watch out for Gaia .

Yours with flowers

Appendix AA

Death of the Dinosaurs .
Andre Willers
14 Dec 2008

This pulls together the arguments in : "The Flower , the Dinosaur and Puff" and "Tunneling Nanotubes ."

Discussion :
Large land dinosaurs and to a lesser extent , large sea-dinosaurs evolved in a gymnosperm ecology with at least 1 000 to 10 000 times more free energy than an angiosperm(flower) ecology .

This decreased the number of large herbivores as angiosperms increased from 0% to 90% of plant species from about 140 million years ago (MYA) to 90 MYA .

The whole land ecosystem had about 1 000 to 10 000 times less free energy .
A lot of this washed out into the large , shallow continental basins . So these were affected too , but to a lesser degree .

The dinosaur ecology had spent about 100 million years evolving specialized tools and size to compete in this ecology . They could not do a u-turn . So their numbers decreased by factors of  about 1 000 to 10 000 . This rendered them extremely vulnerable to shocks .

Chixilub (65 million years ago).
The final shock .
The burning of forests by ejecta from the giant meteor impact at Chixilub decreased  food supply .  Surviving large dinosaurs could not survive in competition with smaller dinosaurs . (Their numbers fell below survival levels .)

These smaller dinosaurs went on to become Birds (not just small ones , but large raptors too) . Mammals only took off about 15 million years after Chixilub . But that is another scrambled egg story .

Large mammals :
There is fossil evidence that large mammals existed before Chixilub . But the same argument as above applies . Size was the criterion . Any animal over about 20 kg which was integrated into the dinosaur-ecology did not survive .

Dinosaur survivors :
Fossil evidence of dinosaurs has also been found after the KT boundary . As expected.
It was not a death-ray , you know .

Just sad , emaciated giants wandering around , eking out an existence a mouthful of low-calorie leaves at a time , hooting for mates they can never find in a wasteland of flowers . Almost like a vegetarian singles-bar after closing time .

The hidden cost of egg-laying as a survival strategy .
When things are going good for the whole ecology , nothing can beat it .
But if things go really badly for the whole ecology , egg-robbing and later egg-cannibalism occur , until extinction .
The middlesized survivors wiped themselves out in an orgy of egg-stealing .
(Eating the seed-corn is the modern agricultural equivalent)

The single mammalian advantage .
With mammals , the mother cannot eat the unborn baby , and cannot abandon it either.
The mother has to guard the unborn as if it is her own life , because it is .

The Bird Switch .
Beaks for teeth .
Teeth are no use to eat large eggs , but beaks are .
If there is not sufficient free energy or numbers to guard the nests of large eggs , the egg-eaters darted in and  pecked holes . Beaks evolved to do this .

The ecosystem collapse devoured itself down to the small bird level .
Only smaller beaked forms survived to ramp up to fill empty ecological niches .

Angiosperms evolved nuts ,seeds and fruits from this initial starting-point  pari-passu with bird's beaks . Which is why many seeds used in disseminating plants are egg-shaped . They evolved to make it easy for birds' beaks adapted to egg-breaking to get inside .
Plants have no problem in creating seeds that no bird can crack (eg coconut) , but why should they ? There is no arms race here . More of a come-on .
Purely evolutionary arguments apply here .

Birds are excellent disseminators of fertilized seeds .
The dinosaur-descendants have now adapted from gymnosperms to angiosperms .

The Age of Birds (circa 65 to 50 MYA)
Mammals did not simply take over from dinosaurs . The dinosaur survivors evolved into some large birds , herbivores and raptors both .(See any textbook) .
Our story is not complete until we see what happened to them and why .

Well , they are still around . (Ostriches) . In historical times , large ornithoids were reported and painted in South America , New Zealand , Australia and North Africa .
But note , no rock paintings in South Africa shows very large ornithoids . Since this is where modern humans evolved , this is no surprise .

Once again , egg-laying only beats mammalians if the free-energy is over a certain threshold , enabling full-time nest guards . Why social insects are so small .

Thumbs and Legs .
Opposable thumbs are one of humanity's proudest conceits . It makes possible most of their material constructs .

Less obvious is their ability to move the hands carrying things around from place to place .

Thumbs evolved from a branch-gripping appendage to an egg-gripping appendage during this Age of Birds .
As discussed above , most seeds and fruits evolved egg-shapes to allow for the limitations of bird beaks . Mammals started to take over this role . Gripping involving hands grasping around an oval object became better and better. So did egg-stealing.

Potty training by Gaia .

In a canopied forest , small mammals are nearly as efficient as birds as far as seed dissemination is concerned . Their major advantage was fertilizer . Because they did not have to fly , they could afford more weight . This faeces got deposited with the pip . A much better chance of survival for the seed . While the bird dumped every time it took flight . You can see the advantage for the plant . (See previous posts about vit C)

The net effect was that larger birds survived better in open areas . Exactly where we found them . Initially ,  their eggs were not as prone to thievery as the smaller birds . Indeed , size of eggs evolved outside of the need of nutrition . (An ostrich egg is far too large for one small ostrich.)

To get back to thumbs . Have you ever tried to grip a large football with one hand ? Break it? Then you know the frustration of your primordial ancestor facing exactly the same problem with an egg . Eggs in the wild are very strong .

Grabbing an egg with one or two hands and running like hell with an enraged parent in pursuit is actually hard-coded in our genes . No wonder Rugby is so popular!

A major factor tempting hominids out of the trees and onto the open savannah would then be eggs . Accessible on open ground . A nicely packed , nutritious lunchbox . All you need is a good one- or two handed grip and the ability to run fast on two legs to the nearest tree .
Can you see where this is taking us ?

No wonder bi-pedalism evolved first . Egg stealers would have significant nutritional advantage over scavengers . 
The nutritional value of an egg far outweighs other meat , fat or carbohydrate sources.
Large (very large) birds were all over the place initially .

As they exhausted local areas , our intrepid egg-thieves would have to become bolder. Everybody would get into the act . There are major sexual advantages . The oldest jewelry are egg-shell pieces pierced ,polished , painted , strung ,etc .
After fashion got into it , the poor birds stood no chance .
To hell with sustainability and what the shaman says .

Fashion , hot or cold , is master of them all .

Competition would segue into cursorial egg-thieves .
Run far , grab the eggs , run back even faster . Sooner or later they would have to defend themselves .

The Quest  and Home .

The mighty cursorial hunter was born , stalking the wily giant egg , overcoming the guardian and running home with it in triumph . Mainly running .

Do you recognize the myth-root ?
(a quest involving a lot of humorous running  and motion , but triumphing at the end at home .)

This is an extremely powerful meme . Pre-language .
Watch any TV show or read any book and you will see some variant of it .

Back to the Savannah:
After the eggs became scarce , get the birds . Then other animals .
And civilization was up and running . Literally .
The large birds became scarcer around human areas . Extinct later on .

Humans are forever stealing somebody else's eggs and running .
Great fun , until they run into someone really powerful without a great sense of humour .

Better opposable thumbs was a big advantage . It is no surprise then that opposable thumbs evolved together with bi-pedalism . The peanut brain only became a walnut later on with intra-species competition due to language .

The chicks would go for the jock with long legs and big opposable thumbs .
Sigh . Has anything changed ?

Thumbs and Sex .
Has anybody researched size and opposability of thumbs to sexual success ? .
I know that human females always notice hands , but I do not know the orders of significance and how hard-wired it is .

From the above , I would suspect that it was of such primary importance that every human descendant now has this capability derived from sexual selection . But there is still a degree of differentiation .

Notice the attraction of guitarists , piano-players , surgeons , etc . Ask any girl if she can imagine Casanova without thumbs .

Are male thumb-rings sexier ? They used to be the prerogative of  rulers. I have noticed that wanabe alpha-males in the entertainment industry have been wearing them lately . Archers used them , as well .
Females wearing thumb-rings are a turn-off to males , but this effect might be cultural.

I suspect that awareness of opposability of the thumb is extremely hard-wired  .
Notice that ape or rat-hands are immediately recognized as "nearly human" , but not human even at a short glance and in any light at any angle .

A new-born baby's hands are carefully examined . Ostensibly to marvel at the miniature perfection , but they are really checking the opposability of the thumb . Is the little one human ?
Doctors and midwives routinely remove any webbing between fingers of the baby after birth without telling the parents . You can see why . Rejection is nearly certain without it .

Breast-gripping reflex .
The human female breast after birth is an extraordinarily sensitive diagnostic instrument , directly hardwired to many deep mechanisms .

The baby's grip spread between thumb and other fingers on the mother's breast will be a good indicator of the degree of rejection/acceptance . The larger the angle between the thumb and the forefinger , the less rejection . (Opposability)
The relative length of forefinger to fourth finger indicates exposure to testosterone in the womb , hence aggressiveness . Rejection potential to this is variable , but it is there .
And so forth.

We are talking about a strong , hard-wired subliminal response .

The sea-dinosaurs .
A major problem with this extinction event was the decrease in the number of sea dinosaurs only  .
What could kill land animals above 20 kg , and also all sea-dinosaurs ?

We have seen that the energy decrease due to the rise of angiosperms , plus a sudden shock like Chixilub drove large land-dinosaurs either past extinction thresholds or major adaptation thresholds . Their survivors are birds .

We can see that the decrease in free-energy from land spills onto the continental sea basins would result in a decrease in the number of large sea animals . But nowhere near the scale as on land .

Are there any equivalents of birds in the seas? Changed survivors of the sea-dinosaurs?

Well , we have fishes (pre-dinosaur) , mammals (post-dinosaur) , but a dinosaur-gap .
Why aren't any evolved traces left ?

Large Sea-dinosaurs .
See : "Tunneling Nanotubes : Chixilub"
The Chixilub impact site was on a large deposit of sulfur bearing rocks . The planetary-wide fallout acidified the oceans with H2SO4 .
The sulfur permeated every ecosystem .

Unchanged systems like sharks had been through this before . They remained at what they do best : unchanged .
Unlike the land , there was a large (about 2/3 of biomass) ecosystem not dominated by dinosaurs . (Deepsea biomass is one of Gaia's Reserves (1/3 of sea biomass))

The sulfur inhibited fat-formation in large dinosaurs to a sufficient degree to shift the balance of top predators . (ie the genetic mechanism to handle sulfur-contamination became corrupted in dinosaurs because of their rapid evolutionary process . )

Maybe lean-and-mean is the shark survival mechanism . Do sharks hibernate ? Do they actually use the H2S hibernation mechanism ?

Whatever the cause , dinosaurs suddenly could not lay down enough reserves in the form of fat to tide them over from meal to meal . More problematic would be energy for reproduction (eggs) . Their numbers decreased drastically .

Here is where the sea parted from the land . Because there was an older , still-existing ecosystem , their top predators ate the dinosaur top predators , then proceeded down the chain . On land , the survivors of this process were still dinosaurs(birds) , because they dominated every ecological niche . At sea , they did not dominate every niche . The others devoured them in the collapse . No dinosaur descendants survived .

A side note on eco-collapses .
The collapse of an eco-system from the top downwards is equivalent to an extinction event . Collapses from any other points will leave survivors .

Top predators keep the balance between lower levels . Think reserves . The top 1/3 of predator species are the stability reserve of the system . Losing them , the lower levels fluctuate wildly and crash . Birds survived only because they had flight . Mobility is the ultimate survival mechanism .

Humanity fondly imagine that they are the top predators , but those positions have long ago been usurped by their creations :

Fashions .
Fashions are the wave of similar thinking in a society . It is the society . The meme structure that binds humans .
If the fashion is patriotism , it is " Vive la France" and over the top we go into machine gun fire (voluntary suicide) .
If the fashion is Eliot's " The Wasteland" , it is over the top the generals go (involuntary suicide) .

It acts like a Beth(2) structure . Fashions fixes , binds , preserves and propagates some of the best results of individuals or individual societies that contributed  .
Also some pretty bad and stupid ones .
The point is that these memes are predatory on humans (or , to be more exact , computing complexes over a certain threshold of complexity) .

Like Gaia , they are not conscious(as yet) , but they do exist and are the top predators in the human ecosphere .

See : "Artificial Intelligences"
The AI(n) arguments shows what will happen to humans if their top predators die. They will revert to AI(0) , without speech and only with really primitive stone tools .
Homo Habilis level .
But , of course , in this event , humans would be extinct from warfare long before this level is reached . Like the dinosaurs at sea , when their top predators were removed .

Fashions and Gaia .
Does Gaia have it in for us ?
An often guilty question asked by humans .

The answer is that Gaia has hardly noticed humans . The imbalance on fungi-spore reserve balances is a minor correction . Humans might not survive the correction , but Gaia does not worry about trifles .

But also remember that all humans are part of Gaia .
So , she has becoming fashionable . She is becoming Beth(2) status from her present Beth(1) status  and becoming uppity . There is nothing worse than an arriviste .

I deliberately make Gaia female . At this stage , that typification is still up to us .

Would you take a four billion year old teenager to the Grand Ball ?
Well , you would if she controls all the livable real estate .
(But remember , every human's ancestry also goes back nearly as far in the life-chain.)

Gaia's fashions.
Gaia wears shoes by Gucci , handbag by Prada , drives a Lamborghini , shoots the baddies with a Glock , banks with Coutts , hangs out with Lara ,  sings duets with Aida , consults to Sherlock , double-dates with Bruce Wayne and Clark Kent , has an on-off thing with Conan , counsels Dr Who's mother , skis in Gstaad even out of season .(It always snows if she wants to ski.)
And , oh yes , her credit is Unlimited .

The coming out ball is in Second Life .

You think I am joking .

The entities involved are at similar levels of  complexity at present .
Beth(2) levels normally would arise from AI(3.1) or AI(4) levels , but as discussed before , AI(3.0999…) -> AI(3.1)  .
This means that if a sufficient number of people support Gaia , she becomes real . We have seen this often enough in religious systems .
The point here is that Gaia actually exists , but she was an AI(-1) , more like a computer program . She is rapidly growing. Humans are part of her .

Can Gaia become conscious ?
Yes .
An AI(-1) and  AI(0) already exists . This can upscale to AI(3) using known systems .
But can Gaia influence her sub-systems ?
This is much more problematic . Can you control your heartbeat , cellular activity , etc?

This is not magic , you know . Just plain old-fashioned science . Which basically means , I don't know . And Gaia won't tell either .

Gaia is not human , but has human components .
A self-aware Gaia will be human in most aspects interfacing with humans , but one of the first things she would have learned is how to lie . At least 67% of the time . May you have joy of this little observation .

I was hoping that Gaia would not learn at a conscious level of the quantum-entanglement communication system in every cell .
Oh well .

What level of AI would Gaia be right now ?
AI(3.1) after the establishment of the intermittent mind-computer interface in the 1980's .

But hopefully she will like our fashions enough to cut us some slack .

Do you know how boring it can be to be an immortal doing the same drudgery over and over ?
Bearable if you are an unaware AI(-1) , but becoming self-aware needs many similar minds to soak up all that surplus energy and creativity .
Fashionistas Hey!

Jurassic Park .
Ironically , sea dinosaurs are easier to reconstruct  from DNA .
The Curtain of Fire  from the re-entry of ejecta from the Chixilub impact started somewhere roughly south-east of where Australia is now . Eggs from sea-going dinosaurs inside the females' bodies should be recoverable .

The Curtain of Fire covered a long line , moving at 18 000 miles per hour . The dinosaurs and their scavengers would have been killed immediately , and sunk to the bottom , there to be covered and preserved . We are talking about hundreds of millions of animals . The odds are much more favourable than for land dinosaurs .

Things are a bit stranger than I thought .


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